Mudanjiang Mudanjiang City, also known as Xuecheng, is a prefecture level city in Heilongjiang Province, an important central city and a scenic tourist city in the southeast of Heilongjiang Province approved by the State Council. The city has jurisdiction over four municipal districts, five county-level cities and one county, with a total area of 40600 square kilometers and a total population of 2.8 million.
Mudanjiang is located in Northeast China, the central region of Northeast Asian economic circle, with a 211 km border with Russia. Mudanjiang is an important strategic fulcrum of the "China Mongolia Russia economic corridor" Longjiang Silk Road belt, and a bridgehead and hub for China's opening up to Russia. Mudanjiang is a mid temperate continental monsoon climate, known as "south of the Great Wall" and "land of fish and rice". G10 and G11 national roads, binsui and Tujia railways run through the whole region.
Mudanjiang city is named because Mudanjiang River, one of the largest tributaries of Songhua River in Heilongjiang Province, crosses the urban area. Mudanjiang city has developed and utilized the main scenic spots and cultural attractions, including Crater National Forest Park, Mudanfeng National Forest Park and National Nature Reserve, Xuexiang ski resort, Mudanfeng ski resort, eight women to the river Memorial group sculpture, Hengdaohezi Northeast Tiger Park and the snow castle built on the Mudanjiang River in winter. In December 2017, he was elected as "China's top 10 ice and snow tourism cities".
In the long history of change, the ancient ancestors of Mudanjiang River Basin had different appellations due to the change of dynasties. In Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, they were called Sushen, xishen and Jishen. In the Han, Wei and Jin Dynasties, Sushen people were renamed yilou. During the northern and Southern Dynasties, yilou people were also called Wuji. In the Sui and Tang Dynasties, Wuji was also known as the Pei nationality. At that time, it was divided into seven tribes. Among them, the Fresnel tribe lived in Mudanjiang and Ning'an in the east of zhangguangcai, and the Chengbao tribe lived in the Suifen River Basin. In the Five Dynasties, the Yi nationality was renamed Nuzhen, and the frontier people of the old Bohai State living in the Mudanjiang River Basin were called shengnuzhen. After emperor Taiji ascended the throne in the Qing Dynasty, the name of the clan was Manchu, which was called Manchu for short. Thus, the indigenous people in Mudanjiang River Basin were also called Manchu.
In 698 ad, dazuorong, the leader of the sumo nationality, established the "Zhen state" in the upper reaches of the Mudanjiang River in Aodong City, Dunhua, which is known as the "old state" in history.
In 705 ad, dazorong was recruited, and the name of the state was changed to "Bohai" in the Tang Dynasty, which officially became the local autonomous power under the jurisdiction of the Tang Dynasty.
In 755 ad, daqinmao, the third king of Bohai, the grandson of dazorong, moved the capital to today's Bohai town in Ning'an City, and named the capital Longquan mansion in Shangjing.
During the prosperous period of Bohai Sea, there were five capitals, fifteen prefectures and sixty-two prefectures. The territory included most of Jilin Province and Heilongjiang Province, a few of Liaoning Province, as well as the coastal area of Russia and a part of North Xianjing Road, Liangjiang Road, cijiang road and North Ping'an road of Korea. It covers an area of more than 5000 Li, with more than 100000 households and tens of thousands of standing soldiers. It is known as the "prosperous country of Haidong". At the beginning of the 10th century, Bohai began to decline.
In 926 ad, Qidan captured Longquan mansion in Shangjing. At the end of the Bohai Sea, Wang Dayan led the people out of the city to surrender.
In 928 ad, Qidan moved the royal family of the Bohai Kingdom and the residents of the city to the hinterland of Qidan. In order to make the Bohai people forget their territory, they set fire to the old capital of Bohai before leaving. From the founding of the Bohai State in 698 to its Demise in 926, it has been passed on for 15 generations, lasting 229 years.
At the beginning of the 12th century, Nuzhen Wanyan Department rose. According to the first book of Jin Shi Ben Ji, "the ancestor lived in the end of Pu Gan Shui in Wanyan department." Pu Gan Shui is today's Mudanjiang, where Nuzhen's Wanyan department first lived.
In 1115 ad, the state of Jin was established in Wanyan Aguda. Today, Ning'an, Hailin, Muling and Mudanjiang are all under the jurisdiction of Huli gailu in the Jin Dynasty.
In 1234, the Mongol Empire destroyed gold. The Nuzhen people in Mudanjiang valley were under the rule of the Yuan government.
In 1368 ad, the Yuan Dynasty perished and the Ming Dynasty was established. Jianzhou Nuzhen was distributed in Mudanjiang, Suifenhe and Changbaishan.
In 1410, Aixinjueluo mengtemu, the sixth ancestor of Nurhachi, the chief of the udori tribe of Jianzhou Nuzhen, led the tribe to settle down from the West Bank of Mudanjiang River to ningguta (now Jiujie township of Hailin City). Ten years later, they moved eastward and settled down in krasnoyar mountain city opposite ussurisk (Shuangchengzi), Russia. After many migrations, they finally settled in hetuala, Xinbin. In the late Ming Dynasty, the Jurchen in Jianzhou became more and more powerful, and Nurhachi unified all the Jurchen ministries in Jianzhou and four Jurchen ministries in Haixi.
In 1608, Nurhachi sent troops to the old city of ningguta and took it as a base to conquer Nuzhen tribes in Xingkai Lake, Sanchakou, wusulisk, Muling, Ning'an, Mishan, Hunchun and other places.
In 1666, general Bahai of ningguta led his troops to build a new town in Ning'an Town, now Ning'an city. In December of the same year, the residence moved to the new town. The original site was called "old city" or "old street". As the residence and administrative center of all levels of Zhangjing in the Qing Dynasty, the old city of ningguta coexisted for 30 years from 1636 to 1666.
After the Qing Dynasty came to the Central Plains, it imposed a long-term policy of banning Northeast China. Later, in order to stabilize the regime and continue to expand the territory of the Central Plains, the Qing Dynasty from Shunzhi to Kangxi continued to allocate people to the ningguta area and resettle the Eight Banners officers and soldiers and their families, and the number of Han people gradually increased. After ningguta moved to Xincheng, ningguta, as an exile of the Qing government, had a large number of officials who were dismissed or demoted by the imperial court and some literati who had knowledge were "demoted" or "left to guard" here. Their arrival has made a positive contribution to the dissemination of Central Plains culture, the acceleration of ethnic integration, and the development and construction of border areas.
In 1860, the Qing government began to lift the ban on the northeast.
In 1881, the Qing government opened the Tieling River under the jurisdiction of ningguta.
In 1904, the Mudanjiang River valley was completely banned, and a large number of Han people entered the area.
At the beginning of the 20th century, today's Mudanjiang city was still a sparsely populated and barren area. According to the map records at that time, this area was called "huanghuadianzi". It got its name because there were large yellow flowers dotted on the grassland. Only four or five families lived separately, and it was under the jurisdiction of the Fifth District of Ning'an.
In 1903, the Middle East Railway built by Tsarist Russia built a station along the Mudanjiang River. Because the station is adjacent to Mudanjiang River in the south, it was named Mudanjiang station. This is the rudiment of Mudanjiang today. Since then, with the increasing population, Mudanjiang station began to develop rapidly.
In 1907, the Qing government changed the general system of the three eastern provinces into the provincial system, and Mudanjiang was under the jurisdiction of Ning'an Prefecture of Jilin Province.
In the early years of the Republic of China, Mudanjiang region followed the Qing Dynasty system and was still under the jurisdiction of Jilin.
In May 1932, the Japanese aggressors occupied Mudanjiang station and other places,
In January 1937, the puppet Mudanjiang provincial office was established, with jurisdiction over Ningan, Muling, Dongning, Mishan and Hulin counties. On December 1 of the same year, the puppet Mudanjiang municipal office was officially established. At that time, Mudanjiang province had jurisdiction over five counties and one city, and the provincial capital was located in Mudanjiang.
On August 14, 1945, the Soviet Red Army entered Mudanjiang. The Japanese invaders retreated, and the puppet Dongman provincial office and Mudanjiang Municipal Office disintegrated at the same time. On August 18 of the same year, with the help of the Soviet Red Army, the Mudanjiang Local Security Council was established. More than 20 cadres of the Anti Japanese League were sent to Mudanjiang City by the Northeast Party committee, and the Mudanjiang garrison headquarters was established to maintain the local public order just liberated.
On October 14, 1945, a democratic government under the leadership of the Communist Party of China was established, with Li Jingpu, commander of the military region, as mayor. Later, Zhang Wentian, head of the Yan'an cadre League, and other senior cadres successively arrived in Mudanjiang city. Comrade Zhang Wentian, as the representative of the northeast of the CPC Central Committee and the Mudanjiang region, directed and led the work here.
In February 1901 (the 27th year of Guangxu), Russia built the Middle East Railway and Mudanjiang station.
In July 1903 (the 29th year of the reign of Emperor Guangxu), after the railway was opened to traffic, tsarist Russia designated both sides of the railway as its subsidiary places. The administrative power, judicial power, police power, garrison power, and the development, operation and management power of forest, mineral and land were seized by the Russian Middle East Railway Bureau (also known as the Russian Railway Company). An autonomous association of residents' organizations will be set up around the station to take charge of work and transportation, finance and economics, civil affairs, culture, education and health.
In 1907 (the 33rd year of the reign of Emperor Guangxu), the Qing government changed the general system of the three eastern provinces into the provincial system, abolished the Deputy capital system of ningguta, and put Ningan Prefecture under the jurisdiction of Suifen department.
In 1910, Suifen hall was changed to Ning'an Prefecture, which was under the jurisdiction of Jilin Province, and Mudanjiang Prefecture was under the jurisdiction of Ning'an Prefecture.
In the early years of the Republic of China, following the system of the Qing Dynasty, Mudanjiang was still under the jurisdiction of Ning'an prefecture (later called County Office and county government) of Jilin Province. Today, the suburb of miehe is the political, economic and cultural center of Ning'an county.
After the outbreak of "October Revolution" in 1917, both sides of Mudanjiang station were under the jurisdiction of the supervision office of Harbin Middle East Railway Company.
From 1920 to 1930, Harbin Di Mu Administration Bureau of Middle East Railway issued the street base number three times around Mudanjiang station. The street and road sections continued to expand, the population continued to increase, and shops and workshops gradually rose, gradually forming a market town. The center of political and economic activities in the Fifth District of Ning'an county was soon transferred from the even river to around the railway station.
In May 1932, Japanese aggressors occupied Mudanjiang station, even river, Tieling River, Kalu, wave, Nanling (now Shengli Village), etc.
In July 1933, the eastern province special region was changed into the North Manchuria special region (cancelled in January 1936); the Middle East Railway was changed into the North Manchuria Railway.
In October 1934, Ning'an and other counties were designated as newly established Binjiang province. Today, most of Mudanjiang city still belongs to Nanjing
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