Shiyan Shiyan is a prefecture level city in Hubei Province. The city has 3 municipal districts, 1 county-level cities and 4 counties, covering a total area of 23680 square kilometers, with a permanent population of 3 million 398 thousand people and 3 million 461 thousand and 600 registered residence population.
Shiyan is located in Central China, northwest Hubei Province, east of Qinba mountain area, middle and upper reaches of Hanjiang River, central mountain area of China, Hanjiang Valley of Qinba mountain area, middle and upper reaches of Hanjiang River in Northwest Hubei Province, Qinling Mountains in the north, Bashan mountains in the south, Hanjiang River and Wudang Mountains in the whole area. It is the only regional central city adjacent to Hubei, Henan, Shaanxi and Chongqing. It is also the center of Western Hubei eco-cultural tourism circle The core city is one of the three central cities in Qinba mountain area.
Shiyan has a long history. In 1995, the only Cretaceous dinosaur egg fossil group in China was discovered in Yunyang. In 1975, the skull fossil of "yunxianren" was discovered in Yunyang, which was a sensation in the field of paleoanthropological archaeology. Yuntai annals, the only existing governor annals in China, reveals that Shiyan Yunyang was once the central city in the adjacent areas of Hubei, Henan, Sichuan and Shaanxi provinces during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. In the Qing Dynasty, the city was named Shiyan because people built ten weirs along the Baier River and the stubborn river for irrigation.
Shiyan is one of the birthplaces of ancient Chinese people. At the end of 1980s, the national archaeologists excavated more than 1 million years old human skull fossils in Liangzi of quyuanhe school in Qingqu, Yunyang. They were recognized as Homo erectus by international paleoanthropologists and named "Yunyang man", which filled the gap in the development of ancient human in Asia and proved that Shiyan region is the origin of ancient human.
Shiyan in Xia Dynasty belonged to Liangzhou and Yuzhou respectively. Today, Yunyang, Yunxi, Fangxian, Zhushan and Zhuxi belong to Liangzhou, while Danjiangkou belongs to Yuzhou. Shiyan of Shang Dynasty was the territory of Fang state in ancient times. There were Yong, Peng, Wei and other feudal states and tribal Fang states living here. Yongguo center is located in yongbeiba area on today's Zhushan mountain, pengguo center is located in today's Fangxian area, and Weiguo center is located near today's Zhangwan Huanglong.
Shiyan in the Western Zhou Dynasty was still a place where ancient states coexisted, including Yongguo, Weiguo, Weiguo, Zhiguo, jiaoguo and egalitarian states. Yongguo occupies Zhushan and Ankang area of Shaanxi Province. Weiguo is located in Huanglong of Zhangwan. Xuguo and Weiguo are successively located in Wufeng township of Yunxian County. Jiaoguo center is located in Xijiadian town of Danjiangkou. They are all located at the junction of Danjiangkou and Xichuan of Henan Province.
In the spring and Autumn period, around 611 BC, after the state of Chu was defeated by Yong and Wei, Hanzhong county was set up in Yong, Shangyong county was set up in Yong capital, Shiyan belonged to Chu, and there were six Shangyong counties in Chu and Qin. According to the construction law of succeeding the former system, from the construction of the Western Han Dynasty, we can find that there are not only Shangyong County, but also Fangling County, Kui County, Wuling County, Changli County and Wudang county.
At the beginning of the Warring States period, Shiyan belonged to the six counties of Shangyong (Shangyong, Fangling, Chuan, Changli, Wudang, Wuling) in the state of Chu. In 312 BC, after Zhang Yi of Qin Dynasty took the position of emperor Yong, Shiyan belonged to Qin Dynasty. In 304 BC, King Zhao of Qin returned Shangyong to Chu. In 296 BC, after King Huai of Chu died in Qin Dynasty, Shiyan eventually belonged to Qin Dynasty.
After the Qin Dynasty unified the whole country, the county system was implemented. Shiyan belongs to Hanzhong county and Nanyang County respectively. There are Fangling county (now Fangxian), Chuan county (now Yunyang Wufeng), Wuling county (now Zhuxi County), Shangyong county (now Zhushan Shangyong) and Changli County (now Yunxi Guanyin) in Shiyan area, which belong to Hanzhong county. Changli County (now northwest of Yun County) and Wudang county (now Danjiangkou) belong to Nanyang County.
Emperor Wu of the Western Han Dynasty divided the whole country into thirteen prefectures and prefectures. Shiyan is under the jurisdiction of Hanzhong County in Yizhou and Nanyang County in Jingzhou. Hanzhong County, the governor of Yizhou Prefecture, governs 12 counties, and Shiyan region includes Fangling, Chuanxian, Wuling, Shangyong and Changli. There is Yunguan in Changli County. Nanyang County, the governor of Jingzhou, governs 36 counties. In Shiyan, Wudang county belongs to Yan.
The Eastern Han Dynasty inherited the Western Han Dynasty. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Changli County was merged into Kui county and Wuling County into Shangyong county. At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, there were Shangyong county and Xincheng County in Shiyan, Shangyong county and Wuling County in Shangyong County, Fangling County in Xincheng County, Kui County in Xicheng county and Wudang County in Nanyang County.
During the Three Kingdoms period, Shiyan belonged to Jingzhou of Cao Wei, with two counties and eight counties. They are Shangyong County, Xincheng County, Shangyong County, Beiwu County, Wuling County, Jianshi County, Fangling County, Changwei County, Chuan county and Wudang county.
During the Jin Dynasty, there were two counties and eleven counties in this area: Shangyong County, Xincheng County, Shangyong County, Anfu county, Beiwu County, Wuling County, Weiyang County, Chuanxian County, Yunxiang County, Changli County, Fangling County, Changwei county and Wudang county. During the northern and Southern Dynasties, Shiyan area was under the jurisdiction of the prefectures of each dynasty. The counties in the northern part of the region (except the Northern Zhou Dynasty) were roughly the boundary between the northern and Southern Dynasties. (Northern Zhou governs the whole territory)
In Sui Dynasty, it was established as a two-level system of prefecture and county. When Emperor Yang abolished the state as a county, the county was unified by the county. Shiyan region is divided into Xicheng, Fangling, Shangluo and Xiyang four counties. There are Fangling county and Fengli County, Guangqian County, Yongqing County, Zhushan County, Shangyong County, Shangjin County, Anfu county, Yunxiang County, Wudang county. Wudang county was changed into Junzhou at the beginning of Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty, and the Prefecture was abandoned as a county at the beginning of Daye of emperor Yang.
During Zhenguan period of Tang Dynasty, the whole country was divided into ten roads, and Shiyan was governed by Shannan road. During the Kaiyuan period, the whole country was divided into 15 roads, and Shiyan area was divided into Shannan East Road and Shannan West Road. In Tang Dynasty, the prefecture and county level system was adopted. Shiyan area is under the jurisdiction of Fangzhou, Junzhou and Shangzhou. There are Fangzhou, Junzhou and Fangling, Yongqing, Zhushan, Shangyong, Wudang, Yunxiang, Fengli, Shangjin and Wuling, Anfu and Duhe. During the period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, Shiyan was basically built after the Tang Dynasty. There were Fangzhou, Junzhou, lingfangling, Zhushan, Shangyong, Yongqing, Yunxiang and Wudang counties in Shiyan. Shangjin county was still under the jurisdiction of Shangzhou.
The Northern Song Dynasty divided the whole country into 15 roads and the Southern Song Dynasty into 16 roads. The administrative region of Song Dynasty was divided into three levels: Road, state and county. Shiyan belongs to Jingxi Road South Road and Shaanxi Road Yongxing military road.
In the Yuan Dynasty, the administrative system was established at the provincial, government, prefecture and county levels. Shiyan is under the jurisdiction of Jiangbei, Henan Province and Shaanxi Province. There are Junzhou, Fangzhou, Wudang, Yun, Fangling, Zhushan and Shangjin counties in Shiyan.
In the ninth year of Hongwu (1376) of the Ming Dynasty, he was transferred to the Ministry of politics. Shiyan is under the jurisdiction of Hu Guangcheng's Yunyang government. Shiyan has Junzhou, Wudang, Yunyang, Fangxian, Zhushan and Shangjin counties. Hongzhi 11 years (1498) cut Fangxian Xiuwen, Yiyang Township home Baokang County. After 12 years of Chenghua, Yunyang Prefecture governed Yunyang, Fangxian, Zhushan, Yunxi, Shangjin and Zhuxi counties, and Baokang County was added after 11 years of Hongzhi. During the Hongwu Period of the Ming Dynasty, Wudang county was abolished and entered Junzhou. After 12 years of Chenghua, Junzhou still belonged to Xiangyang Prefecture, and since then there was no leading county. After the 12th year of Chenghua, Yunyang Prefecture, Xiangyang Prefecture and other counties were under the jurisdiction of Yunyang Fuzhi.
At the end of the 12th year of Chenghua (1476), Yunyang was ruled by the first governor, the left deputy governor, and the former Jiejian town. Yunyang was set up as the general town seat, where Huguang Xingdu commander and xiajingnan road were set up. Fuzhi governs the counties of Huguang Yunyang, Xiangyang, Jingzhou and Anlu (zhizhongxiang), Nanyang, Henan, Kuizhou, Sichuan, Hanzhong, Shaanxi and Shangzhou of Xi'an. It has jurisdiction over eight prefectures, nine roads, nine prefectures and 64 counties. The Fuzhi of Yunyang was established in 1476 and eliminated in 1680. After 205 years of two dynasties, there were 120 important officials in Fuzhi successively. Fu Zhi compiled Yuntai Zhi in the 18th year of Wanli in the Ming Dynasty, which is preserved today.
In the Qing Dynasty, Hubei and Hunan became the two provinces in the Ming Dynasty. Shiyan area is still Yunyang Prefecture, under the jurisdiction of Hubei Province. Yunyang Prefecture governs Yunyang, Fang County, Zhushan County, Zhuxi County, Baokang County and Yunxi county. In the Ming Dynasty, Jinxian County entered Yunxi county. All prefectures are under the jurisdiction of Xiangyang Prefecture.
At the beginning of the Republic of China, there were Yun County, Yunxi County, Fang County, Zhushan County, Zhuxi County, Baokang County and Jun County in Shiyan area, which were under the jurisdiction of Yunjing road in Anxiang, Hubei Province, and later renamed Ebei Road (Xiangyang Road). In 1932, the national government divided Hubei Province into 11 administrative supervision areas. Shiyan district is the 11th administrative supervision district. The 11th district office of administrative supervision is set up in Yunyang. In March 1936, it was renamed as the eighth administrative supervision district of Hubei Province.
In May 1948, all counties in Shiyan belonged to southern Shaanxi. The southern Shaanxi region was established in June 1948. The counties in Shiyan area are under the jurisdiction of the fourth prefectural committee and the special office (the three southern counties have not been liberated). Four prefectural Party committees and government offices have jurisdiction over Yunxian County, Yunxi County, Junxian County, Shangguan County, Zhen'an County, Shanyang County and Baihe county.
In January 1949, the four prefectural committees were changed into two Yun prefectural committees and special offices.
In July 1949, the two Yun prefectural Party committees and special offices moved from Yunxi to Chengguan of Yunxian County. At this time, Yunxian County, Yunxi County, Junxian County, Zhushan County, Zhuxi County and Fangxian County were under the jurisdiction of Liangyun Prefecture Committee.
In January 1950, Shaanxi provincial Party committee and provincial people's government were established, and the two Yun special offices were subordinate to Shaanxi Province.
In February 1950, Liangyun area was under the jurisdiction of Hubei Province. The two Yun special offices were changed into Yunyang special offices, and still under the jurisdiction of six counties.
In December 1952, Yunyang special office was abolished and transferred to Xiangyang special office.
In June 1965, Yunyang prefectural Party committee was reestablished and Yunyang prefectural Party committee office was established. In July, Yunyang Commissioner's office was set up, and the office is located in Yunxian County. In August, Yunyang Prefecture governed Yunxian County, Yunxi County, Fangxian County, Zhushan County, Zhuxi County and Junxian county. In 1967, Yunyang district Party committee and administrative office moved to Shiyan.
In December 1969, the "Shiyan office" was abolished and Shiyan City was established as a county-level city under Yunyang Prefecture. Yunyang Prefecture governs Shiyan, Yunxian, Junxian, Yunxi, Fangxian, Zhushan and Zhuxi.
In February 1973, Shiyan City under the jurisdiction of Yunyang area was changed into a provincial city, with the separation of prefecture and city. Top ten
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