Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, the capital of which is located in Tongren City, is one of the eight prefecture level administrative regions in Qinghai Province. It is located in the southeast of Qinghai Province and is named after its location in the south of the Yellow River. The terrain is high in the South and low in the north, which belongs to the plateau continental climate. With a total area of 18200 square kilometers, the prefecture governs one city and three counties, with a total population of 280229 in 2019.
Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is rich in tourism resources. The main natural and cultural landscapes are: Kanbula National Forest Park in Jianzha County, Lijiaxia Power Station Dam and reservoir area scenery, Tongren historical and cultural city, Regong Art and the large scroll painting "Chinese Tibetan culture and art painting Grand View" which is recorded in the great World Guinness, Longwu temple, Nanzong nunnery temple and maixiuyuan First forest scenery, Zeku and rishijing wall, Henan Shenghu Fairy Cave and Qingnan grassland scenery.
In December 2019, the State Ethnic Affairs Commission named Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture as "national demonstration Prefecture of national unity and progress".
The Yuan Dynasty was under the jurisdiction of Xuanwei Department of Tubo.
In the third year of Hongwu in Ming Dynasty (1370), Hezhou Wei was set up, and Bili wanhufu was changed into Bili qianhusuo, which governed the nomadic tribes in the south of Huangnan. In the eighth year of Hongwu (1375), guide was changed into a thousand households of guide garrison, with 10 villages under its jurisdiction. In the first year of Xuande (1426), Tongren and Zeku areas were ruled by xiaxiacang living Buddha Longwu nangsuo in Longwu temple, and gradually formed the rule system of political and religious unity in Regong area. During the Wanli period (1537-1619), Huangnan area was controlled by hongsabatur of tumed, Mongolia.
In the fourth year of Yongzheng (1726) of the Qing Dynasty, there was a minister stationed in Xining, and Henan county was controlled by the minister. Tongren, Jianzha and Zeku areas belong to Lintao Prefecture, Xining Prefecture, Hezhou Prefecture and Lanzhou Prefecture of Gansu Province, respectively governed by guide department and Xunhua department.
In July 1929, Gansu Province was divided into Qinghai Province, Xunhua County into Tongren County, and Henan county was directly under the provincial government. In 1937, the Seventh Provincial Commissioner's office was set up in Longwu Town, with jurisdiction over Tongde and Tongren counties. In 1940, most of Tongren and Zeku counties were under the jurisdiction of the seventh inspector general's office of Qinghai Province. Henan area still follows the old system of Qing Dynasty and is under the jurisdiction of Mongolian prince. Jianzha area is under the jurisdiction of Guide county.
In 1949, Huangnan area was liberated. On September 22, Tongren County People's government was established.
On March 17, 1952, Tongren Tibetan Autonomous Region (county level, changed to county in July 1953) was established. On July 3, guide county was divided into Jianzha Tibetan Autonomous Region (county level, changed to county in July 1953), and Tongren County into Zeku County.
On September 30, 1953, the Government Affairs Council approved the establishment of Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Region (prefecture level). The people's Government of the autonomous region is located in Longwu temple, Tongren County, and governs Jianzha, Tongren and Zeku counties. On December 22, it was officially established.
In October 1954, Henan Mongolian Autonomous Region (county level, renamed Autonomous County in June 1955) was established.
On May 22, 1955, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Region of Qinghai Province was changed into Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture according to the constitution.
In January 1959, with the approval of the State Council, Xunhua Salar Autonomous County and Henan Mongolian Autonomous County, which were originally under the direct control of the province, were entrusted by Huangnan Prefecture.
In December 1962, Xunhua Salar Autonomous County resumed its status directly under the province.
In 1964, Henan Mongolian Autonomous County, which was originally under the direct control of the province and entrusted to Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, was renamed Henan Mongolian Autonomous County.
In 1987, the Lijiaxia Administrative Committee (county level) was set up.
In 2002, the administrative committee of Lijiaxia was abolished.
By 2020, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture has jurisdiction over Tongren City, Jianzha County, Zeku County and Henan Mongolian Autonomous County. The people's Government of Tongren Prefecture is located in Longwu Town, Tongren City.
Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is located in the southeast of Qinghai Province, the first bend of Jiuqu Yellow River, between east longitude 100 ° 34 ′～ 102 ° 23 ′, north latitude 34 ° 03 ′～ 36 ° 10 ′. The northeast is adjacent to Hualong Hui Autonomous County and Xunhua Salar Autonomous County of Haidong city; the southeast is adjacent to Xiahe, Luqu and Maqu counties of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu Province; the southwest is adjacent to guide, Guinan and Tongde counties of Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Maqin County of Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. The state is 175 kilometers wide from east to west and 235.3 kilometers long from north to south, with a total area of 18200 square kilometers, accounting for 2.61% of the total area of the province.
The terrain of Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is high in the South and low in the north. Zeku and Henan counties in the South belong to Qingnan pastoral area, with an altitude of more than 3500 meters and a cold climate. They are the main bases for the development of animal husbandry in the Autonomous Prefecture; Jianzha county and Tongren city are in the north, with an altitude of 1900-4118 meters.
The climate of Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture belongs to plateau continental climate. Its climate characteristics are as follows: the rainy season is hot, and the dry and wet seasons are obviously different; the heat is insufficient, the frost free period is short, the precipitation rate is large, and the temporal and spatial distribution is uneven; the illumination time is long, and the solar radiation is strong; the cold season is long, dry and cold, and the warm season is short, moist and cool; the disaster weather is many. The annual average temperature is 6.6 ℃～ 8.5 ℃; the temperature in the south is relatively high, and the annual average temperature is - 0.9 ℃～ 0.3 ℃. The annual average temperature of the whole Prefecture is - 0.9 ℃ - 8.5 ℃. The average precipitation is 308.4 mm in Jianzha County, 549.4 mm in Henan County, 409.1 mm in Tongren City and 492.4 mm in Zeku County. The average annual precipitation of the whole Prefecture is 329.0-505.0 mm. The sunshine hours were 2506.1-2688.2 hours. The frost free period is 14-173 days, including 147-173 days in the northern warm area and 14-21 days in the southern low temperature area. The annual evaporation is 1231.6-1697.0 mm.
There are more than 60 rivers in Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. The total length of Longwu River running through the north and south is 144 km, with theoretical hydropower reserves of 220500 kW, which can build 15 cascade hydropower stations (6 have been built); the Yellow River flows through the north and south edge of the Autonomous Prefecture, with a length of about 70 km in the north, three large and medium-sized hydropower stations can be built, and 90 km in the south, which can develop 830000 kW of hydropower. There are yellow river, Longwu River, zequ River and Tao river that can be developed and utilized. The theoretical reserves of hydropower resources are 3.088 million kilowatts, including 2.42 million kilowatts for Yellow River, 368000 kilowatts for Longwu River, 72000 kilowatts for zequ River and 228000 kilowatts for other rivers.
There are 25 kinds of mineral resources in Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, antimony, mercury, arsenic, sulfur, fluorite and peat, distributed in 135 places. Among them, there are 4 large peat deposits with grade D reserves of 7.87 million tons; 2 medium-sized polymetallic deposits with lead, zinc, arsenic, gold, silver, sulfur and other elements, with potential value of 510 million yuan and extractable value of 110 million yuan; 1 medium-sized arsenic gold deposit with arsenic, gold, silver and other elements, with potential value of 260 million yuan and extractable value of 160 million yuan. Peat, arsenic and sulfur are the dominant minerals in Huangnan, which have good development prospects.
Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is rich in medicinal materials resources, including 710 kinds of plants, animals and minerals, including 579 kinds of plant drugs in 82 families, 105 kinds of animal drugs in 52 families and 26 kinds of mineral drugs. Among the 363 kinds of medicinal materials in China, there are 82 kinds in the prefecture, including 63 kinds of plant medicine. The main crop varieties are wheat, highland barley, pea, corn, potato, rapeseed, flax, etc. The main livestock are yak, Tibetan sheep, hequma, goat, etc.; the main crops are wheat, highland barley, rape, broad bean, etc. Wild animals mainly include Tibetan antelope, white lipped deer, musk deer, otter, snow chicken, etc.; wild medicinal plants mainly include Cordyceps sinensis, rhubarb, Saussurea involucrata, puffer, etc.
By the end of 2019, the total population of the prefecture is 280229. The birth rate is 15.8 ‰, the death rate is 3.5 ‰, and the natural growth rate is 12.3 ‰. Among the total population, there are 262972 ethnic minorities, accounting for 93.84% of the total population. Among the minority population, there are 192310 Tibetans, 39411 Mongolians and 18110 Hui. There are 15 ethnic groups in the prefecture, including Tibetan, Mongolian, Han, Hui, Tu, Salar and Bao'an.
In 2017, the GDP of Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture was 7.901 billion yuan, an increase of 3.3% over the previous year at comparable prices. Among them, the added value of the primary industry was 2.035 billion yuan, an increase of 5%; the added value of the secondary industry was 2.664 billion yuan, an increase of 2.1%; the added value of the tertiary industry was 3.202 billion yuan, an increase of 3.3%. The three industrial structures were adjusted from 26.4:33.7:39.9 to 25.8:33.7:40.5. The contribution rate of primary, secondary and tertiary industries to GDP is 40.9%, 21.6% and 37.5% respectively, driving GDP growth by 1.4, 0.7 and 1.2 percentage points.
In 2017, the local public budget revenue of Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture was 351 million yuan, an increase of 6.9% over the previous year. Tax revenue was 179 million yuan, down 14.03%; non tax revenue was 172 million yuan, up 42.98%. The local public budget expenditure of the Prefecture was 7.349 billion yuan, an increase of 2.4% over the previous year. Including: general public service expenditure
Chinese PinYin : Qing Hai Sheng Huang Nan Cang Zu Zi Zhi Zhou
Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province
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