The beginning of summer is the seventh of the twenty-four solar terms. The first solar term in summer is from May 5 to 7 of the Gregorian calendar. At this time, the handle of the Big Dipper pointed to the southeast, and the solar longitude reached 45 degrees. The beginning of summer is an important solar term to mark the growth of all things in the peak season. Almanac: "Dou refers to the southeast dimension, which is the beginning of Xia. Everything grows up here, so it is named Lixia." After the beginning of summer, the sunshine increased, the temperature gradually increased, the thunderstorm increased, and the crops entered the stage of vigorous growth.
Lixia said goodbye to spring, is the beginning of summer. Spring, summer long, autumn harvest, winter storage, to the beginning of summer, everything flourishes. Due to China's vast territory and large span from north to south, natural rhythms vary from place to place. At the beginning of summer in China, only the south of Fuzhou to Nanling line enters the real summer of "green trees are thick and overcast, summer is long, and buildings are reflected into the pond", while some areas in Northeast and northwest just have the flavor of spring. According to the classification standard of modern climatology in China, the stable rise of daily average temperature above 22 ℃ is the beginning of summer.
Brief introduction of solar terms
The 24 solar terms are the specific seasons in the Ganzhi calendar, which indicate the change of natural rhythm and establish the "December construction" (season). It was originally formulated according to the "Dou Zhuan Xing Yi". When the dipper of the Big Dipper pointed to the southeast, it was the beginning of summer. The current "24 solar terms" are based on the division of the "great sun and yellow meridians", that is, each solar term corresponds to a certain position of the earth in every 15 ° of the ecliptic movement. When the sun's yellow meridians reach 45 ° it is the node of the beginning of summer. "24 solar terms" is a knowledge system formed by the ancients by observing the movement of celestial bodies and recognizing the changing rules of seasons, climate and phenology in a year.
The beginning of summer is one of the 24 solar terms, and also the beginning of the calendar month. "Dou refers to the southeast, which is called Lixia. Everything grows up here, so it's called Lixia." "Summer" in Lixia means "big." Lixia "means that the plants sown in spring have already stood up and grown up by this time. Spring, summer long, autumn harvest, winter storage, summer is the best season for the vigorous growth of many crops. At the beginning of summer, everything flourishes. Due to China's vast territory and large span from north to south, natural rhythms vary from place to place. At the beginning of summer, only the area south of Fuzhou to Nanling line is a real summer with dense green trees and long summer days, and the buildings are reflected into the pond. At this time, some areas in Northeast and northwest just have the flavor of spring.
Solar term temperature
In astronomy, the beginning of summer means farewell to spring, which is the beginning of summer. People used to regard the beginning of summer as an important solar term when the temperature rises obviously, summer is coming, thunderstorms are increasing and crops are growing in the peak season.
At the beginning of summer, the temperature difference between the north and the south of China is large, and the same area fluctuates frequently. The average temperature in most parts of the country is about 18-20 ℃. According to the standard of Chinese modern Climatology (Climatological Mean Temperature), the steady rise of daily mean temperature above 22 ℃ is the beginning of summer.
Characteristics of rainwater
After the beginning of summer, the South officially entered the rainy season, and the rainfall and rainy days increased significantly. The rainy season in the north is at the turn of summer and autumn (late July to early August). Spring, summer long, autumn harvest, winter storage, summer is the best season for the vigorous growth of many crops, sufficient light and suitable temperature and abundant rain provide the necessary conditions for plants. Because the precipitation in China is mainly formed by the water vapor from the ocean brought by the southeast monsoon, the precipitation gradually decreases from the southeast coast to the northwest inland due to the influence of the summer monsoon. Monsoon climate is the main feature of China's climate. In summer, affected by the warm and humid air from the ocean, it is high temperature, humid and rainy, and the rain is hot at the same time, which is conducive to the growth of crops. The crops have entered the stage of vigorous growth in summer.
Qinling Huaihe River is the geographical and climatic boundary between the South and the north of China. Qinling mountain is a mountain related to the climate of North and South China. It is an important ecological barrier in China. It plays many functions such as regulating climate, conserving water and soil, maintaining biodiversity and so on. In winter, the Qinling Mountains block the cold wave southward into the South; in summer, it blocks the humid sea breeze into the north. Qinling and Huaihe river basins are the transitional areas between rainy in the South and arid in the north.
After the beginning of summer, sunshine increased, temperature increased and precipitation increased. From the seasonal distribution of precipitation, the precipitation in China is mainly concentrated in summer, that is, when the southeast monsoon is prevailing, so the climate characteristics of China is characterized by "the same period of rain and heat". In the high temperature season, crops grow vigorously and need a lot of water. Summer is the season with the most precipitation and concentration in China. The high temperature period is consistent with the rainy period, and the combination of water and heat is very beneficial to the growth of crops. The tropical and subtropical regions in southern China are typical of the same period of rain and heat. The precipitation in North China and Northeast China is mainly concentrated at the turn of summer and autumn. Although the rainfall is small, it is also characterized by the same period of rain and heat. Therefore, the climate in North China and Northeast China also belongs to the same period of rain and heat. The same period of rain and heat is a very superior climate resource in China. The climate with sufficient light, abundant precipitation and high temperature and humidity is very suitable for crop growth, which is an important condition for the birth of agricultural civilization.
The beginning of summer is one of the 24 solar terms. The 24 solar terms are the specific seasons in the Ganzhi calendar, which indicate the changes of natural rhythm and establish "December construction". At first, it was based on the change of the stars. The Big Dipper rotates in a circle, and the dipper handle rotates clockwise. It is a cycle, which is called "Sui" (photo mention). Each rotation cycle begins in the beginning of spring and ends in the cold. When the change of the stars, the natural rhythm of a specific region in China is gradually changing. In the period of Emperor Wu of the Western Han Dynasty, "24 solar terms" were included in the Taichu calendar as a supplement to guide the farming in the Yellow River Basin. The day when the sun shadow was the longest and the day was the shortest (the day was the shortest) was used as the winter solstice day. Taking the winter solstice day as the starting point of "24 solar terms", the winter solstice and the next winter solstice were divided into 24 equal parts, and the difference between each "solar term" was significant The time interval is 15 days. The current "24 solar terms" is based on the division of the "Great Yang and yellow meridians" (which has been used since 1645), that is, the annual trajectory of the sun is divided into 24 equal parts, every 15 ° is one equal part, and every one equal part is a solar term. The solar term "twenty-four solar terms" is an important part of the Chinese nation's long history and culture, and embodies the essence of Chinese civilization.
The 24 solar terms scientifically revealed the law of astronomical and meteorological changes, which not only played a guiding role in agricultural production, but also affected the ancient people's clothing, food, housing and transportation, and even cultural concepts. It skillfully combines astronomy, natural rhythm and folk custom, and derives a large number of related seasonal order culture, which has become an important part of Chinese traditional culture. In order to describe the temporal characteristics more accurately, the ancients divided the solar terms into four groups according to the climate and phenology. "Fen" is spring equinox and autumn equinox, which is called "dichotomy" in ancient times; "Zhi" is summer solstice and winter solstice, which is called "dichotomy" in ancient times; "Qi" is the beginning of spring and summer, "Guan" is the beginning of autumn and winter. The beginning of spring, the beginning of summer, the beginning of autumn and the beginning of winter are collectively referred to as "four Li", which add up to "eight Festivals". It is called "four seasons and eight Festivals" or "eight festivals of seasons and years" among the people. In the long farming society, the 24 solar terms played an important role in guiding agricultural activities, with rich cultural connotations.
Solar term custom
Welcoming summer ceremony
The meaning of "summer" in "Lixia" is "big", which means that the plants sown in spring have grown up. At a deeper level, the 24 solar terms reflect the changes of "Qi" in the four seasons. The changes of Qi are related to the changes of natural rhythm. At the beginning of summer, Yang Qi grows gradually, and everything grows vigorously with the rise of Yang Qi. In ancient times, people attached great importance to the etiquette and customs of Lixia. On the day of the beginning of summer, ancient people held a ceremony to welcome the summer.
Try something new
At the beginning of summer, there are also festival activities such as trying new things. For example, there is a saying in Suzhou that "three new things can be seen at the beginning of summer". The three new things are cherry, green plum and wheat, which are used for ancestor worship. In Changshu, the new food is more abundant. There is a saying of "nine meat and thirteen vegetable". Nine meat is crucian carp, salted egg, snail, quenched chicken, salted shrimp, cherry meat; thirteen vegetable include cherry peach, plum, wheat silkworm (New Wheat kneaded into thin strips cooked), bamboo shoot, broad bean, spear needle, pea, cucumber Lettuce, grass head, radish, rose, pine flower. In Nantong, they eat boiled chicken and duck eggs.
"Lixia egg, throw all over the street", egg fighting is usually a game for children. To use cooked eggs, usually boiled in white water with shell (eggshell can not be damaged), soaked in cold water, and then put in a net bag made of colored silk or wool, let the child hang around the neck. The rules of fighting eggs are very simple. To put it bluntly, it is "harder than whose eggshell": everyone holds eggs, the sharp one is the head, the round one is the tail, the head of the egg hits the head of the egg, and the tail hits the tail of the egg. One by one, those who break the shell admit defeat, and then eat the eggs, while the last one who can't break is respected as the "egg king". Why fight eggs? The folk saying is: "in the beginning of summer, it's hard for a villain to have eggs in his chest.". After entering the summer, some people, especially the old and young, are prone to anorexia, fatigue, upset and Qi deficiency due to the heat. As a simple and easy to get nutrition, egg is a good choice to "supplement" in advance. And with the children's mind, will eat and play together, that is
Chinese PinYin : Li Xia
The beginning of spring. Li Chun
grain rain. Gu Yu
grain full. Xiao Man
the summer solstice. Xia Zhi
Little heat. Xiao Shu
The beginning of autumn. Li Qiu
White Dew. Bai Lu
Cold dew. Han Lu
Lidong. Li Dong
Light snow is the 20th of the 24 solar terms and the second solar term in winter. It is on November 22 or 23 of the Gregorian calendar, that is, when the sun reaches 240 ° of the Yellow meridian. Light snow is a solar term reflecting precipitation and tem. Xiao Xue
Heavy snow is the 21st of the 24 solar terms and the third in winter. Douzhigui, the sun reaches 255 degrees of the Yellow meridian, and the festival time is December 6-8 of the Gregorian calendar every year. The heavy snow solar term is the beginning of . Da Xue
The winter solstice, also known as the South solstice, winter festival and Asian year old, has both natural and humanistic connotations. It is not only an important solar term in the 24 solar terms, but also a traditional ancestor worship festival among C. Dong Zhi