The beginning of winter is one of the twenty-four solar terms. The handle of the bucket points to the northwest. The solar longitude reaches 225 degrees. It meets on November 7-8 of the Gregorian calendar every year. The beginning of winter is a seasonal solar term, which means that winter has entered since then. In winter, in the end, all things are collected. The beginning of winter means that life begins to close and everything enters a state of recuperation and collection. The climate also changed from dry and rainy in autumn to cold and freezing in winter.
After the beginning of winter, the sunshine time will continue to shorten, and the noon sun height will continue to decrease. In winter, the northeast wind and north wind are prevailing, and the temperature gradually drops. Because the heat stored on the surface still has a certain amount of energy, it is not very cold in early winter. As time goes on, the strong cold air frequently goes southward and crosses Nanling, and the weather becomes colder and colder. In the north, it was very cold before the beginning of winter.
The tradition is that "Lidong" is the beginning of winter. "Spring is born, summer is long, autumn is harvested, and winter is stored." winter is the season to enjoy a good harvest and rest. Lidong is one of the "four seasons and eight Festivals" in ancient folk. In ancient China, some places will hold activities such as sacrifice and banquets as important festivals to celebrate.
Four traditional legislations
According to astronomical classification:
In the traditional method of four seasons division in China, "four Li" in the 24 solar terms is regarded as the starting point of four seasons. Winter begins at the beginning of winter (Dou refers to the northwest, taiyanghuang longitude 225 °) and ends at the beginning of the next spring. The beginning of winter means that life begins to close, everything enters a state of recuperation and collection, plants wither and insects hibernate; its climate, wind and rain, humidity and temperature are also at a turning point, changing from autumn to winter. The traditional "Si Li" reflects the changing characteristics of phenology, climate and other aspects.
Climatological Mean Temperature Method
According to the temperature:
Now it is often divided according to the temperature change of one of the climatic elements. The method of division is the method of "the average temperature of the climate" by Zhang Baokun, a modern scholar. According to the method of the average temperature of the climate, the four seasons are divided. The beginning of winter is when the average temperature of the climate (the average temperature of five consecutive days) falls below 10 ℃, and the end is when the average temperature of the climate is above 10 ℃. Entering winter means that the temperature has steadily dropped below 10 ℃ and the weather is cold.
The explanation of "winter" in the collection of seventy-two lunar orders is: "winter is the end, and all things are collected", which means that all autumn crops have been collected and put into storage, and animals have been hidden for hibernation. The beginning of winter, completely speaking, means the beginning of winter and the collection of all things. According to some local scenes, the ancient Chinese compiled 72 periods, which divided the first winter solar term into three five days, and thus determined three periods: "first, the water begins to ice; second, the ground begins to freeze; third, the pheasant enters the big water as a mirage." In this work, the water of this solar term can be frozen; the land also begins to freeze; the pheasant in the "pheasant entering the big water as a mirage" in the three periods refers to the big bird like pheasant, and the mirage is the big clam. After the beginning of winter, the big bird like pheasant is rare, but the big clam whose shell is similar to the line and color of pheasant can be seen by the sea. So the ancients thought that the pheasant would become a big clam at the beginning of winter.
The beginning of winter means the beginning of winter. Traditionally, the 24 solar terms "beginning of winter" are used as the beginning of winter. Li, Jianshi also means to establish and start; winter means "end", which means to collect crops after harvest. The beginning of winter, the beginning of spring, the beginning of summer and the beginning of autumn are collectively called "four Li", which are seasonal solar terms. At the beginning of winter, its climate, wind and rain, humidity, temperature, etc. are at a turning point, changing from autumn to winter. Four seasons appear alternately in a year, and "four standing" marks the rotation of four seasons, reflecting the changing laws of phenology, climate and other aspects, such as spring, summer, autumn harvest and winter storage. In winter, the Yang recedes and the Yin grows, the Qi is closed and stored, and all things are collected. In the south of China (low latitude region), there are more rain, more storms, sufficient light and high humidity, and these elements change obviously during the season transition; in the north, there is less precipitation, and the precipitation and other elements change not obviously during the season transition, and the most obvious change is the temperature, while in the North (middle latitude region), the temperature changes in four seasons are distinct. Northeast wind and north wind are prevalent in winter. At the beginning of winter, the sun has reached 225 degrees yellow longitude, and the earth is at - 16 ° 19 'declination. The height of the sun in the northern hemisphere becomes smaller, the time of day is shortened, and the amount of solar radiation in the northern hemisphere is less and less. However, the heat stored on the surface in the second half of this year still has some energy, so it is not very cold. During the period of Mengdong (the first winter solstice with light snow), when it is clear and windless, the weather of "little sunny spring" is often warm and comfortable, which is popular among the people“
Little spring in October
”Let's talk about it. In some parts of the south, it is not very cold in early winter, but with the passage of time, the cold air frequently goes south, and the temperature gradually decreases. In northern China, it is very cold from the beginning of winter to spring. The climate change of several solar terms in winter is not obvious. Snow is the main feature of northern winter. in some areas of southern China, during the winter solstice and light snow season (equivalent to October of the lunar calendar), there is often a period of warm weather like spring, so that some fruit trees mistakenly think that spring is coming and bloom for the second time. In winter, the so-called "cold in March 9", before the winter solstice is usually not very cold. The first nine days are called "19", the second nine days are called "29", and so on. The coldest period of the year is "39 days". Since the winter solstice, it began to enter the "three or nine days", the strong cold air southward frequently, the temperature drops suddenly, the weather is cold. So, winter is really cold after the winter solstice.
In the beginning, the direction of the dipper is used to determine the alternation of seasons. The rotation of the Big Dipper is closely related to the change of seasons. The orientation of the dipper is used as the standard to determine the seasons, which is called Doujian. When the dipper points to the northwest, it is the beginning of winter. The current "24 solar terms" come from the "degree method of the Great Yang and yellow meridians" established more than 300 years ago (which has been used since 1645). The "method of the Great Yang and yellow meridians" is a method to determine solar terms according to the position of the sun on the return to the ecliptic, that is, in a 360 degree circle of the "ecliptic" (the sun's apparent path on the celestial sphere in a year), it is divided into 24 equal parts, one equal part every 15 degrees, with the spring as the starting point The equinox is the starting point of 0 degree (but it is still customary to rank the beginning of spring as the first one in the order), and it is arranged according to the degree of the Yellow longitude; every 15 degrees of the sun in the ecliptic is a "solar term", and the degree of each "solar term" is equal and the time is unequal; 24 solar terms are 24 time points, and the specific day on which the "point" falls is the natural result of celestial movement; when the Yellow longitude of the sun reaches 225 degrees, it is the beginning of winter solar term, which is the 11th day of the Gregorian calendar From July to August.
China is located in low, middle and high latitudes. Low latitude generally refers to the space range between the north and south latitude of 30 degrees on the earth's surface, that is, the area within 30 ° n to 30 ° s, including the tropical and subtropical heat zones, which is the zone where the global solar radiation and heat are relatively concentrated. The middle latitude is the latitude zone between 30 and 60 degrees north latitude. The prevailing air masses at high and low latitudes overlap each other in this area. The cyclones are active frequently and the temperature changes obviously. High latitude refers to the area between the north and South latitudes of 60 degrees to the north and south poles on the earth's surface, which is the weakest area to receive solar radiation on the earth's surface. Different latitudes have different climates. the traditional method of dividing the four seasons in China is based on the changes of celestial phenomena, with the "four Li" in the 24 solar terms as the starting point of the four seasons. At present, the division of four seasons is often based on the change of temperature, using the modern scholar Zhang Baokun's "climatological average temperature" division, which stipulates that: the period when the climatological average temperature is greater than or equal to 22 ℃ is summer, the period when the climatological average temperature is less than or equal to 10 ℃ is winter, and the period between 10 ℃ and 22 ℃ is spring or autumn. According to this standard, the seasons in the middle latitudes are basically consistent with the "climate average temperature"; the temperature changes in spring, summer, autumn and winter in the low latitudes and near the polar regions are not obvious, which is inconsistent with the "climate average temperature". This classification method of four seasons is more suitable for the temperate zone in the middle latitudes where the temperature changes in four seasons are distinct. In the middle latitudes, the four seasons divided by the method of climate average temperature are basically consistent with the obvious change of temperature, but the length of each season is not the same. in the southern hemisphere, the time of each season is just opposite to that in the northern hemisphere. When the southern hemisphere is summer, the northern hemisphere is winter; when the southern hemisphere is winter, the northern hemisphere is summer.
Lidong and Lichun, Lixia and Liqiu are collectively called "four Li". Li means establishment and beginning. As one of the four important solar terms, the beginning of winter is one of the seasonal nodes that Chinese people attach great importance to. It is also a time to enjoy a good harvest and recuperate. Through recuperation in winter, we can expect prosperity and auspiciousness in the coming year. The beginning of winter is not only the first season of winter, but also an important festival in many parts of China. Lidong is one of the "four seasons and eight Festivals" in ancient society. People usually hold sacrificial activities. The beginning of winter is a big festival in October. In China, there are customs such as ancestor worship, banquets, and divination of the new year. They offer sacrifices to ancestors with good seasonal products to fulfill their obligations and responsibilities as descendants and pray for the next year's harvest. The farmers themselves are also paid for drinking and rest.
Chinese PinYin : Li Dong
The beginning of spring. Li Chun
Vernal equinox. Chun Fen
grain full. Xiao Man
Mangrove seed. Mang Zhong
the summer solstice. Xia Zhi
Great heat. Da Shu
The beginning of autumn. Li Qiu
White Dew. Bai Lu
Cold dew. Han Lu
Lidong. Li Dong
The winter solstice, also known as the South solstice, winter festival and Asian year old, has both natural and humanistic connotations. It is not only an important solar term in the 24 solar terms, but also a traditional ancestor worship festival among C. Dong Zhi
Xiaohan is the 23rd of the 24 solar terms, the fifth in winter, the end of the Ganzhi calendar month and the beginning of the ugly month. Bucket finger; The solar yellow meridian is 285 °; The festival is handed in on January 5-7 of the Gregorian calendar. Xiao Han