Cold dew is the 17th of the 24 solar terms and the fifth in autumn. Dou Zhiwu; the sun reaches 195 ° of the Yellow longitude; it meets on October 7-9 of the Gregorian calendar every year. Cold dew is the season of late autumn, the beginning of the calendar month. Cold dew is a solar term reflecting the characteristics of climate change. When entering the cold dew, there is cold air going south, the temperature difference between day and night is large, and the autumn dryness is obvious.
After the cold dew, the cold air in the North has a certain influence. Most areas of our country are under the control of cold high pressure, and the rainy season ends. From the perspective of climate characteristics, in the cold dew season, autumn in the south is getting stronger, with cool air, less rain and dryness; the northeast and northwest regions in the north have entered or are about to enter winter, with thousands of miles of frost and thousands of miles of snow, which is quite different from autumn in the south.
Brief introduction of solar terms
Twenty four solar terms are the product of ancient agricultural civilization. It was originally formulated according to the change of stars. Dou Zhiwu (northwest direction) is Hanlu, which is the end of youyue and the beginning of Xuyue in Ganzhi calendar. The 24 solar terms and the construction of December are the basic contents of the Ganzhi calendar. The Ganzhi calendar (SUI Ji Shi Ti) calculates the order of the moon based on the operation of the Big Dipper. The time referred to by the doubing is called "Doujian" (or "Yuejian", which was called "Jian" in ancient times). For example, it is recorded in Huainanzi astronomy training: "emperor Zhang Siwei carried it to fight, moved the moon to one hour, and returned to his place. The first month refers to Yin, the second month refers to ugliness, and turned at one year old, and it starts all over again.". Here "dou" refers to the handle of the Big Dipper. The bucket handle rotates circularly, one circle clockwise is a cycle, which is called "Sui" (photo). "Construction in December" is based on the "24 solar terms". The division of "construction in December" is based on the seasons, that is, the beginning of spring, Jingzhe, Qingming, Lixia, mangzhong, Xiaoshu, Liqiu, Bailu, Hanlu, Lidong, Daxue and Xiaohan, which are respectively Yinyue (shetige), maoyue (dankai), Chenyue (Zhixu), Siyue (dahuanluo) and noon Yue (dunyue) It is the beginning of the first month of Qing Dynasty, Weiyue (Xieqiao), Shenyue (Xietan), youyue (zuogu), Xuyue (Weimao), Haiyue (dayuanxian), ziyue (Kundun) and chouyue (chifenruo). In Ganzhi calendar, "doubing Huiyin" is regarded as "Chunzheng" (first month). The first month is the month of JianZheng. Doubing Huiyin is the month of Chunzheng, and the month where Chunzheng is located is the first month. JianZheng (first month) is the concept of December Jian in Sui Ji's theory. Later, it was also used to refer to the first month of other calendars. December construction is: January Jianyin, February Jianmao, March Jianchen And so on, in September Jianxu, Hanlu is the beginning of Ganzhi calendar Xuyue (September). Cold dew marks the beginning of autumn (the last month of autumn), when the sky is high and the air is clear.
Hanlu is a solar term reflecting the characteristics of climate change. "Hanlu" is the season of late autumn, and the word "Hanlu" appears first in the 24 solar terms. The cold dew is the beginning of the calendar month and the end of autumn. Xu month, the sun into the earth, all things completed. If you look up at the starry sky on a cold dew night, you will find that the starry sky is changing seasons, and the "big Mars", which represents Shengyang, has gone west. in the cold dew solar term, the days are shorter, the nights are longer and the sunshine is less. The temperature difference between day and night is large, the morning and evening are slightly chilly, and the air is relatively dry. After the cold dew, the cold air in the North has a certain influence. Most areas of our country are under the control of cold high pressure, and the rainy season ends. Thunderstorms have disappeared in most parts of the mainland of China, and can only be heard in some areas of Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou. from September to October of the Gregorian calendar, most areas of China are in the transition period of summer wind direction and winter wind, sometimes cold air suddenly goes south, and the temperature drops significantly. After the cold dew, the Nanling mountains and the vast areas to the north have entered the late autumn; the northeast and northwest regions have entered or are about to enter the winter, with thousands of miles of frost and thousands of miles of snow, which is quite different from the autumn in the south.
Solar term farming
The cold damage before and after the cold dew solar term is usually called cold dew wind, which occurs in the south of the Yangtze River. Cold dew wind is a kind of weather with low temperature, dry (sometimes rainy) and strong north wind under the influence of cold air southward or typhoon and cold air, which does great harm to crop production. Cold dew wind is the main agrometeorological disaster in the late growth stage of late rice in South China. the half month from cold dew to frost is the busy season of autumn harvest and autumn planting when autumn crops mature and overwintering crops begin to sow in September. It is an important period for autumn harvest, autumn planting and autumn management. Cold dew is at the heading and filling stage of late rice. Therefore, we should continue to strengthen field management. The weather is usually warm in the day and cool at night, with a clear sky, which is very beneficial to the autumn harvest. the precipitation in October in North China is generally only half or less than that in September, while in Northwest China it is only a few millimeters to more than 20 millimeters. Drought and less rain often bring difficulties to timely sowing of winter wheat, and become one of the main limiting factors for dryland wheat to strive for high yield. In Southwest China, there is still continuous autumn rain at this time. In a few years, there will be overcast and rainy weather in Jianghuai and Jiangnan, which has a certain impact on autumn harvest and autumn planting.
In ancient times, the solar terms were divided according to the direction of the dipper handle. When the dipper handle of the Big Dipper pointed to the northwest, it was the Hanlu solar term. From the Han Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty, the solar term was measured in the Yellow River Basin by the guibiao method. On the cold dew day, the sun shadow was measured by the guibiao at noon. The shadow length was 8 feet 2 inches, which is equivalent to 2.018 meters today. Since 1645, solar terms have been divided according to the degree of the Yellow meridian of the sun. When the sun reaches 195 degrees of the Yellow meridian, it is cold dew. Generally, the cold dew solar term is on October 8 or 9 of the Gregorian calendar.
Solar term culture
After a cold dew meal, it's rare to see a man in single clothes. When cold dew comes, late rice is cut; when frost comes, glutinous rice is cut. cotton is afraid of continuous rain in August, and rice is afraid of frost. the preserved sweet potato has been stored for a long time, and the frost damaged the melon. the harvest melon is washed by the rain, and the cellar is like a rotten mud pit. Before cold dew, six or seven days, ripening agent, quick spray cotton. Cold dew does not pick up smoke, frost does not complain. If the cold dew doesn't dig the shallot, the heart will be empty. September is not empty, October is empty. Cold dew harvest hawthorn, frost plough sweet potato. Cold dew persimmon red skin, pick it to go to the market. The persimmon is as red as fire. Take off the basket. peel off the red skin and sell it to the takeout. The persimmon skin is red in the cold dew. When it comes to the cold open air, it catches adult fish and gathers lotus root to thicken. During the cold dew Festival, when the weather is cool, the same fish species should be pooled. catch the adult fish and sell them on the market, so as to keep the young without harm.
In the cold dew season, the weather is getting colder and colder, and the farmers are not idle every day. the sowing of wheat is still prosperous, and the harvest of late rice is time-consuming. keep sweet potato for fear of freezing injury, and harvest soybean in cold open air. Yellow tobacco and peanuts should be harvested. I'm busy picking cotton on a sunny day. Be greedy for the late maturing cotton field, and do not neglect the chemical ripening. Heat preservation and moisture preservation is the key to cucumber grafting in greenhouse. Purple Hawthorn picked, red pomegranate acid and sweet. when the fruit is unloaded, take care of the tree, apply fertilizer and spray to turn the ground over. it is a good time to collect tree species, and local provenance is the key. livestock and poultry feeding should be technical, and pregnant female animals should be carefully managed. overwintering fish must be fattened and harvested from adult fish.
September Festival, cold dew, frost, double ninth to. Climbing "Ci Qing" is one of the customs in autumn and September. The weather is getting colder and the plants begin to wither. Climbing "Ci Qing" corresponds to "outing" in March.
In ancient times, there was a saying that "the body is not exposed in white, the feet are not exposed in cold". According to the traditional Chinese medicine theory of "nourishing yang in spring and summer, nourishing Yin in autumn and winter", people should nourish yin to prevent dryness, moisten lung and benefit stomach. Yuan Wu Cheng's collection of 72 lunar orders said: "on September day, dew and cold air will condense." It means that the temperature of cold dew is lower than that of White Dew, and the morning dew on the ground is cold and about to condense. It is also said that "Dou nail is cold dew. It is cold and cold at that time. It is about to condense, so it is called cold dew." With the arrival of the cold dew, the climate is cool and cold, and everything grows with the cold and gradually fades. In the nature, the Qi of yin and Yang begins to change, the Qi of Yang gradually recedes and the Qi of Yin gradually grows. The physiological activities of the human body should also adapt to the changes of the nature, so as to ensure the physiological (yin and Yang) balance in the body. In this season, we should pay attention to health preservation. Since the "cold dew" season, the rain is less and less, the weather is dry, hot in the day and cool at night. From the point of view of traditional Chinese medicine, the biggest characteristic of this solar term in the southern climate is that "dryness" evil is in time, and dryness evil is most likely to hurt the lung and stomach. During this period, people's sweat evaporated quickly, so they often had dry skin, increased wrinkles, dry mouth and dry throat. So the key of health preservation is to nourish yin, prevent dryness, moisten lung and benefit stomach. After the cold dew, the days are short and the nights are long, and the "Yang Qi" in nature begins to converge and sink. This is the time for people to maintain Yang Qi. Therefore, people's living time should be adjusted accordingly.
On the moon, Wutong leaves appear cold dew.
(Dai, Tang Dynasty). The light is full of dripping, and the color is cold. The wind shakes the jade pendant, and the branches move the Pearl. When the air is cold, I suspect that it is late in autumn, and the sound is faint. condense the air, flow everywhere, and moisten the things. Don't get tired of peeping, it's more difficult to get together.
Dream of Chongqing on August 19
(Wang an the autumn is long in the empty court, and the dew is in the dusk. Hustle and bustle has become a city, and it is not in Fusang by day. I always cherish what I like, but it becomes a dream. The color of jade looks like a happy face. when you know the truth, you should not be separated. You should talk and laugh with each other.
On the pool
(Bai Juyi) the wind is cold and the dew is cold. the flower of orchid is white, the leaf of lotus is still green. the sand crane lives independently, and both fly to shine on the water firefly. if it's a lonely place, it's still worth waking up.
(Liu Yong) looking at the place where the rain comes and the clouds break, you can see the autumn light quietly. Song Yu is sad and desolate. The water and wind are light, the apple flowers are getting old, and the moon is cold
Chinese PinYin : Han Lu
The beginning of spring. Li Chun
The Waking of Insects. Jing Zhe
Qingming. Qing Ming
grain rain. Gu Yu
Lixia. Li Xia
Great heat. Da Shu
The beginning of autumn. Li Qiu
White Dew. Bai Lu
the autumnal equinox. Qiu Fen
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