The beginning of spring
The beginning of spring, also known as "Dachun", is the first solar term in China's 24 solar terms. "Li" means "start". In China, the beginning of spring is the beginning of spring. It is the beginning of spring when the sun reaches 315 degrees of the Yellow longitude on February 4 or 5 every year. The collection of seventy-two lunar orders states: "the first lunar month, Li, Jianshi, Lixia, autumn and winter are the same."
The beginning of spring is not only the first of the 24 solar terms, but also an important festival. Astronomically, it marks the beginning of spring. The first spring solar term usually starts on February 4 or 5 and ends on February 19 or 20. The beginning of spring, like the beginning of summer, autumn and winter, is a solar term reflecting the change of seasons. The beginning of spring is a solar term with a slight turning point. Although this turning point is not very obvious, the trend is that the weather begins to warm up, the coldest period has basically passed, and people begin to smell the smell of early spring.
According to the four seasons of climate, the Qingming solar term enters spring in Northeast and Northwest China, the equinox solar term enters spring in North China, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River enter spring before and after Jingzhe, and the rain solar term enters spring in Southwest China. Only the beginning of spring solar term in South China can be regarded as the beginning of spring.
After the beginning of spring, Yang Qi rises and everything begins to grow. Conform to the characteristics of spring, health should pay attention to the protection of Yang. To protect Yang Qi, we should keep in good health from diet, daily life, psychology and exercise.
The Ming Dynasty work Qunfang Pu explains Lichun as "the beginning of construction is the beginning of establishment. It is also the beginning of spring The poem of "the beginning of spring" says: "the east wind brings rain to chase the west wind, and the earth is warm and sunny. According to the collection of seventy-two lunar orders: "the beginning of spring is the first month of the lunar calendar; the beginning of the lunar calendar is the beginning of the lunar calendar; the beginning of the lunar calendar is the beginning of the lunar calendar; the beginning of the lunar calendar is the beginning of the lunar calendar; the beginning of the lunar calendar is the beginning of the lunar calendar; the Qi of the five elements will continue here; the Qi of the spring wood is the beginning of the lunar calendar; the beginning of summer, autumn
The beginning of spring is the first of 24 solar terms, so the ancient people celebrate the festival on the day of "beginning of spring", which is equivalent to the modern "Spring Festival". The first day of the first month of the lunar calendar is called New Year's day. In 1913 (the second year of the Republic of China), Yuan Shikai proposed the Lunar New Year's day as the "Spring Festival", which was implemented the following year (1914). Since then, the beginning of the summer calendar, known as the Spring Festival, has been along so far. Therefore, the zodiac should be calculated from the beginning of spring, and the zodiac should be based on the beginning of spring instead of the first day of the first month. The first day of spring in 2010 is before the Spring Festival, so the year of the tiger is called "the year of no spring". Spring is the dividing point between the former and the latter.
"24 solar terms" is the product of ancient agricultural civilization, which was originally determined by the rotating direction of the handle of the Big Dipper. Chinese astrology culture has a long history and is extensive and profound. The ancients began to explore the mysteries of the universe very early, and thus deduced a set of complete and profound star watching culture. The Big Dipper appeared in different directions of the northern hemisphere sky in different seasons and at different times at night. It was the ruler of the ancients to determine the direction, season and solar term. Polaris is located at the northern end of the earth's axis, on the five times extension line of the line between Tianxuan and Tianshu in the Big Dipper. Due to the rotation of the earth and the fact that the Polaris is on the axis of the celestial sphere, it is relatively immobile, while the Big Dipper on the edge of the axis seems to revolve around the Polaris, which produces a "star shift". It is called one year old when the handle rotates once. It is also known as "Sheti" and "Taisui". It is the name of the epoch star in ancient times. The ancients used "Sui" to indicate the alternation of cold and heat. "Yi · Xici": the combination of cold and heat. The ancients believed that December was the law of the operation of the universe, such as Wenzi · nature: "December runs, and it starts again and again." It means that heaven and earth turn round and round, again and again. The solar term established by doubing Zhiyin method starts from doubing Zhiyin, which means "the beginning of spring", "douzhiyin" means "rain", and "douzhiding" means "Jingzhe" It's very cold to fight for ugliness. " It begins in the beginning of spring and ends in cold. Although the 24 solar terms calendar was established by the ancients according to the star shift of the Big Dipper, in fact, the cause of the star shift of the Big Dipper is that the earth revolves around the sun.
In the early age of observing and timing, the age was determined according to the changing stars. Tianwei Jianyuan starts from Yin, as recorded in Huainanzi tiantiantianxun: "emperor Zhang Siwei carries it by fighting, the moon moves to one hour, and then returns to his place. The first month refers to Yin, the December refers to ugliness, and turns at the age of one year, and it starts all over again.". In December, it goes round and round. At the end of the year, December means ugliness. In the first month, it returns to Yin. Spring returns to the earth and enters a new cycle. Everything is renewed and the new year begins. Jianyin's first month, also known as the "Yuan" month, is the first day of the first month. The beginning of spring is the calendar year of Ganzhi (SUI, Sheti). In tianguanshu of Shiji, Lichun is called "the first year of the king": "the first day of the first month, the first year of the king, the first day of the spring, the beginning of the four seasons.". Spring is the first of four seasons, and the beginning of spring is the beginning of spring. The beginning of spring is not only the beginning of four seasons, but also the beginning of one year.
The solar terms determined by guibiao shadow measurement method (average time method) share the same name with the 24 solar terms determined by "Dou Zhuan Xing Yi", and the determination method and starting time are completely different. During the period of Emperor Wu of the Western Han Dynasty, the day of the longest sun shadow and the shortest day (solstice) was measured in the Yellow River Basin by using the vertical pole shadow measurement (guibiao) as the winter solstice day. Taking the winter solstice day as the starting point of the "24 solar terms", the date between the winter solstice and the next winter solstice was divided into 12 equal parts, which was called "Zhongqi", and then the time between the adjacent "Zhongqi" was divided into equal parts, which was called "solar terms". On average, there is one "Zhongqi" and one "solar term" every month, which are collectively referred to as "24 solar terms". This method of determination is called the average time method (also known as "pingqi method"), and the time between each "solar term" is equal. The "average time method" divides the calendar year into 24 sections (15 days in each section), and the average number of days between each two solar terms. First measure the winter solstice day, because the shadow is the longest in the winter solstice, and the change of shadow length in the next few days is the most obvious, which is more conducive to observation and recording. The solar terms divided by the average time method have an interval of 15 days, which is not consistent with the actual astronomical phenomena because the uneven movement of the sun on the ecliptic is not considered. Because the earth is located near the perihelion before and after the winter solstice, the speed of the earth's movement is slightly faster, which results in that the time of the sun's direct sunlight in the southern hemisphere is about 8 days shorter than that in the northern hemisphere in a year, so the winter in the Northern Hemisphere is slightly shorter than that in summer. According to the "average time method", the winter solstice ranks first in the "24 solar terms", which begins with the winter solstice and ends with heavy snow.
The current "24 solar terms" come from the method established more than 300 years ago to determine solar terms according to the position of the sun on the returning ecliptic (which has been used since 1645). However, in the "lunar calendar" since the establishment of the Shixian calendar, the "24 solar terms" are determined according to the position of the sun on the returning ecliptic, that is, in a 360 degree circle of the "ecliptic" (too much in a year) Yang is divided into 24 equal parts in the visual path of the celestial sphere, one equal part every 15 degrees, with the vernal equinox as the starting point of 0 degree (the beginning of spring is still ranked first in the order), and arranged according to the degree of the Yellow meridian. Every 15 degrees of the sun's movement in the ecliptic is a "solar term", and the degrees between each "solar term" are equal (time is not equal), also known as the "fixed gas method". During the 24 solar terms, during the equinox and solstice, the direct solar point moves northward after 0 ° of the equator; during the summer solstice, the direct solar point moves southward after 23 ° 26'n; during the autumn equinox, the direct solar point moves southward after 0 ° of the equator; during the winter solstice, the direct solar point moves northward after 23 ° 26's . The 24 solar terms are 24 time points, and the specific day on which the "point" falls is the natural result of celestial movement. According to the degree of the Yellow meridian, the solar terms begin in the beginning of spring and end in the cold.
China is located in the northern hemisphere, and the Tropic of cancer (the intersection of yellow and red) passes through China. The ecliptic angle is the angle between the ecliptic plane and the equatorial plane, also known as the solar declination angle or the large distance between the ecliptic and the equatorial. It is the fundamental reason for the change of the four seasons and the differentiation of the five zones on the earth. The conversion of natural solar terms is closely related to the "intersection of yellow and red" in astronomy.
The latitude value of Tropic of cancer is the intersection of yellow and red. It is a special latitude line with typical astronomical significance on the earth. It is of great significance to astronomy, geography, climate, biology and so on. The arrangement of "24 solar terms" is closely related to this special astronomical latitude and the monsoon climate type in China.
When the astronomical sense of the winter spring transition (Dou Zhiyin or the sun's yellow longitude reaches 315 degrees), one side of the Tropic of cancer (the intersection of yellow and red) is full of spring, but the other side is still bleak winter.
"Li" means "start". The beginning of spring is the beginning of spring. It is the beginning of spring when the sun reaches 315 degrees on February 4 or 5 every year.
The 24 solar terms are the specific seasons in the Ganzhi calendar, which indicate the changes of natural rhythm and establish "December construction". There are four seasons in one year, three months in spring, three months in summer, three months in autumn and three months in winter. There are two solar terms in each month. Each solar term has its own unique meaning. The 24 solar terms accurately reflect the changes of natural rhythm and play an important role in people's daily life. In the historical development, the 24 solar terms are listed in the lunar calendar and become an important part of the lunar calendar. The first day of the first month of the calendar is usually called "Sui Shou". In fact, strictly speaking, "Sui" is a unique concept of Ganzhi calendar. Sui is also called Taisui. The original meaning of "Sui Shou" is the first day of the first month of Sheti (Taisui), that is, the beginning of spring. The first day of the first month of the lunar calendar is called "Yuanshuo". In ancient times, there were strict differences between "year" and "year": from the beginning of spring to the beginning of next spring, it was called one year old; from January 1 to the next January 1, it was called "one year old"
Chinese PinYin : Li Chun
The beginning of spring
rain. Yu Shui
The Waking of Insects. Jing Zhe
Lixia. Li Xia
grain full. Xiao Man
Mangrove seed. Mang Zhong
Little heat. Xiao Shu
Great heat. Da Shu
the autumnal equinox. Qiu Fen
First Frost. Shuang Jiang
Lidong. Li Dong
The winter solstice, also known as the South solstice, winter festival and Asian year old, has both natural and humanistic connotations. It is not only an important solar term in the 24 solar terms, but also a traditional ancestor worship festival among C. Dong Zhi
Xiaohan is the 23rd of the 24 solar terms, the fifth in winter, the end of the Ganzhi calendar month and the beginning of the ugly month. Bucket finger; The solar yellow meridian is 285 °; The festival is handed in on January 5-7 of the Gregorian calendar. Xiao Han