Guyu is the sixth of the 24 solar terms and the last one in spring. Douzhichen; the Yellow meridian of the sun is 30 degrees; it meets every year from April 19 to 21 of the Gregorian calendar. Guyu means "rain begets a hundred grains". At this time, the precipitation increases significantly. The first transplanting of seedlings and new crop species in the field need the moistening of rain most. It is the so-called "spring rain is as expensive as oil". Sufficient and timely rainfall, cereal crops can thrive. Like other solar terms such as rain, light rain, light snow and heavy snow, the valley rain reflects the phenomenon of precipitation and reflects the ancient farming culture.
It is said in the collection of seventy-two lunar orders, "in March, after the rain, the earth paste pulsates, and now it rains, and its valley is in the water Gaigu got its name because it sowed from top to bottom. The grain rain is a solar term reflecting the precipitation phenomenon. After the grain rain solar term, the rainfall increases and the humidity in the air gradually increases, which is very suitable for the growth of cereal crops.
In the rainy season, in the south of China, it often begins to rain obviously, especially in South China, once the cold air and warm and humid air meet, it often forms a long period of rainfall weather. Qinling Huaihe River is a transitional area between southern spring rain and northern spring drought. From Qinling Huaihe River to the north, spring rain decreases sharply.
Meaning of solar terms
"24 solar terms" is the product of ancient agricultural civilization. Agricultural production is closely related to the rhythm of nature. It is a knowledge system formed by ancient ancestors conforming to the farming time, observing the movement of celestial bodies, and recognizing the changing laws of the middle time of a year (season), climate, phenology, etc. The valley rain is the last solar term in spring. When the sun's yellow longitude reaches 30 degrees (or Dou Zhichen), it is the intersection of the valley and the rain. Guyu means "rain begets a hundred grains". At this time, the precipitation increases obviously. The first transplanting of seedlings and new crop species in the field need the moisture of rain most. Sufficient and timely rainfall, cereal crops can thrive. "When the rain is falling, the five grains and a hundred fruits are climbing.". The main characteristic of grain rain is continuous spring rain, which is conducive to grain growth. Rain produces hundreds of grains, which reflects the agroclimatic significance of "Grain Rain". It is the reflection of ancient farming culture to the season.
The valley rain is a solar term reflecting the precipitation phenomenon, and the valley rain season often begins to be obviously rainy. Monsoon climate is the main feature of China's climate, which is a mixture of continental climate and marine climate. Climate refers to the annual average state of the atmosphere in a region. The main climatic factors include temperature, precipitation and light, among which precipitation is an important factor. The precipitation in China is mainly caused by the southeast monsoon, so the precipitation in China presents the characteristics of "decreasing from southeast coast to northwest inland".
The southeast monsoon brings water vapor to our country, and the southeast coastal area of our country will get the water vapor first, forming rich precipitation, which will become the area with the most abundant annual precipitation in our country. The eastern monsoon region of China is bounded by the Qinling Huaihe River. The annual precipitation in the "southern region" to the south of Qinling Huaihe River is more than 800mm, which belongs to the humid region; while the annual precipitation in the "northern region" to the north of Qinling Huaihe River is between 400mm and 800mm, which belongs to the semi humid region. The annual precipitation in Northwest China is mostly less than 400mm, which belongs to semi-arid and arid areas.
From the regional distribution of annual precipitation, the annual precipitation in China generally decreases from southeast to northwest, and the northwest of China is the area with the least annual precipitation because it is deep inland and far away from the sea. From the seasonal distribution of precipitation, the precipitation in China is mainly concentrated in summer, that is, when the southeast monsoon is prevailing, so the climate characteristics of China is characterized by "the same period of rain and heat". In winter, the northwest monsoon from the Eurasian continent prevails in China, with little water vapor and little precipitation.
Guyu Guyu is the last solar term in spring. It's late spring. At this time, the seedlings and new crops in the field need the moisture of rain. It is very suitable for the growth of cereal crops. The main weather feature of grain rain is rainy, which is conducive to grain growth. In southern China, the flowers of poplars fall to the top, the catkins fly down, the cuckoos cry at night, the peonies spit their stamens, and the cherries are ripe red. In northern China, the valley rain is the symbol of "the last frost", and most of the first thunder in northern provinces occurs in the valley rain solar term.
The 24 solar terms were originally formulated according to the rotation direction of the dipper handle (the dipper turns and the star shifts). The dipper rotates in a circle, which is closely related to the change of seasons. The Big Dipper is an important star in the northern hemisphere. In different seasons and at different times at night, it will appear in different directions in the northern hemisphere sky. It is the ruler of the ancients to determine the direction, season and solar term. The rule that the Big Dipper turns from east to west around the North Star is called by the ancients, and people can judge the time of seasons and solar terms by the rule. That is to say: "doubing refers to the East, all spring in the world; doubing refers to the south, all summer in the world; doubing refers to the west, all autumn in the world; doubing refers to the north, all winter in the world." Since the 24 solar terms are determined by the rotation and direction of the Big Dipper, this calendar is also called "star calendar". During the period of Emperor Wu of the Western Han Dynasty, the "24 solar terms" were included in the Taichu calendar as a supplement to the calendar to guide farming. The day when the sun shadow was the longest and the day was the shortest in the Yellow River Basin was used as the winter solstice day. Taking the winter solstice day as the starting point of the "24 solar terms", the period between the winter solstice and the next winter solstice was divided into 24 equal parts And so on. The current "24 solar terms" come from the "law of regulating qi" (which has been in use since 1645) established more than 300 years ago. In the lunar calendar, the 24 solar terms are determined according to the position of the sun on the ecliptic, that is, on a 360 degree ecliptic (the sun's apparent path on the celestial sphere in a year), it is divided into 24 equal parts, one equal part every 15 degrees, with the vernal equinox as the starting point of 0 degree (the first place in the order is the beginning of spring), and compiled according to the degree of the Yellow meridian Every 15 ° is a solar term.
"Stars in the sky": the Big Dipper is near the south of crape myrtle palace and in the north of Taiwei. It is the imperial chariot, which carries the main command to the central government and controls the four directions. At the time of the establishment of the four kingdoms, the five elements were all used, and the rules and regulations were all set in the Beidou. "
It is said in Shiji tianguanshu that "Dou is the emperor's chariot. It is transported to the central government, and it is controlled by four sides. It is divided into yin and Yang. When it was built, it was divided into five elements. It was transferred and recorded in Dou.".
"Tongwei · xiaojingyuanshenqi" says, "on the 15th day after Qingming, Dou Zhichen is the valley rain. In the middle of March, the rain gives birth to a hundred valleys, which are pure and clean."
"Qun Qun Fang Pu": "Gu Yu, Gu de Yu is born." Before and after the grain rain, the weather was warmer and the rainfall increased, which was conducive to the sowing and growth of spring crops.
"In the middle of March, after the rain, the earth paste pulsates, and now it rains, and its valley is in the water. Rain is the sound of going away, like rain in my field. It's time for gaigu to sow from top to bottom. "
Picking Guyu tea:
In the south, there is the custom of picking tea in Guyu. Guyu tea is also known as pre rain tea, which is spring tea picked in Guyu season, also known as Erchun tea. In spring, the temperature is moderate, the rainfall is abundant, and the tea tree has been recuperating for half a year in winter, which makes the spring shoots and leaves plump, green in color, soft in texture, rich in vitamins and amino acids, making the spring tea taste fresh. It is said that the tea on this day will clear the fire, ward off evil spirits, and brighten the eyes. So no matter what the weather is, people will go to the tea mountain to pick some new tea and come back to drink.
Sacrifice to the sea
Guyu Festival is also called "Zhuangxing Festival" for fishermen to go fishing. During the rainy season, the sea water warms up, and a hundred fish travel to the shallow sea, which is a good day for fishing. As the saying goes: "riding the rain on the Internet." In order to go to sea safely and return with a full load, fishermen will hold a sea sacrifice on the day of Guyu to pray for the protection of the sea god. Therefore, the Guyu Festival is also known as the "Zhuang Xing Festival" for fishermen to go fishing. In the old days, there were sea temples or Niangniang temples in every village by the sea. When the time of sacrifice came, fishermen would carry their offerings to the temple to offer sacrifices. Some would carry them to the sea, beating gongs and drums, setting off firecrackers and offering sacrifices in front of the sea. The scene was very grand.
Go through the valley
In ancient times, there was a custom of "walking in the valley rain". On this day, young women went to the village to visit their relatives, and some came back after a walk in the wild. Moral and nature are integrated to strengthen the body.
Before and after the rain, Chinese toon is mellow and refreshing, with high nutritional value, so it is said that Chinese toon is as tender as silk before the rain. People regard spring picking and eating Toona sinensis as "eating spring". Toona sinensis is generally divided into purple toon bud and green toon bud, especially purple toon bud.
Sacrifice to Cangjie
It is said that since the Han Dynasty, Guyu, Baishui County, Shaanxi Province, had the custom of offering sacrifices to Cangjie, Wenzu. According to the legend, Cangjie created characters to build heaven and earth. The Yellow Emperor was moved by it, and took "the rain of millet from heaven" as his reward for creating characters. From then on, there was the "Guyu" festival. Since then, every year during the Guyu Festival, villagers nearby have organized temple fairs to commemorate Cangjie.
In order to reduce the harm of diseases and insect pests to crops and people, farmers put up grain rain stickers to pray for good luck. This custom is very popular in Shandong, Shanxi and Shaanxi. In the old days, in Linfen area of Shanxi Province, a painting of Zhang Tianshi Fu was pasted on the door, which was called "ban scorpion". The ban scorpion charms in Fengxiang area of Shaanxi Province are printed in woodcut, which shows that there is a great demand. On it is printed: "in March of Guyu, scorpions show off their prestige. The chicken has a mouth, and the poisonous insects turn into water. " In the middle of the picture, the male holds the worm, under the claw
Chinese PinYin : Gu Yu
The beginning of spring. Li Chun
rain. Yu Shui
The Waking of Insects. Jing Zhe
Vernal equinox. Chun Fen
Qingming. Qing Ming
the summer solstice. Xia Zhi
Heat treatment. Chu Shu
the autumnal equinox. Qiu Fen
Cold dew. Han Lu
Lidong. Li Dong
Heavy snow is the 21st of the 24 solar terms and the third in winter. Douzhigui, the sun reaches 255 degrees of the Yellow meridian, and the festival time is December 6-8 of the Gregorian calendar every year. The heavy snow solar term is the beginning of . Da Xue
Great cold is the last of the 24 solar terms. Fighting finger ugliness; The solar yellow meridian reaches 300 °; The festival is handed in on January 20-21 of the Gregorian calendar every year. Like the slight cold, the severe cold is also a solar term in. Da Han