Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County Tianzhu, known as Huarui in Tibetan, means a heroic tribe. It is a county under the jurisdiction of Wuwei City, Gansu Province. Tianzhu autonomous region (county level) was established in 1950 and changed to Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County in 1955. It is the first Ethnic Autonomous County in China named by Premier Zhou Enlai, and the first area to implement regional ethnic autonomy after the founding of the people's Republic of China. As of December 2020, Tianzhu County has 14 towns, 5 townships, 178 administrative villages and 20 neighborhood committees. There are 28 ethnic groups, including Tibetan, Han, Tu, Hui and Mongolian, with a total population of 230000. Among them, ethnic minorities account for 37.1% of the total population, and Tibetan accounts for 81.7% of the minority population.
Tianzhu county is located in the east end of Hexi Corridor, which is on the northeast edge of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. It is known as the "gateway" of Hexi corridor. It is adjacent to Lanzhou in the south, Jingtai in the East, Gulang in the north, Qinghai in the West and Sunan in the northwest. It is 140 km away from Lanzhou, 100 km away from Zhongchuan airport and 200 km away from caojiabao airport. Wushaoling, located in the middle of the county, is the throat fortress of the ancient Silk Road. Lanzhou Xinjiang Railway, G30 expressway, G312 National Road and the under construction Lanzhou Zhangjiakou third and fourth high-speed railway run through the whole county.
Tianzhu has a profound cultural heritage. From the summer to the early Han Dynasty, it was a pastoral area for Rong, Qiang, Yueshi, Xiongnu and other nationalities. Since Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, it was included in the territory of the Han Dynasty. After the Tang Dynasty, it gradually formed a multi-ethnic settlement with Tubo (now Tibetan) as the main nationality. Tiantang temple has the largest wooden statue of zongkaba in Asia, Dalong temple is the "Baoen Temple" granted by Kangxi, Shimen temple is the temple of cangyang Jiacuo in Xiguo, Dongda temple has the only large-scale mural of journey to the West found in China, Huarui Tibetan folk song and Tu Gesar are listed in the national intangible cultural heritage protection list, Wushaoling great wall and Songshan ancient wall are in the territory Wushaoling Great Wall is the highest elevation section of the Great Wall, belonging to the provincial cultural relics protection unit.
In the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, it belonged to Yongzhou and was the place where the Rong and Qiang people lived.
In the Qin Dynasty, it was the land of Yueshi.
In the early Han Dynasty, it was occupied by Xiongnu; in the period of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, four counties were built in Hexi; in the period of Western Jin Dynasty, they belonged to Wuwei and Jincheng respectively; in the period of Sixteen States of Eastern Jin Dynasty, they belonged to Wuwei, Changsong and Guangwu respectively.
In the Sui Dynasty, it was under the jurisdiction of Wuwei County in Liangzhou.
In Tang Dynasty, it belongs to Wuwei County, Liangzhou, Longyou road.
In the Five Dynasties, it belonged to Liangzhou and was ruled by the Tubo family.
In the Northern Song Dynasty, it belonged to Xiliang Prefecture; after 1036, it belonged to Xixia.
In the Yuan Dynasty, Yongchang Road was set up, belonging to xiliangzhou and Zhuanglang County.
In the Ming Dynasty, Shaanxi Xingdu division was set up, which successively belonged to Zhuanglang Wei, Liangzhou Wei and Gulang Shouyu thousand households.
In the Qing Dynasty, it belonged to Liangzhou Prefecture, which was under the jurisdiction of Wuwei, Pingfan and Gulang counties. In 1753, Zhuanglang Cha Ma Lipan Tongzhi was set up to govern the Tianzhu Tibetan tribe of the three counties.
At the beginning of the Republic of China, it belonged to ganliangdao and was under the jurisdiction of Pingfan county. In 1914, Zhuanglang tea horse hall was appointed as the governor of Pingfan county. In 1927, Pingfan county was changed to Yongdeng County. In 1936, Tianzhu township was established under the name of Tiantang and Zhugong Temple. In 1938, Tianzhu township was changed to Yongdeng County In 1944, Zhuanglang tea and horse hall was abandoned.
On September 3, 1949, Yongdeng County was liberated, and Tianzhu District of Yongdeng County was established in the same year; on May 6, 1950, Tianzhu autonomous region (county level) was established, belonging to Wuwei special region; on October 22, 1953, it was renamed Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous Region, and on July 19, 1955, it was renamed Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, belonging to Wuwei special region; in October 1955, Wuwei and Jiuquan special regions were abolished, and their jurisdiction was merged into Zhangye special region, Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous Region In December 1958, Gulang county was abolished and its jurisdiction was merged into Tianzhu County; in November 1961, Wuwei district was restored and Tianzhu County was under the jurisdiction of Wuwei district; in December 1961, Gulang county was restored.
The county has jurisdiction over 14 towns, 5 townships, 178 administrative villages and 20 neighborhood committees. There are 28 ethnic groups, including Tibetan, Han, Tu, Hui and Mongolia, with a total population of 230000. Among them, ethnic minorities account for 37.1% of the total population, and Tibetans account for 81.7% of the ethnic minority population.
Tianzhu county is located in the east end of Hexi Corridor, which belongs to the northeast edge of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Its geographical location is between 102.07-103.46 E and 36.31-37.55 n. It is adjacent to Yongdeng County in the south, Jingtai County in the East, Liangzhou District and Gulang County in Wuwei City in the north, Sunan County in the northwest and Menyuan, Huzhu and Ledu counties in Qinghai Province in the West. It is 142.6 km wide from east to west and 158.4 km long from north to south. The total area is 7149 square kilometers.
Tianzhu county is located in the intersection of Qinghai Tibet Plateau, Loess Plateau and Inner Mongolia Plateau. The terrain is high in the northwest and low in the southeast, with an altitude of 2040-4874m. The landform is mainly mountainous. Wushaoling, located in the middle of the county, stretches from east to west.
The climate of Tianzhu county is bounded by Wushaoling. The south of the five ridges belongs to the continental plateau monsoon climate, and the north of the five ridges belongs to the temperate continental semi-arid climate. In addition, there are cold temperature semi-arid, cold cold semi-arid, cold semi-arid, alpine semi humid, alpine humid and other climate types. The climate is characterized by changeable weather in spring, cold wave and gale; cool climate in summer, increased precipitation, great interannual variation, hail and frequent summer drought; wet and rainy in autumn, rapid cooling in autumn, sharp decrease in precipitation; dry and cold in winter, sunny days.
The annual total solar radiation in Tianzhu county is about 130 kcal / cm2, and the actual sunshine hours can reach 4434 hours. The annual precipitation decreased gradually from northwest to Southeast. The annual precipitation in Haxi area in the northwest is 500-600mm, and huangniangniangtai area is the largest precipitation center, 632.3mm. The hail season is generally from April to October.
The rivers in Tianzhu County are divided into Shiyang River System (inland) and Yellow River System (outflow). The main rivers of the Yellow River system include Datong River, Jinqiang River and Shimen River, while the main rivers of Shiyang River system include maozang River, Haxi River, Nancha River, Xiangshui River and Xidatan river.
There are 37 species of 22 genera, 15 families in Tianzhu County. The main tree species of natural forest are Picea crassifolia, Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Betula platyphylla, Sabina przewalskii, Picea tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, Betula spinosa, Ulmus pumila, Prunus armeniaca, etc.; the shrub species are Rhododendron przewalskii, Rhododendron rigida, Rhododendron capitatum, Rhododendron vitreosum, Daphne odora, Caragana microphylla, Hippophae rhamnoides, Berberis kansuensis, Cerasus chinensis, Cerasus, Salix kaempferi, Salix kaempferi, etc Sabina vulgaris, wild cherry, Cotoneaster griseus, clove, Weimao, Sorbus mandshurica, etc.
Natural arbor forests are mainly distributed in the shady and semi shady slopes of Xiama, Haxi and Qilian Mountains to the north of Wushaoling Maomao mountain, and sailalong, saishishi, Tanshanling, Tiantang and Shimen mountains to the south of the five ridges. In the north of Wushaoling, there are mostly pure coniferous forests composed of Picea crassifolia, and a few juniper, Aspen and birch in some places; in the south of Wushaoling, there are mostly mixed forests, mainly Picea crassifolia, Picea tenuifolia, Aspen, Betula platyphylla and Betula platyphylla, followed by Pinus tabulaeformis and Sabina chinensis. Most of the natural shrubberies grow on the wet and semi shady slopes of high and middle mountains, and the areas from tuchenggou, Maya snow mountain, zhuaxixiu Longtan to the south of Wushaoling, and Maomao mountain, Wushaoling, Leigong Mountain to dongxitaozi to the north of Lingbei.
There are 502 species in 213 genera of 61 families. Among them, 75 species belong to 23 genera of Gramineae, 68 species belong to 21 genera of Compositae, 26 species belong to 5 genera of Cyperaceae and 26 species belong to 8 genera of Leguminosae. The main forages are 276 species belonging to 158 genera of 49 families, among which the main forages distributed in the Piedmont sloping plain and Low Mountain hilly area below 3000 meters above sea level are xerophytic, medium xerophytic Stipa krylovii, Achnatherum splendens, Stipa breviflora, Artemisia frigida, Agropyron compressa, Artemisia donovata, etc., and the poisonous weeds are equisetaria inebripennis; the main forages distributed in the slope, beach, valley terrace, low-lying land and planation surface area below 2700-3200 meters above sea level The main poisonous grasses are Oxytropis kansuensis, Ranunculus mucronatus, etc.; Avena sativa, Poa pratensis, Elymus nutans, Poa purpurea, Polygonum viviparum, Leontopodium Oxytropis, etc. are distributed in 2500-3300m shady and semi shady slopes.
Populus cathayana, Picea crassifolia, Larix principis rupprechtii and Salix Salix are mainly cultivated and introduced, which are distributed in all parts of the county; apple and Zanthoxylum bungeanum are distributed in Datong River Valley.
Among the cultivated herbaceous plants, the food crops are wheat, highland barley, naked oats, barley, peas, broad beans, rapeseed, potato, etc.; the vegetable plants are cabbage, cabbage, rape, spinach, radish, carrot, onion, garlic, celery, coriander, tomato, papaya, cucumber, milk melon, Dutch beans, sweet crisp beans, etc.; the edible fungi are Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes, Flammulina velutipes, chicken The forage plants include oat, Bromus, Vicia sativa, winter rye, triticale, Vicia villosa, forage high stem rape, Guangen, alfalfa, clover, Kentucky bluegrass, cat's tail grass, Festuca sinensis, Elymus sibiricus, Elymus nutans, Agropyron compressa, etc.
By the end of 2019, the permanent resident population of Tianzhu County was 181000, an increase of 1900 over the end of 2018. Among them, the urban population was 80200, and the rural population was 100800. The urbanization rate was 44.31%, an increase of 1.12%
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