Hotan Prefecture Hotan Prefecture, one of the five regions in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, is located in Hotan city. Located in the south corner of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the center is located at 79.92 ° e, 37.12 ° n, South to Kunlun Mountain and the border of Tibet Autonomous Region, north to Taklimakan Desert and Aksu, east to Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture, West to Kashgar, southwest to Karakorum mountain as the boundary, with Kashmir, east-west length of about 670 km, north-south width About 570 km, with a total area of 247800 square kilometers.
Hotan area is a typical inland arid area, located in the hinterland of Eurasia, with a arid and desert climate. There are 36 rivers in the area, which is rich in light resources in China. The area is rich in mineral resources and is famous for Hotan jade. It is a famous town of jade, silk, carpet, melon and fruit.
Hotan area is a multi-ethnic area with Uygur as the main body, mainly including 22 ethnic groups, such as Uygur, Han, Hui, Kazak, Kirgiz, etc.; there are Niya ruins, akspili ancient city, Malik Awati ancient city, karadun ancient city, andir ancient city, ASAR ancient castle, yotegan ruins and other tourist attractions.
As of 2015, Hotan Prefecture has jurisdiction over one county-level city and seven counties. At the end of 2018, the total population of the whole district registered residence was 2 million 530 thousand and 500, the urban population was 548 thousand and 600, and the rural population was 1 million 981 thousand and 900. In 2018, the region's GDP will reach 30.557 billion yuan, and the per capita GDP will reach 12094 yuan, an increase of 13.0%.
History of construction
Hetian area, known as "Khotan" in ancient times, means "the place where jade is produced" in Tibetan.
According to the biography of the western regions in the book of Tang Dynasty, "Khotan is also called qusadan, huanna and qudan, Beidi is called yudun, and Zhuhu yuehuodan." The western regions of the Tang Dynasty is called the state of Qu sadan: "the speech of the Tang Dynasty is based on the refined words of its customs. As the saying goes, it's called Hanna. The Huns call it yudun, the HUS call it Huodan, and the Indians call it qudan. In the old days, it was called Khotan Also known as: "Qu sadan that country, more than a thousand miles on Thursday, half of the moraine." Qu sadan Na is the name of the country, which means "Di ru". There are also the following records in the records of the western regions of the Tang Dynasty: the king of Khotan had no heir in his old age, so he prayed to the gods and asked for his successor. Suddenly, the forehead of the statue was split and a baby was born. All over the country. But babies don't eat human milk. Fearing that he would die young, the king went to God for help. All of a sudden, the ground in front of God swells up like a bag of milk. The baby sucks, grows up, inherits the throne and passes it on from generation to generation. It's because "it was bred by the local dairy, because of the national name". It can be seen that the king of Khotan is "the proud son of the earth", and the use of "qusadana" as the name of the country should be popular. But the place name is called Khotan or Khotan. Since the Yuan Dynasty, there have been such historical books as Wudan, Hutan and ouduan, all of which are different translations of Hetian or Khotan. Hetian and Khotan are different appellations in ancient northern and southern languages.
Before the Qin and Han Dynasties, there were ancient Aboriginal peoples who spoke Indo European and Sino Tibetan Languages, as well as the sais, Qiang, Yues and so on.
After Zhang Qian passed the western regions, Hetian area was recorded in Chinese classics for the first time.
In the second year of shenjue in the Western Han Dynasty (60 BC), the Western Han Dynasty set up the capital of western regions. At that time, there were thirty-six states in the western regions around the Tarim Basin, including Pishan, Yutian, Jimi, qule, Jingjue and Ronglu, which were under the jurisdiction of the capital of western regions. So far, Hotan officially belonged to China.
Around the first year of Yuanshou (2 BC), the Han Dynasty granted official titles and seals to the kings and generals of Khotan, Jimi, qule, Jingjue and Ronglu. In the Han Dynasty, he Fu was also set up to manage the reclamation affairs. After 57 A.D., Khotan became prosperous, and all neighboring countries obeyed. In the Wei and Jin Dynasties, city states such as Pishan, qule, Ronglu, Jimi and Jingjue were annexed by Khotan, which was equivalent to today's Hotan area. Since the Western Han Dynasty, all the central dynasties have set up officials here for effective management.
During the Wei and Jin Dynasties, Khotan maintained a close relationship with the mainland of China.
In 269 ad, Emperor Wu of Jin Dynasty granted the king of Khotan the title of "Jin Shou Shi Zhong".
In the second year of the Shang Yuan Dynasty (675 AD), the governor's office of pishadu was set up here, and ten prefectures were set up.
In the later Jin Dynasty, Li Shengtian was canonized as king of Khotan.
Liao Dynasty, located in the palace of King Tian.
In the eighth year of Jiayou reign of Song Dynasty (1063 AD), the king of Khotan was canonized as "the king of heihan after Guizhong Baoshun stone".
In the Yuan Dynasty, it was a fief for the king of Mongolia. From 1279 to 1289, the office of Marshal Xuanwei was set up. In the Yuan Dynasty, Khotan was called the office of ouduan or Hutan.
In Yuan Dynasty, it was enfeoffed by the king of Mongolia.
During the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1289 AD), xuanweishi Marshal's office was set up, which was under the jurisdiction of the central government of the Yuan Dynasty.
In the Qing Dynasty, Khotan was established as Keriya, hence the name of Khotan (Keriya) and Hotan.
In the early Qing Dynasty, "Khotan" was changed to "Hetian".
In the 24th year of Qianlong reign of the Qing Dynasty (1759 AD), there was a minister of Hetian affairs, who was controlled by Yeerqiang's minister of affairs. In Hetian City, there was a Sanpin aqimoburke.
In the fourth year of tongzhi (1865 AD), akuba occupied Khotan.
In 1878, Liu Jintang of Qing army recovered Hetian.
Guangxu nine years (AD 1883), home and Tian Zhili state, in karakashi (now Moyu county).
In the 28th year of Guangxu (1902 AD), Pishan county was set up, and Luopu county was set up by 23 villages in the east of Hetian county and 15 villages in the west of Hetian county.
In 1913, Hetian Zhili Prefecture was Hetian county.
In 1915, Moyu county was established in Hetian county.
In 1920, Hetian road was established.
In 1928, Khotan road was changed into Khotan administrative region and the office of the chief executive was set up.
In 1929, Cele county was established.
In the 22nd year of the Republic of China (1933 AD), Muhammad Yimin riot, the establishment of the "Islamic Republic of Khotan.".
In 1933, the puppet Islamic Republic of Khotan was destroyed by Mahu mountain.
In 1937, Sheng Shicai entered Khotan.
In 1943, Khotan administrative region was changed into Khotan special region, and the office of administrative inspector was set up.
In the 34th year of the Republic of China (1945 Ad), Minfeng was established as the governing Bureau.
In the 36th year of the Republic of China (1947 AD), Minfeng set up the governing Bureau and changed it to Minfeng County.
On December 22, 1949, the 15th regiment of the Chinese people's Liberation Army arrived in Khotan, where Khotan was liberated.
In 1950, the office of the Commissioner of Khotan special region was established.
In September 1959, Khotan was changed to Hotan.
In June 1971, Hetian District was changed to Hetian District.
In 1977, Hotan District administrative office was established.
In 1979, Hotan administrative office was established.
In September 1983, the State Council approved the establishment of Hotan city. With the approval of the autonomous region, Hotan Town, shoerbag commune, lasquai commune and improved variety farm in Hotan County were put under the jurisdiction of Hotan city.
As of 2015, Hotan Prefecture has jurisdiction over eight county-level administrative regions, including one county-level city and seven counties, namely Hotan City, Hotan County, Moyu County, Pishan County, Luopu County, Cele County, Yutian County and Minfeng County. There are No.14 division of Xinjiang production and Construction Corps, Nur ranch, No.47 regiment, Pishan farm and No.224 regiment. Hotan District Administration Office is located at No. 3, North tanaiyi Road, Hotan city.
Hotan area is located in the southwest of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, with the center at 79.92 ° E and 37.12 ° n. Kunlun Mountain in South Vietnam reaches the northern Tibetan Plateau, adjoins Bayinguoleng Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture in the East, goes deep into the hinterland of Taklimakan in the north, adjoins Aksu region, adjoins Kashi region in the west, and borders Kashmir in the southwest, India and Pakistan, with a border line of 210 km. This section of the boundary, the traditional custom line of Xinjiang and Indo Ladakh in the western section of China and India, is all along the south of the Karakorum Mountains, starting from the Karakorum mountain pass, eastward along the tributary of the Yarkand River and the watershed of the shiyork River, then southeast along the mountains, across the qipchap River, through the 6845 highlands and 6598 highlands; from the 6598 Highlands, southward along the mountains, along the bijiluta, and across the Tiannan The westernmost point of the river passes through the kalwan River and the estuary of shiyuek, passes through the 6556 highland, and then along the watershed between the konglangchangbo River and its tributary Changlong River, passes through the south of the Changlong estuary, and then goes southeast along the mountains to reach the Ali Region of Tibet and the kongka mountain pass of Ladakh traditional custom line. Hotan is 670 km long from east to west and 600 km wide from north to south, with a total area of 247800 square kilometers.
In Hotan area, Kunlun Mountain in South Vietnam reaches northern Tibet Plateau, Tarim Basin in North, low in North and high in South, and gently inclines from west to East. The terrain rises from 1050 meters in the north to 7167 meters in the south. Mountainous area, mountainous area and Northern flat area are clearly defined, roughly divided into basin and mountainous area. The oasis covers an area of 9730 square kilometers. Kunlun Mountains in the south of Hotan area arc across the East and West, with overlapping peaks and steep mountains. On the north slope, there are shallow hills and low mountains, with canyons all over the place, while on the south slope, the mountain becomes gentle. The mountain peak is generally about 6000 meters above sea level, and the highest is more than 7000 meters. Due to the dry climate, the height of desert generally reaches 3300 meters, and that of some sections can reach 5000 meters. The snow line on the north and south slopes is above 6000 meters and 5500 meters respectively. The relationship between Kunlun Mountain and Karakoram
Chinese PinYin : Xin Jiang Wei Wu Er Zi Zhi Qu He Tian Di Qu
Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
Wulanchabu City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Nei Meng Gu Zi Zhi Qu Wu Lan Cha Bu Shi
Heihe City, Heilongjiang Province. Hei Long Jiang Sheng Hei He Shi
Zhengzhou City, Henan Province. He Nan Sheng Zheng Zhou Shi
Loudi City, Hunan Province. Hu Nan Sheng Lou Di Shi
Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Hunan Province. Hu Nan Sheng Xiang Xi Tu Jia Zu Miao Zu Zi Zhi Zhou
Sanya City, Hainan Province. Hai Nan Sheng San Ya Shi
Guang'an City, Sichuan Province. Si Chuan Sheng Guang An Shi
Zunyi City, Guizhou Province. Gui Zhou Sheng Zun Yi Shi
Yuxi City, Yunnan Province. Yun Nan Sheng Yu Xi Shi
Linzhi City, Tibet Autonomous Region. Xi Cang Zi Zhi Qu Lin Zhi Shi
Baoji City, Shaanxi Province. Shan Xi Sheng Bao Ji Shi
Shangluo City, Shaanxi Province. Shan Xi Sheng Shang Luo Shi