Tianshui Tianshui, formerly known as Qinzhou and Shangying, is a prefecture level city under the jurisdiction of Gansu Province and a sub central city in Gansu Province approved by the people's Government of Gansu Province. By the end of 2019, it has jurisdiction over 2 districts and 5 counties, with a total area of 14300 square kilometers. The city's permanent resident population is 3.3689 million, and the urban population is 1.4246 million.
Tianshui is located in the western region of China, the southeast of Gansu Province, the western section of Qinling Mountains and the middle reaches of Weihe River. It is a sub core city of Guanzhong Plain urban agglomeration, an important node city of the Silk Road Economic Belt, an old industrial base and one of the important equipment manufacturing bases in China. By 2019, there are 16 provincial engineering technology research centers, 1 National Key Laboratory for enterprises and 6 provincial key laboratories for enterprises; there are 5 general universities such as Tianshui Normal University, Gansu Forestry Vocational and technical college, Gansu Industrial Vocational and technical college and Gansu electromechanical vocational and technical college.
Tianshui has a long history and culture. It is an important birthplace of the Chinese nation and Chinese civilization, the birthplace of Fuxi family, the head of the three emperors, the birthplace of Fuxi Culture, and a national historical and cultural city. It has a history of more than 8000 years of civilization, 3000 years of written records, and 2700 years of city building history. It is known as the "hometown of Xihuang". The "five cultures", represented by Fuxi Culture, Dadiwan culture, early Qin culture, Maijishan Grottoes culture and ancient battlefield culture of the Three Kingdoms, constitute Tianshui's rich historical and cultural resources. As of October 2020, there are 470 cultural relics protection units in Tianshui City, including 17 at the national level and 54 at the provincial level.
In 2019, Tianshui's GDP will reach 63.267 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 6.7%. Among them, the added value of the primary industry was 11.491 billion yuan, an increase of 5.7%; the added value of the secondary industry was 15.959 billion yuan, an increase of 4.9%; the added value of the tertiary industry was 35.817 billion yuan, an increase of 8%. The ratio of three industrial structures is 18.2:25.2:56.6.
The origin of the name
Tianshui was called "Ying county" in ancient times. Ying county (read as: Gu) was originally the land of Ying Rong. In 688 BC, Duke Wu of Qin Dynasty took the land and set it up as Ying County, which was later changed to Shangying county. In 221 BC, when the first emperor of Qin set up 36 counties, Shangying was a county in Longxi County. During the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, Tianshui county was set up. Shangying was one of the counties, and its division was southwest of the present urban area.
The name of Tianshui County originated from the beautiful legend of "Tianhe water injection" in the third year of Yuanding (114 BC) of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty. At the end of the Qin Dynasty and the beginning of the Han Dynasty, people in Shangying city were in dire need of living because of the long years of war and drought. One night, there was a strong wind, thunder and lightning, a golden light shining, and red light on the ground. The earth vibrated continuously, splitting a big crack in the loud noise. The water in the sky poured down into the cracks and formed a lake, which is called "Tianshui Lake". The lake does not dry up in spring, does not overflow in summer, and is bright in the four seasons. People say that the lake is connected with the Tianhe River, which is also called "Tianjing well". Later, the legend was heard by Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, and he named the new County beside the lake in the northern city of Shangying "Tianshui county". Since then, it has the name of "Tianshui".
Evolution of organizational system
Tianshui belonged to Yongzhou in Xia and Shang Dynasties. In the 12th year of King Xiao of Zhou (9th century BC), yingfeizi raised horses for the royal family in Qinchi (now in the south of Zhangjiachuan county). He was granted the title of yingfeizi in Qin Dynasty. Qin Pavilion is the earliest place in Tianshui city.
In the 10th year of emperor Wugong of Qin Dynasty (688 BC), Qin destroyed Yingrong and Jirong, and set up two counties, Ying (today's urban area) and Ji (today's east of Gangu County). These are the two earliest counties in Chinese history. In 279, the 28th year of King Zhao of Qin Dynasty, Longxi County was established. The system of prefectures and counties was established in today's jurisdiction. In the third year of the reign of Emperor Wu of the Western Han Dynasty (114 BC), Tianshui county was established from Longxi and Beidi counties. Since then, it has the name of Tianshui.
Qinzhou was once established in the first year of Huangchu (220) by Wei Wendi of the Three Kingdoms. It got its name from the capital of Qin Dynasty, hence the name of "Qinzhou".
Since the Western Jin Dynasty, the three-level system of prefectures and counties was implemented. In 269, the first five years of the reign of Emperor Wu of Jin Dynasty, Qinzhou was officially established. Today, most of its jurisdiction is under the jurisdiction of Tianshui county. The northern and Southern Dynasties died.
In the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the two-tier system of prefectures and counties was implemented, and the area of Qinzhou was reduced, which was roughly the same as that of today. In the Yuan Dynasty, Qinzhou governed Chengji, Qin'an and Qingshui counties.
In the Ming Dynasty, Qinzhou governed Qin'an, Qingshui and Lixian counties. In 1729, Qinzhou was promoted to Zhili Prefecture, which was under the jurisdiction of Gansu Province. It had five counties, including Qin'an, Qingshui, Liangdang, Huixian and Lixian.
In the second year of the Republic of China (1913), in February, the Beiyang government carried out the provincial and county two-level system and the temporary road system. Gongqin road was renamed Longnan road. Qinzhou was removed and Tianshui county was established. In January of the third year of the Republic of China, Ningyuan county was renamed Wushan County. In June, Longnan road was renamed Weichuan Road, which governs 14 counties. In July 1927, Weichuan road was renamed Weichuan administrative region. Soon after, the administrative system was abolished and a pure two-level system of provinces and counties was implemented. In 1929, Fuqiang county was renamed Gangu County. In 1934, Gansu provincial government established Tianshui administrative supervision district. The next year, it was renamed the fourth administrative supervision district of Gansu Province, with jurisdiction over 10 counties.
On August 3, 1949, Tianshui county was liberated. On August 15, Tianshui administrative supervision district was established, with jurisdiction over Tianshui, Gangu, Wushan, Huixian, Liangdang, Tongwei, Qin'an and Qingshui counties. In December of the same year, Tianshui district was renamed Tianshui special district.
In February 1950, Tianshui county was established as Tianshui City, with the urban area as its administrative region. On May 25, Zhuanglang County in Pingliang district was assigned to Tianshui District, while Min county district was abolished, and Longxi and Zhangxian counties were assigned to Tianshui district. Tianshui district has jurisdiction over Tianshui City, Tianshui, Qin'an, Huixian, Liangdang, Wushan, Zhangxian, Gangu, Qingshui, Zhuanglang, Longxi and Tongwei counties, 81 district offices and 614 townships.
In 1952, Tianshui district had 91 district offices and 635 townships. On July 6, 1953, Zhangjiachuan autonomous region was established (renamed County in October 1955). By the end of the same year, Tianshui district had jurisdiction over one city, 12 counties and 887 townships.
In January 1956, Longxi County and Tongwei County in Tianshui district were assigned to Dingxi District, Lixian County, Xihe county and Chengxian County in Wudu district were assigned to Tianshui District, and Zhuanglang County in Tianshui district were assigned to Pingliang district. At the end of the same year, Tianshui special district had jurisdiction over Tianshui City and 12 counties including Tianshui, Qin'an, Lixian, Xihe, Chengxian, Huixian, Liangdang, Wushan, Zhangxian, Gangu, Qingshui and Zhangjiachuan, 67 districts, 531 townships, 9 towns and 9 sub district offices.
On April 4, 1958, Liangdang was abolished and merged into Huixian county. On April 8, Wudu district was abolished, and five counties under its jurisdiction, namely Dangchang, Wenxian, Wudu, Kangxian and Minxian, were included in Tianshui district. On September 5, Xihe county and Lixian County were abolished and merged to form Xili county. Huixian county and Chengxian county were abolished and merged to form Huicheng county. On December 16, Min County in Tianshui district was assigned to Dingxi District. On December 20, Tianshui county was abolished and assigned to Tianshui city. Gangu County was abolished and Gangu County, Zhangxian county and Wushan County were merged to form Wushan County. Zhangjiachuan county and Qingshui county were abolished and Qingshui Hui Autonomous County was established. In the same year, the people's commune was realized and the system of integrating government and society was implemented. Tianshui District governs Tianshui City and 8 counties of Qin'an, Qingshui, Wushan, Xili, Huicheng, Wudu and Wenxian. 129 people's communes and 4 sub district offices.
On November 15, 1961, Wudu district was restored. Wudu, Dangchang, Kangxian, Chengxian and Wenxian, which were originally assigned to Tianshui District, are still assigned to Wudu district. On December 15, Tianshui, Gangu, Zhangxian, Liangdang, Xihe, Lixian, Qingshui and Zhangjiachuan Hui autonomous counties were restored. Zhangxian county belongs to Lintao district. By the end of this year, Tianshui district had jurisdiction over Tianshui City, 10 counties including Tianshui, Xihe, Lixian, Huixian, Liangdang, Wushan, Gangu, Qin'an, Qingshui and Zhangjiachuan, 60 districts, 440 people's communes and 4 sub district offices.
On October 23, 1963, Lintao district was abolished and Zhangxian county was classified as Tianshui district. Tianshui District governs 1 city, 11 counties, 482 people's communes, 3 towns and 4 sub district offices.
On October 1, 1969, Tianshui district was changed into Tianshui District, with jurisdiction over 1 city, 11 counties, 223 people's communes, 5 towns and 4 sub district offices.
In 1980, Tianshui Prefecture governed 1 city, 11 counties, 232 communes, 5 towns and 8 sub district offices. In 1983, the government and society were separated and changed into townships.
On July 8, 1985, Tianshui district was abolished and Tianshui city was upgraded to prefecture level city. Xihe County, Lixian County, Huixian county and Liangdang County belong to the newly established Longnan region, and Zhangxian county belongs to Dingxi region. Qincheng and Beidao are newly established. Tianshui City governs 2 districts of Qincheng and Beidao, 5 counties of Qin'an, Qingshui, Gangu, Wushan and Zhangjiachuan Hui autonomous counties, 138 townships, 11 towns and 11 sub district offices.
On May 30, 1992, Yuanyang Township in Wushan County was changed into Yuanyang town.
On November 16, 1998, Ganquan Township in Beidao district was changed into Ganquan Town.
By the end of 2002, Tianshui had jurisdiction over two districts of Qincheng and Beidao, five counties of Qin'an, Qingshui, Gangu, Wushan and Zhangjiachuan Hui autonomous counties, 40 towns, 109 townships and 11 sub district offices.
On January 1, 2005, with the approval of the State Council, Qincheng district and Beidao district were renamed Qinzhou District and Maiji district.
As of October 2015, under the jurisdiction of Tianshui City
Jurisdiction: Qinzhou District, Maiji District 2 districts, Gangu County, Wushan County, Qin'an County, Qingshui County, Zhangjiachuan Hui Autonomous County 5 counties.
Street Community: it governs 78 towns, 35 townships and 10 streets.
Resident of the Municipal People's Government: No. 34, Minzhu West Road, Qinzhou District.
Tianshui is located in the southeast of Gansu Province, with an area of 10 km east longitude
Chinese PinYin : Gan Su Sheng Tian Shui Shi
Tianshui City, Gansu Province
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