Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture is an Autonomous Prefecture under the jurisdiction of Yunnan Province. It is located in the middle of Yunnan Province, bordering Kunming City in the East, Pu'er City and Yuxi City in the south, Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture in the west, Panzhihua City in Sichuan Province in the north, and reaches Sichuan Province. It has jurisdiction over two cities and eight counties, covering a total area of 29000 square kilometers. The people's Government of the prefecture is located in Chuxiong City, 160 kilometers away from Kunming city.
Chuxiong Prefecture, located in the hinterland of central Yunnan Province, is the new growth pole of urban agglomeration in Central Yunnan. Its road network, water network, power grid, energy pipe network and communication network are densely distributed. It is known as "the gateway of the provincial wall, the throat of the west, and the Sichuan Yunnan channel". It is the land hub for the interconnection of Southwest Yunnan and Sichuan Yunnan provinces, and the major channel from the mainland to South Asia and Southeast Asia to the Indian Ocean. Its strategic position is very important.
Chuxiong has beautiful ecology and beautiful mountains and waters. Wumeng Mountain, Ailao Mountain and Baicaoling are "three mountains" in the territory, and the Yangtze River and red river are "two rivers". The forest coverage rate of the whole Prefecture is 68.01%, the urban air quality is maintained at 1-2 level, and the drinking water quality is maintained above class II. There are 1 National Park, 8 provincial scenic spots, and 17 nature reserves. The climate is warm as spring all the year round, with no severe cold in winter, no severe heat in summer, short frost period, and long sunshine. It is known as the "emerald in Central Yunnan" and "Southwest oxygen bar". It is suitable for living, industry, and commerce It is the first choice for tourism and innovation.
On October 9, 2020, it was awarded the title of the fourth batch of national ecological civilization construction demonstration cities and counties by the Ministry of ecological environment.
As early as 1.7 million years ago, Yuanmou people living on both sides of the Longchuan River had entered the Paleolithic age and mastered the technology of using fire.
Four thousand years ago, represented by dadunzi in Yuanmou and Caiyuanzi in Yongren, all parts of Chuxiong had entered the Neolithic age.
In the spring and Autumn Period 2500 years ago, the ancestors of Zhou created a bronze culture characterized by bronze drums and entered a slave society.
In the pre Qin period, there were mainly three ethnic groups: Diqiang, Baiyue and Baipu.
In the middle of the Western Han Dynasty, Chuxiong state was included in the territory of the Central Plains Dynasty, belonging to Yueyi and Yizhou respectively.
During the Shu Han period, it belonged to Jianning County, Yueyi county and Yunnan county.
The Western Jin Dynasty belongs to Yunnan and Jianning.
In the eighth year of Xiankang in the Eastern Jin Dynasty (AD 342), there was "Wei chieftain Wei Chu who built the city and lived in Wo Lu", so it was called Wei Chu.
In the northern and Southern Dynasties, it belonged to Jinning County, Xingning county and Jianning county respectively.
In the early Tang Dynasty, it belonged to Rongzhou Dudu Fu and Yaozhou Dudu Fu.
Nanzhao belongs to Tuodong Jiedu and nongdong Jiedu.
Song Dynasty belongs to nongdong mansion, Shanshan mansion and Weichu mansion.
In the early Yuan Dynasty, it belonged to weichuwanhu, luowuwanhu and dalixiawanhu respectively. Later, it was changed into Lu, Fu, Zhou and Xian, which belonged to Zhongqing Road, weichukainan Road, Wuding Road and Dali road respectively.
The Ming Dynasty belonged to Yunnan, Chuxiong, Yao'an and Wuding respectively.
In Qing Dynasty, it belonged to Yunnan Prefecture, Zhili Prefecture of Wuding and Chuxiong Prefecture.
During the period of the Republic of China, there were 15 counties including Chuxiong, Shuangbai, Guangtong, Yanxing, mouding, Zhennan, Yao'an, Yanfeng, Dayao, Yongren, Yuanmou, Wuding, Luoci and Lufeng.
After the founding of the people's Republic of China, Chuxiong and Wuding were set up respectively.
In 1953, the two districts merged into Chuxiong District, with 17 counties of Chuxiong, Zhennan, mouding, Yao'an, Dayao, Yanfeng, Yongren, Yuanmou, Wuding, Luoci, Lufeng, Guangtong, Yanxing, Shuangbai, Luquan, Fumin and Anning.
In 1954, Zhennan county was changed into Nanhua County.
In 1957, Anning county was designated as Kunming city.
Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture was officially established on April 15, 1958. Before the founding of the state, Yanxing County entered Guangtong county. In the same year, Chuxiong, Nanhua, mouding and Shuangbai counties were merged into Chuxiong County; Yao'an, Dayao, Yanfeng and Yongren counties were merged into Dayao County; Luoci, Lufeng and Guangtong counties were merged into Lufeng City; Wuding and Yuanmou counties were merged into Wuding County; Fumin County was designated as Kunming city.
From 1959 to 1961, Yongren, Yao'an, Nanhua, Shuangbai, mouding and Yuanmou counties were restored.
Chuxiong county was changed to Chuxiong City in September 1983, and Luquan County was designated to Kunming City in October 1983. So far, Chuxiong prefecture has formed a pattern of Chuxiong City and nine counties and one city including Shuangbai, mouding, Nanhua, Yao'an, Dayao, Yongren, Yuanmou, Wuding and Lufeng.
On February 2, 2021, with the approval of the State Council and the reply of the Ministry of civil affairs, it was agreed to abolish Lufeng County and establish a county-level Lufeng City. The administrative region of Lufeng City is the former administrative region of Lufeng County. The people's Government of Lufeng City is located at No. 82, Beichen street, Jinshan Town. Lufeng City is under the jurisdiction of Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture.
There are 8 counties and 2 cities (Chuxiong City, Shuangbai County, Mouding County, Nanhua County, Yao'an County, Dayao County, Yongren County, Yuanmou County, Wuding county and Lufeng City), 103 townships, including 65 towns, 38 townships (including 4 ethnic townships), 1100 villagers' committees and community residents' committees (including 966 villagers' committees and 134 community residents' committees).
Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture is located in the central part of Yunnan Province, spanning 100 ° 43 ′～ 102 ° 30 ′ E and 24 ° 13 ′～ 26 ° 30 ′ n. It is located in the west of Yunnan Guizhou Plateau and the main part of central Yunnan Plateau. It is adjacent to Kunming City in the East, Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture in the west, Pu'er City and Yuxi City in the south, Panzhihua City and Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province in the north, and Lijiang City across Jinsha River in the northwest.
The terrain of Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture inclines from northwest to Southeast, with a maximum horizontal distance of 175 km from east to west and a maximum vertical distance of 247.5 km from south to north. There are many mountains in the territory, and the mountainous area accounts for more than 90% of the total area. Among them, there are overlapping mountains, arched peaks, scattered valleys, crisscross streams and rivers. It is known as "nine mountains and one dam". Wumeng Mountain lies in the East, Ailao Mountain lies in the southwest, and Baicaoling mountain stands in the northwest, forming a situation of three mountains; Jinsha River and Yuanjiang river systems run north and South with the central part of the state as the watershed, forming a state of two water diversion. The highest point of the state is Maotai mountain, the main peak of Baicaoling in Dayao County, with an altitude of 3657 meters; the lowest point is at Sanjiangkou, the south end of Shuangbai County, with an altitude of 556 meters. Lucheng, where the state capital is located, is 1773 meters above sea level, which is roughly the general altitude of Chuxiong dam area. Surrounded by mountains, there are 104 basins (Bazi) with an area of more than 1 square kilometer, forming a unique economic and cultural region with different scales.
Chuxiong has a pleasant climate, belonging to the subtropical low latitude plateau monsoon climate. Due to the high mountains and deep valleys, the climate changes vertically. The general climate characteristics of the Prefecture are short winter and summer, long spring and autumn; large daily temperature difference, small annual temperature difference; no severe cold in winter, no severe heat in summer; clear dry and wet, rainy and hot in the same season; sufficient sunshine, short frost period; strong evaporation, less precipitation than most of Yunnan; less rain in winter and spring, and drought in early summer. Due to the difference of terrain and altitude, there are obvious three-dimensional climate and regional microclimate characteristics, which are characterized by "one mountain is divided into four seasons, ten miles in different days". In 2017, the average annual precipitation was 844 mm, the average annual temperature was 16.5 ℃, and the annual sunshine hours was 2450 hours.
The total land area of Chuxiong prefecture is 43.887 million mu, including 2.3836 million mu of cultivated land and 1.2395 million mu of paddy field. There are 19 soil types, including 14 cultivated soil types and 5 natural soil types. Purple soil is the most widely distributed, followed by red soil. The upper layer of purple soil is not thick, with poor water storage capacity and weak corrosion resistance, but rich in phosphorus and potassium, which is suitable for planting various economic crops, especially flue-cured tobacco. Red soil layer is generally thick, good structure, acidic, suitable for planting tea, potato, beans and other crops. In addition, paddy soil is the main cultivated soil. Chuxiong prefecture has 1.28 million mu, mainly distributed in Pingba area. Paddy soil has good performance of water and fertilizer conservation and high grain yield.
It is rich in mineral resources, involving 41 kinds of minerals and 431 places of origin and mineralization. Among them, copper, iron, arsenic, rock salt, Glauber's salt and gypsum are the dominant minerals. Coal, iron, oil and natural gas are rich in reserves. Gold, silver, lead, marble, asbestos, phosphorus and platinum are also distributed in other minerals. Up to 2013, 270 million tons of iron ore, 1 billion tons of coal and 1.1 billion tons of salt have been proved to have large reserves.
source of water
Chuxiong is located on the watershed between Jinsha River and Yuanjiang River. There are no natural lakes or underground rivers in Chuxiong. Most of the water resources are formed by precipitation. The annual water resources of Chuxiong Prefecture are 6.867 billion cubic meters. The surface rivers in the prefecture belong to Jinsha River system and Yuanjiang River system, with reserves of 1.177 million kilowatts (excluding the main stream of Jinsha River), and the suitable development capacity is 252100 kilowatts. Since the end of 1970s, a number of power stations have been built in succession, such as daxiangshui (1200 kW) in Wuding, Huaqiao (2400 kW) in Lufeng, yuzhuanghe (3200 kW) in Shuangbai, Tianshengqiao (3700 kW) in Dayao, tapili (2000 kW) in Yongren, hutiaotan (2700 kW) in Yuanmou. Laohushan hydropower station in Shuangbai County, built and put into operation in 1998, has an installed capacity of 37000 kW and an annual power generation capacity of 174 million kW / h, which is the largest hydropower station in Chuxiong Prefecture.
There are more than 6000 kinds of plants in Chuxiong, mainly forest, Chinese herbal medicine, wild edible fungi and so on. Chuxiong prefecture has a forest area of 17.313 million mu and a forest area of 16.336 million mu, with a comprehensive forest coverage rate of 60.69% and a forest coverage rate of 39.5%. The common tree species in the Prefecture are Pinus yunnanensis, Pinus armandii, Keteleeria yunnanensis, hypericum chinense, Olivia yunnanensis, Rhododendron, wax gourd, etc. The herbaceous plants are citronella and Dracaena
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