Chengde is a prefecture level city in Hebei Province, an international tourist city in Hebei Province approved by Hebei provincial government, and a regional central city connecting Beijing, Tianjin, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia. By 2019, the city has three districts, four counties, one county-level city and three autonomous counties, with a total area of 39519 square kilometers, a permanent resident population of 3.4732 million and an urban population of 1.885 million, with an urbanization rate of 52.07%.
Chengde is located in Northeast China and the northeast of Hebei Province, adjacent to Beijing and Tianjin in the south, Chifeng and Xilinguole in the north, Chaoyang, Qinhuangdao, Tangshan and Zhangjiakou in the East and West, 435km away from Shijiazhuang and 225km away from Beijing. It is an important node connecting Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia. With the unique geographical advantage of "one city connecting five provinces", it is a national class a open city, the collection place of mandarin standard sound, the hometown of Chinese photography and the hometown of Chinese paper cutting.
Chengde is one of the first national historical and cultural cities. In 1703, Kangxi built a summer resort, which became the second political center of the Qing Dynasty; in 1723, Rehe hall was set up; in 1733, Yongzheng adopted the meaning of "inheriting the ancestors' Virtue"; in 1733, the word "huangchengtiande" was given to explain the former Emperor's virtue of inheriting heaven and earth to cultivate all things; in Zhili Prefecture, Chengde was called "Chengde"; in the Republic of China and early liberation, it was the capital of the former Rehe province In 1955, the organizational system of Rehe province was abolished, and Chengde was put under the jurisdiction of Hebei Province. Chengde's summer resort and its surrounding temples are China's top ten scenic spots, top 40 tourist attractions and national key scenic spots. They have been approved as world cultural heritage by UNESCO, and are also the first batch of world cultural heritage in China.
In 2012, Chengde was rated as China's "top ten characteristic leisure cities". In November 2016, Chengde was awarded the second batch of national global tourism demonstration zones by the National Tourism Administration of the people's Republic of China. In October 2017, Chengde was selected as the national forest city. In December 2017, he won the "outstanding city award of toilet revolution".
Chengde has a long history and rich multi-ethnic historical and cultural connotations. According to the unearthed cultural relics, there are traces of human activities in Chengde as early as the Longshan culture period in the Central Plains.
During the Yin and Zhou dynasties, it was the area where Shanrong and Donghu minorities lived, and it was the influence area of Yanhou. Many pieces of bronze ware of the Western Zhou Dynasty were unearthed in yingzi village, Lingyuan County, about 150 kilometers east of Chengde.
During the Warring States period, Chengde was subordinate to Yuyang County, youbeiping county and Liaoxi county set up by the state of Yan. According to the records of the Huns, the Great Wall was built in this area by the state of Yan. In particular, the discovery of the famous Xinglong farm tool Tiefan shows that the agricultural production in this area was quite developed at that time.
After the Qin and Han Dynasties, the central governments of all dynasties set up administrative organs here. In the long history, the economy and culture of Han, Hun, Wuhuan, Xianbei, Kumoxi, Khitan, Turk, Mongolia and other nationalities here have been further developed.
In Yuan Dynasty and Ming Dynasty, it belonged to Beiping prefecture (today's Beijing) and was a nomadic land of Mongolian people such as Kalaqin, Wengniute and Chahar. Until the early Qing Dynasty, Rehe Shangying (now Chengde City) was a small village with no central or local management organization.
In 1703, the Qing government built a palace here, and the population grew with each passing day. In 1708, Rehe palace was put into use, which indicated that Rehe entered a period of development.
In the 50th year of Kangxi (1711), Shangying in Rehe was already a big village with "physiological farming and mulberry affairs, gathering people to thousands of families". Since then, in order to meet the needs of the emperor to go to Chengde every year for summer vacation, Mongolian princes, court ministers and some Ci writers all vied to build mansions and courtyards in Chengde. With the rapid development of Chengde's industry and commerce, the streets were crowded with pedestrians, cars and horses were noisy, restaurants and tea shops were lined up.
In the first year of Yongzheng (1723), Rehe hall was set up. In the second year, the general manager of Rehe was set up to manage the civil affairs of eastern Mongolia. In 1733, Emperor Yongzheng followed his father Kangxi's example and named Fengtian Chengde. He named Rehe as Chengde and changed Rehe hall to Chengde. This also shows the intention of accepting Deze.
In the sixth year of Qianlong, Hongli began to enjoy the summer resort, and Chengde began to enter a period of prosperity. In 1778, Hongli said in an edict: "in Rehe, I have been staying in the early autumn every year. Over the past decades, the number of registered permanent residence has been increasing, the people's livelihood has been prosperous, and the breeding of mulberry has been popular in the market." "The poems of the emperor's ancestors say that the people have gathered to all families, but now they are more than ten thousand, just like a big city.". "Rehe has been a metropolis for more than 60 years since the founding of the mountain villa by the emperor's ancestors. It was promoted to Chengde Prefecture in 1949. At that time, Chengde became another important political center next only to Beijing, known as Kyoto beyond the Great Wall. At that time, the emperor of the Qing Dynasty spent almost half a year here to spend the summer and deal with the government affairs, and received the princes of ethnic minorities and foreign envoys.
Jiaqing 15 years (1810), set up Rehe City Department. After the seventh year of Daoguang (1827), the civil and military officials in Rehe were all under the jurisdiction of the metropolitan government, and their positions were the same as those of the governor and governor sent by the imperial court. In the revolution of 1911, the government system was abolished.
In 1914, Rehe special zone was established.
In 1929, Rehe province was rebuilt and Chengde became the capital of Rehe province.
In 1933, Chengde was occupied by Japanese invaders, and the puppet Manchuria Special Administrative Region was established.
In 1945, Chengde was liberated. In September of the same year, Chengde Municipal People's government was established. In November, Chengde Municipal People's government was formally established.
In August 1946, Kuomintang troops occupied Chengde.
In 1948, Chengde city was liberated again, under the jurisdiction of Rehe Province, as the capital of Rehe province.
In 1955, the system of Rehe province was abolished, and Chengde city was transferred to Hebei Province.
On March 15, 1960, Chengde City and prefecture merged.
In May 1961, Chengde city was set up separately.
In January 1984, Chengde city became a provincial city.
On July 1, 1993, Chengde City and prefecture merged.
In 1955, at the second session of the first National People's Congress, the organizational system of Rehe province was abolished, and Chengde city was put under the jurisdiction of Hebei Province, covering 8 counties, including Chengde County, Longhua County, Weichang Manchu and Mongolian Autonomous County, Fengning Manchu Autonomous County, Luanping county, Xinglong County, Qinglong County and Pingquan County.
In November 1956, yingshouyingzi and Shouwangfen in Xinglong County were under the jurisdiction of Chengde city.
In 1958, Chengde County was abolished and merged into Chengde city.
In 1960, Chengde city governed the urban area, Xiaban urban area, Longhua County, Weichang County, Fengning County, Luanping county, Xinglong County, Qinglong County and Pingquan County.
In 1961, Chengde city set up Cuiqiao District, Hongqiao District, shuangtashan District, hongshiluan Working Committee and Shuangfengsi Working Committee.
In February 1965, yingshouyingzi, Shouwangfen and mazuan were re assigned to Chengde City, and yingshouyingzi mining area was restored.
In 1984, Chengde city governed Shuangqiao District, Shuangluan District, yingshouyingzi mining area, Chengde County. Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County belongs to Qinhuangdao city.
On April 12, 2017, with the approval of the State Council, it was agreed to abolish Pingquan County and establish Pingquan city at the county level.
As of 2018, Chengde has three municipal districts (Shuangqiao District, Shuangluan District, yingshouyingzi mining area), one county-level city (Pingquan city), four counties (Chengde County, Xinglong County, Luanping county, Longhua County), three autonomous counties (Fengning Manchu Autonomous County, Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous County, Weichang Manchu Mongolian Autonomous County), and one development zone (Chengde high tech Industrial Development Zone).
Chengde is located in the northeast of Hebei Province, ranging from 40 ° 12 ′ - 42 ° 37 ′ N and 115 ° 54 ′ - 119 ° 15 ′ E. Located in the transitional zone between North China and Northeast China, it is close to Beijing and Tianjin, backed by Inner Mongolia and Liaoning, adjacent to Qinhuangdao and Tangshan coastal cities and Zhangjiakou City, and adjacent to Chifeng City and Xilinguole League of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the north. The city span is 269 km from north to South and 280 km from west to East. The administrative area is 39519 square kilometers, accounting for 21.19% of the total area of Hebei Province.
The terrain of Chengde City descends from northwest to Southeast. The northwest is located in Bashang Plateau, Inner Mongolia Plateau, with an altitude of 1200-2000 meters. Therefore, the climate difference between the north and the south is obvious, and the meteorological elements are three-dimensional distribution, which makes the climate have diversity. In winter, it is cold with little snow; in spring, it is dry with little rain; in summer, it is mild with thunderstorms; in autumn, it is cool with large temperature difference between day and night and severe frost damage. Among them, Chengde tourist area (such as summer resort) belongs to temperate continental monsoon mountain climate. The highest altitude of the city is 2292 meters. four distinctive seasons. It's cold in winter with little snow, low temperature and less precipitation in spring and autumn. Summer is cool, rainfall concentration, basically no hot period, is a tourist resort.
Chengde belongs to the monsoon climate zone, and the wind direction changes with obvious seasons. Although it is influenced by mountainous terrain, the changes caused by local factors are still dominant. The northerly wind dominates from December to February in winter, and the southerly wind dominates from June to August in summer. Spring and autumn are the transition seasons of the two kinds of air currents. Spring is close to summer, and autumn is close to winter. Except for calm wind, the annual maximum wind direction is southwest and northwest. The annual average wind speed is 1.4-4.3 M / s and 3.3-4.3 M / s above the dam. There are 11-63 gale days in the whole year. In Fengning, Weichang, Longhua and Chengde counties, the number of gale days is more, and the maximum year is 63-93 days. Up to 116 days on the dam.
The temperature in Chengde city increased gradually from west to East, with an annual average temperature of 9.0 ℃. Annual variation characteristics of mean temperature
Chinese PinYin : He Bei Sheng Cheng De Shi
Chengde City, Hebei Province
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