Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, referred to as "Inner Mongolia", is a provincial administrative region of the people's Republic of China and the capital of Hohhot. Located in North China, Inner Mongolia is bounded by 37 ° 24 ′ - 53 ° 23 ′ N and 97 ° 12 ′ - 126 ° 04 ′ e. it borders Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning and Hebei in the northeast, Shanxi, Shaanxi and Ningxia in the south, Gansu in the southwest and Russia and Mongolia in the North
The terrain of Inner Mongolia autonomous region extends from northeast to southwest in a long and narrow shape. The whole region is basically a plateau type geomorphic area, covering plateau, mountain, hill, plain, desert, river, lake and other landforms. The climate is mainly temperate continental climate, and it crosses the Yellow River, Erguna River, Nenjiang River and Xiliao River systems.
By the end of 2018, Inner Mongolia has a total area of 1.183 million square kilometers, with jurisdiction over 9 prefecture level cities and 3 leagues. The region has jurisdiction over 23 municipal districts, 11 county-level cities, 17 counties, 49 banners and 3 autonomous banners, with a total of 103 county-level divisions; 246 streets, 508 towns, 99 townships, 17 ethnic townships, 153 Sumu and 1 ethnic Sumu, with a total of 1024 township level divisions; with a permanent resident population of 25.34 million, the region's GDP is 1728.92 billion yuan, and the per capita GDP is 68302 yuan.
The origin of the name
In the Qing Dynasty, the Monan Mongols were called "neizhasak Mongols", the karkha and erlut Mongols were called "waizhasak Mongols", and the Chahar and tangnuwulianghai Mongols without zhasak Mongols were called "neizhasak Mongols". "Neizasak Mongolia" later evolved into the word "Inner Mongolia". In Mongolian, the name of Inner Mongolia used to be the same as that in Chinese (translated by Bao Pei: DOTU γ adumong γ ol; written in Cyrillic: дотоо дон д). In 1947, the Inner Mongolia autonomous government changed the Mongolian name to (Bao Pei's transcribed version: ө B ө rmong γ ol; Cyrillic version: өөөөөөөөөөөөөөөөө. Among them (translated by Bao Pei: ө B ө R; written in Cyrillic: өөөөөөөөөөөөөөөөөөө) means "the. Generally speaking, it is still called "Inner Mongolia" in Chinese, and a few people call this area a word from Monan Mongolia, which literally translates "South Mongolia".
Evolution of organizational system
In ancient times, Inner Mongolia has been the distribution of Yangshao culture. See also the Hongshan Culture unearthed from Liaohe. Before the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, some northern nomads, such as Huns and Donghu, lived in Inner Mongolia.
Records of the historian records that Chunwei, the son of Xia Jie, was the ancestor of Xiongnu, and generally introduces the history of Xiongnu for more than one thousand years after Chunwei fled to the north.
The first name of "Donghu" appeared in yizhoushu in the pre Qin period. It was mentioned in yizhoushu · Wang huipian that "Donghu was Rongshu in Huangshan Mountain". The textual research shows that Donghu lived in the north of Shang Dynasty as early as the early Shang Dynasty. The Donghu tombs excavated in the Laoha River and Xilamulun River Basin are considered to be circumstantial evidence of the above statement.
In the late Warring States period, the territory of Yan, Zhao and Qin had been extended to Inner Mongolia, and the Chinese people in the Central Plains began to settle in the south of Yinshan Mountains. After Zhao Wuling King promoted "Hufu riding and shooting" and defeated Linhu and Loufan, he built Yunzhong city in today's toketo County of Hohhot. The Chinese people in the Central Plains began to settle down in Hohhot. "Zhao Great Wall" passes through Daqingshan in the north of Hohhot.
After Qin Kai defeated Donghu, Yan built the "Yanbei Great Wall" and built the youbeipingbu in the south of Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia, where he ruled Ningcheng. Donghu later moved northward.
Qin's Northern Territory has expanded to Inner Mongolia and become the western hegemony.
After seizing the throne of Chanyu, the Huns defeated Donghu in 206 BC and threatened the Han Dynasty. The territory of Xiongnu empire is very broad, reaching Liaohe River Valley in the East, Congling (now Pamir Plateau) in the west, Qin Great Wall in the South and Baikal Lake in the north. Inner Mongolia became the focus of the battle between the Huns and the Central Plains dynasties.
Donghu was defeated by the Huns. The rest of Donghu lived in Wuhuan mountain and Xianbei mountain, forming the later Wuhuan and Xianbei nationalities. From then on, the name of Donghu disappeared from history. Both Wuhuan mountain and Xianbei mountain are in Inner Mongolia. At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Wuhuan tribe was conquered by Cao Cao, so Wuhuan mountain was not found in historical records.
During the period of Xiongnu's influence, it was divided into northern Xiongnu and southern Xiongnu twice, and the northern Xiongnu moved to the north and west gradually. The southern Xiongnu gradually moved inward, and then was eliminated during the period of the Wu Hu rebellion.
Qin Shihuang built the Great Wall to connect and reinforce the great wall of former countries to defend Xiongnu. The southern part of Yinshan Mountains, such as Yunzhong County, is an important border defense town.
During the Han Dynasty, the great wall of the Han Dynasty was built and the three hundred wars against Xiongnu were finally won. In the heyday of the Han Dynasty, Wuyuan County and Shuofang county were set up in Monan area, with jurisdiction equivalent to today's Bayannaoer City, Baotou City and Ordos City. The famous general Lu Bu was born here.
Xianbei originated from the Xianbei mountain outside the great wall of Eastern Liaoning, and then mainly lived near the hagul River in Horqin Right Wing Middle Banner in eastern Inner Mongolia. Inner Mongolia is one of the main places where the Hu people moved to the Central Plains during the Jin and southern and Northern Dynasties. After the fall of the Western Jin Dynasty in the fourth century, Xianbei established Qianyan, daiguo, Houyan, Xiyan, Xiqin, Nanliang, Nanyan and Northern Wei in northern China, while Mobei was dominated by Xianbei.
The Northern Wei Dynasty was established by Tuoba Xianbei people in 439, the fifth year of Taiyan period in Northern Wei Dynasty. After that, it often conflicts with Rouran. After the six towns rebellion, the Northern Wei Dynasty was divided into the Eastern Wei and the Western Wei, which were usurped by the Northern Qi Dynasty and the Northern Zhou Dynasty. Finally, the Northern Zhou Dynasty unified North China and died in 581 when Yang Jian usurped the throne. Rouran khanate, which dominated the northern part of the Great Wall, was also destroyed by the Turkic Khanate in 552, the first year of Liang Chengsheng in the Southern Dynasty.
During the Northern Qi Dynasty, the Northern Zhou Dynasty and the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the Turkic forces controlled the Mongolian Plateau.
In 599, the East Turkic Tuli Khan was defeated in the Turkic civil war and went south to the Sui Dynasty alone. Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty canonized Tuli Khan as Qimin Khan. Under the strong support of Sui Dynasty, the Turkic Qimin regime was established in Inner Mongolia. This regime was directly under the central government of Sui Dynasty. The Sui Dynasty maintained a close relationship with the Qimin regime. Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty visited the northern part of the Great Wall twice in person, setting a precedent for the emperors of the Central Plains Dynasty to visit the vassal regime of the northern part of the Great Wall in person. Sui Daye seven years (611 years), the West Turkic Rohan also fell Sui. The Sui Dynasty controlled the whole territory of Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia for a short time.
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