Tibet, or Tibet for short. Tibet Autonomous Region, the capital city of Lhasa, is located in the southwest border of the people's Republic of China, and is one of the five ethnic minority autonomous regions in China. Tibet is located in the southwest of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, between 26 ° 50 ′ and 36 ° 53 'in north latitude, 78 ° 25 ′ to 99 ° 06' east longitude, with an average altitude of more than 4000 meters, known as the "world roof". The land area is 120218947.91 hectares, accounting for about 1/8 of the total area of the country, which is second only to Xinjiang in all provinces, cities and autonomous regions. At the end of 2018, the permanent population was 34.4382 million.
Tibet is adjacent to Xinjiang to the north, Sichuan to the East, Qinghai in the northeast and Yunnan to the southeast; it borders Myanmar, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Kashmir and other countries and regions, with a land boundary of more than 4000 kilometers, which is an important gateway to the southwest of China.
Tibet is an integral part of China's territory. Since the Yuan Dynasty, the central government has always exercised effective jurisdiction over Tibet. The Tibetan people are an important part of the Chinese nation's family. Tibet was called "Tubo" in Tang and Song Dynasties, Wusi Tibet in Yuan and Ming Dynasties, and "tanggute" and "tubert" in Qing Dynasty. It has been called "Tibet" since the reign of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty. On May 23, 1951, Tibet was liberated peacefully. After the peaceful rebellion in 1959, the central government began to exercise full and direct jurisdiction over Tibet. On September 9th, 1965, the Tibet Autonomous Region was officially established.
Tibet is famous for its magnificent and wonderful natural scenery. It has a vast area, spectacular landform and abundant resources. Since ancient times, people on this land have created a rich and splendid national culture.
The term "Tibet" (bodljong in Tibetan) in Chinese refers to the Tibet Autonomous Region of the people's Republic of China (Tibetan is bodrangskyongljong), or Tibet for short. Tibet was officially named by the Central Committee of the Qing Dynasty. The Tang and Song dynasties were Tubo; the Yuan Dynasty was the xuanzheng yuan; Wusi Tibet was called Wusi Tibet in Ming Dynasty, and the capital division was set up; in the early Qing Dynasty, it was called Wei Zang, Wei was the front Tibet, and the latter was named Tibet, which was the beginning of Tibet's name; the Qing Dynasty set up the Minister of Tibet; the Tibet region in the early Republic of China; after the founding of the people's Republic of China, the Tibet Autonomous Region was officially established in 1965. The term Tibet became the abbreviation of Tibet Autonomous Region , the single word is referred to as "Tibet".
The word "Tibet" in English may be derived from Turkic people and Mongolian people calling Tibetan "tubert", which was introduced by Arabs in the Yuan Dynasty, that is, the Tibetan self-identity BOD. Tibet corresponds to "Tibetan" in terms of ethnic appellation, but Tibet sometimes corresponds to "Tibet" in terms of regional appellation, sometimes refers to the whole Tibetan area, which is quite different from the meaning of "Tibet".
In ancient times, the ancient Tibetan clan was formed. From the ancient clan to Tibet, the four Clans: Sai, mu, ton and Dong, on this basis, the two clans of "provoke" and "Zhu" were added, which are generally called "six clans".
A large number of ancient objects excavated in Tibet can find some scientific evidence on how the human beings in Tibet develop. During the archaeological work in Tibet, archaeologists discovered a large number of sold objects such as stone tools, pottery, bone wares, decorations, grain seeds and even ancient skulls in the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods. The ancient bones excavated from the Bank of the nyang River have no primitive characteristics of anthropoid apes, and belong to modern people. The bones of "Nichi (Linzhi) people" were about 4000 years ago, while Neolithic or iron stone were used in the era.
Sui, Tang, Song Dynasty
Main words: Princess Wencheng's war in Tibet, Tubo, Tang and Tibet and his relatives, and the attack of Song Dynasty by Tibet in Xixia and Tibet
By the 6th century A.D., the tribal groups of Tibetan ancestors formed dozens of tribal alliances, large and small, after thousands of years of migration, development and differentiation. Among them, the so-called "forty small states" distributed in Tibet are merged into "Twelve small states" from 40 small states.
In the early 7th century, a powerful Tang Dynasty was established in Central Plains. Meanwhile, the sidboye, which rose in Yalong, Shannan City, Tibet, conquered the tribes of various regions gradually, and established the regime of the Tibetan Dynasty, which unified the tribes of the Tibetan Plateau for the first time in history.
Tubo Zanpu matsuzangbu admired the Central Plains Civilization and proposed to Tang Dynasty several times. In the 15th year of Zhenguan of Tang Dynasty (641 A.D.), Emperor Taizong married Princess Wencheng to songzangan cloth. Princess Wencheng entered Tibet, which closely connected the economic and cultural exchanges between Tang and Tibet, and promoted the friendly relations between Han and Tibet.
In the early 8th century, the Tang Dynasty married Princess Jincheng to Tubo. Tubo and Tang Dynasty "are the same family".
With the two marriages between the Tubo Dynasty and the Tang Dynasty, the two sides had frequent exchanges, extensive and deep political, economic and cultural exchanges, and the comprehensive development of folk exchanges, and the relationship between Tibetan and other Chinese peoples reached an unprecedented close degree. The Tang and fan sides have been joined for eight times, and still stand in front of the front door of the great Zhao Temple in Lhasa (also known as "Changqing guild stele", "niece Association Alliance stele", which is the establishment after the eighth alliance). In the three or four hundred years since then, Tibetan people have close ties with the Northern Song Dynasty, Southern Song Dynasty, Western Xia, Liao and Jin Dynasties.
The chaos of the ruling group caused the rebellion of the common people in 869 (or the slave civilian uprising). In 877, the rebel army excavated the mausoleum of zanp, killed the royal family and the aristocracy, and the Tubo Dynasty collapsed completely. After the collapse of the Tubo Dynasty, from 869 to 1239, there was no great unified regime on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, so it was said in history that the period of separation and secession was called.
Main words: xuanzheng Academy
In 1271, Khan Kublai Khan of Mongolia named the state as yuan. Wusi Tibet (now central Tibet, western region and its Yixi region), and Dogan became part of the unified multi-ethnic Yuan Empire. Tibet was officially under the direct jurisdiction of the central government of China.
After the unification of China in the Yuan Dynasty, according to the actual situation of Tibetan areas,
A series of far-reaching governance measures have been taken:
For the first time, the central institutional general system (renamed xuanzheng yuan in 1288) was set up to take charge of the National Buddhist affairs and military affairs in Tibet and other places. The envoy (the competent official) of the xuanzheng court is generally held by the prime minister and the Deputy envoy is the monk recommended by the emperor and the master.
The criminal law and calendar of the Yuan Dynasty were promulgated in Tibet, including the investigation of the people's houses, the establishment of post stations, the collection of taxes, the stationing of the army and the appointment of officials in Tibet.
Tibetan monks and customs are appointed to be senior officials from the central government to the local government. The establishment of administrative organs in Wusi Tibetan and Dogan, the appointment, removal, rise and fall of officials, rewards and punishments are all subject to the Central Committee.
To divide the local administrative regions of Tibet. The central government of the Yuan Dynasty established three departments of propaganda and consolation in Tibetan areas, which were directly under the administration of xuanzheng yuan, which is called "three regions of Kha" in Tibetan historical books. As far as the region of Tibet Autonomous Region is concerned, it was divided into two of the propaganda and consolation divisions at that time - Lhasa, Shannan, Rikaze, Ali and other places under the jurisdiction of the xuandu of Wusi Tibet; now, the Changdu area and the east of Naqu city are under the jurisdiction of the propaganda and comfort division of udogan. The Yuan Dynasty checked the residence in Wusi Tibetan and other places, established the service, levied taxes, established post stations, stationed the army and kept the border areas. The mission of uzzang is located in saska (now Saka, Tibet), with 13 million houses and several thousand houses, and tax collection.
Among them, the division of administrative areas in Yuan Dynasty became the basis of the evolution of Tibet administrative divisions since then.
Main words: the history of Ming Dynasty, the eight kings of Tibet, and the Department of Wusi Tibetan capital
In 1368, the Ming Dynasty replaced the Yuan Dynasty, and adopted the form of collecting the old royal seal of the Yuan Dynasty, and replacing the new imperial and new seals of the Ming Dynasty in a peaceful transition, and inherited the state sovereignty over Tibet.
Instead of following the official system of Yuan Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty established a special system of official seal. Representative leaders of politics and religion in all regions were granted different names in Ming Dynasty, and they were given seals and seals. They were ordered to manage their respective places. The succession of their positions should be approved by the emperor and can be directly named to the emperor.
In terms of administrative divisions and military and political institutions, the Ming Dynasty basically inherited the planning mode of the Yuan Dynasty in Tibet. In the Yuan Dynasty, Wusi Tibet and Dugan xuancondolence were established. In the Ming Dynasty, two Wei command divisions, Wusi Tibet and Dogan, and the military and civilian marshal of osis were established. Later, Wusi Tibet and Dogan were promoted to the command and command division of the capital of the company. The Command commander, the propaganda and consolation department, the recruitment department, the wanhu government and the thousand houses were set up. Officials of military and political institutions at all levels were appointed local monks and customs leaders. The appointment, removal and promotion of officials at all levels shall be decided directly by the Central Committee of the Ming Dynasty and the official seal shall be issued.
The Qing Dynasty
Main words: the history of Tibet administration in Qing Dynasty, Minister of state in Tibet, Panchan Erdeni, gold bottle lot, Dalai Lama
In 1644, Beijing was the capital of Qing Dynasty, and then China was unified. The Qing Dynasty exercised sovereignty in Tibet according to historical rules. As long as the officials sealed by the previous dynasties sent the old Dynasty letters, they would grant the new dynasty letters of India, and their original status remained unchanged. In 1652, the Dalai Lama of the Gru sect of Tibetan Buddhism was called to Beijing to meet the emperor Shunzhi, the emperor of the Qing Dynasty, and later, the fifth Panchen was officially canonized by Emperor Kangxi. The titles of Dalai Lama and Panchan Erdeni and their political and religious status in Tibet were formally established. Since then, Dalai Lama and Panchen have to be customized by the central government. In 1727, Emperor Yongzheng officially established a minister to Tibet to handle Tibet affairs.
Based on the experience of the two dynasties, the Qing Dynasty made significant and comprehensive adjustments to Tibet administration according to the actual situation and the changes of the situation. For example, setting up the ministers stationed in Tibet to take charge of Tibet, adjusting the local political and religious management system in Tibet, granting the Dalai Lama and Panchen Erdeni the name, and determining the gold bottle lottery system; establishing the foreign affairs and border affairs in Tibet The decision-making power of frontier defense belongs to the Central Committee and other principles; the boundary between Tibet and Qinghai, Sichuan and Yunnan is delimited; the jurisdiction and authority of Dalai Lama and Panchan Erdeni are stipulated, and the ministerial and ministerial regions in Tibet are divided.
The period of the Republic of China
Main words: Tibet
1911 Revolution overthrows feudal monarchy and establishes Republic of China the following year. The provisional covenant law of the Republic of China stipulates that Tibet is one of the 22 provinces of the Republic of China. Since then, the Constitution and other laws and regulations have clearly stipulated that Tibet is a part of the Republic of China.
In July 1912, the government of the Republic of China established the central organ for the administration of Mongolia Tibet affairs bureau (renamed the Mongolian Tibetan court in May 1914), appointed the chief executive of the central government in Tibet, directly under the state prime minister, and exercised the functions and powers of the Qing Dynasty minister in Tibet. In 1929, the Mongolian Tibetan Academy was transformed into a Mongolian Tibet Committee. In April 1940, the Mongolian Tibet commission established a Tibet office in Lhasa as the agency of the central government in Tibet. The 14th Dalai Lama himself was approved by the national government of the Republic of China at that time.
A large number of records in the period of the Republic of China show that the Dalai Lama, the local government of Tibet and Panchen Erdeni have been elected or appointed to take part in the administration of state affairs in successive congresses, the highest authority of the state, the national deliberative bodies or the national assembly in the period of the Republic of China.
Period of the people's Republic of China
Main words: peaceful liberation of Tibet and 17 agreements
On May 23, 1951, the Central People's government and the local government of Tibet signed the agreement between the Central People's government and the local government of Tibet on the measures for peaceful liberation of Tibet (commonly referred to as the "17 agreements"). Tibet is liberated peacefully.
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