Jiangxi Province, or Gan for short, is one of China's 23 provinces and its capital Nanchang. Jiangxi is located in the southeast of China, on the South Bank of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. It is located in East China, between 113 ° 34 ′ 36 ″ - 118 ° 28 ′ 58 ″ E and 24 ° 29 ′ 14 ″ - 30 ° 04 ′ 41 ″ n. It is adjacent to Zhejiang and Fujian in the East, Guangdong in the south, Hunan in the west, Hubei and Anhui in the north. Jiangxi, with its superior location and convenient transportation, has been known as "wutouchuwei, yuehuminting" since ancient times. It is also known as "the land of fish and rice in the south of the Yangtze River".
Jiangxi is the central hinterland of the Yangtze River Delta Economic Zone, the Pearl River Delta economic zone and the Economic Zone on the west side of the Straits. It is rich in resources and has excellent ecology. It has Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China. It is also one of the super large copper industrial bases in Asia. It has the reputation of "tungsten capital of the world", "Rare Earth Kingdom", "copper capital of China" and "hometown of non-ferrous metals". Jiangxi is famous for its red culture at home and abroad. Jinggangshan is the cradle of the Chinese revolution. Nanchang is the birthplace of the Chinese people's Liberation Army. Ruijin is the place where the Chinese Soviet central government was founded. Anyuan is the birthplace of the Chinese workers' movement. The Long March also started from Yudu County, Ganzhou.
By the end of 2018, Jiangxi Province has a total area of 167100 square kilometers, with jurisdiction over 11 prefecture level cities, 27 municipal districts, 11 county-level cities and 62 counties, a total of 100 county-level divisions; 164 streets, 827 towns, 569 townships and 8 ethnic townships, a total of 1568 township level divisions; the permanent resident population is 46.221 million, and the gross regional product is 2198.48 billion yuan.
The origin of the name
Jiangxi was named after the establishment of Jiangnan West Road by Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty in 733. It was also called Gan River for short because it was the place of Ganyue in ancient times and the largest river in the province was Gan River.
Evolution of organizational system
The history of Jiangxi development can be traced back to the Paleolithic age 10000 years ago.
There are hanyue (Ganyue) and Baipu in Jiangxi Province. The notes of Xunzi · quanxue chapter: "the ancient name of hanyue". It has entered the bronze age, which is consistent with the economic and cultural development level of the Central Plains. During the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, Wu, Yue and Chu fought for Jiangxi.
Qin set up 36 counties, Jiangxi is Jiujiang County, home Luling County, Xingan County, Nanqi county. Jiangxi, as a clear administrative system, began in the early years of emperor Gaodi of Han Dynasty. At that time, Yuzhang county (Ganjiang was originally called yuzhangjiang) was set up, which governed Nanchang County and 18 counties.
During the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, the whole country was divided into 13 supervision areas, which were called 13 prefectures.
In the fifth year of Emperor Xian's Jian'an (200 years), sun CE divided Luling county and Yudu County into Luling county. In the 15th year of Jian'an (210), Sun Quan set up Pengze County (xuanzao) and Poyang County. In the fifth year of Jiahe (236), Sun Quan set up the Duwei in the south of Luling, which was subordinate to Yangzhou.
In the Sui Dynasty, the administrative division was adjusted, and the rank of the Prefecture was the same as that of the county. Therefore, there were 7 counties and 24 counties in Jiangxi in the Sui Dynasty. By the Tang Dynasty, it was increased to 8 states and 37 counties.
In the first year of Zhenguan (627), Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty divided the whole country into 10 supervision areas, Jiangxi province belongs to Jiangnan Road. In the 21st year of Kaiyuan (733) of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty, the number of roads increased to 15, belonging to Jiangnan West Road. Under its supervision, eight prefectures were under the jurisdiction of Zhihong prefecture (Nanchang City).
Jiangxi Province was first under the jurisdiction of Wu, and then under the jurisdiction of the Southern Tang Dynasty. During this period, there were six states, four armies and 55 counties, which were equivalent to the lower states. In the first year of Jiaotai (958), the emperor of the Southern Tang Dynasty decided to build Hongzhou as the capital of the Southern Tang Dynasty, so Hongzhou was promoted to Nanchang Prefecture.
In the Song Dynasty, Jiangnan Road was set up. In the fourth year of Tianxi (1020 AD), Jiangnan Road was divided into Jiangnan East Road and Jiangnan West Road. Jiangxi area was divided into 9 states, 4 armies and 68 counties. Most of them belonged to Jiangnan West Road, and still governed Hongzhou. Some of them belonged to Jiangnan East Road.
The Yuan Dynasty began to establish the system of "province in the line" (referred to as "province in the line"). The administrative area of Jiangxi Province is larger than that of today's Jiangxi Province. In addition to the vast majority of today's Jiangxi Province (the former northeast of Jiangxi Province was subordinate to Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces) and most of today's Guangdong Province. Jiangxi Province governs 13 roads, 2 Zhili prefectures, 48 counties and 16 county-level prefectures.
Although the Ming Dynasty basically retained the provincial system of the Yuan Dynasty, it was changed to Zhongshu Province as the Secretary of Chengbao government, to Lu as the government and to Zhou as the county. Jiangxi Cheng announced that the Department of political envoys has jurisdiction over 13 prefectures and 78 counties, which is basically the same as today's Jiangxi Province.
In the Qing Dynasty, Jiangxi was changed into Jiangxi Province, and the administrative region basically inherited the system of Ming Dynasty. At the same time, Ningdu county was upgraded to be a provincial Zhili Prefecture. The governor became the highest chief executive of the province, under which there were the Secretary for the Minister of justice and the Secretary for the investigation of punishment, in charge of civil affairs, finance and judicial supervision.
During the period of the Republic of China, Jiangxi province governed 81 counties. In 1934, Wuyuan County was transferred from Anhui Province to Jiangxi Province. In 1947, Wuyuan County was transferred back to Anhui Province. In 1949, Wuyuan County was again transferred to Jiangxi Province.
In 2014, Jiangxi Province was included in the national rural informatization demonstration province. In June 2016, Ganjiang new area became the 18th National New Area.
As of 2018, Jiangxi Province has jurisdiction over 11 cities divided into districts, namely Nanchang City, Jingdezhen City, Pingxiang City, Jiujiang City, Xinyu City, Yingtan City, Ganzhou City, Ji'an City, Yichun City, Fuzhou City and Shangrao City. Jiangxi Provincial People's government is located at 999 Wolong Road, Donghu District, Nanchang city.
The topography of Jiangxi Province is dominated by hills and mountains in the south of the Yangtze River, with basins and valleys widely distributed and slightly plain. Geologically, geomorphologically and structurally, it is bounded by the Jinjiang Xinjiang line. In the north, it belongs to the Jiangnan uplift of the Yangtze paraplatform, and in the south, it belongs to the South China fold system. At the end of Silurian, the late Caledonian movement combined the two. Later, it was reformed by the Indosinian, Yanshan and Himalayan movements for many times, forming a series of northeast southwest structural belts The red clastic rocks from Cretaceous to Paleogene are deposited in the ground, with gypsum and rock salt deposits; the fault basin centered on Poyang Lake is formed in the northern region, and the Quaternary red soil deposits are found in the piedmont zone at the edge of the basin. This is the geological basis for the northward slope of the whole province.
Landform is the main part of Jiangnan hills. The province is surrounded by mountains in the East, West and south, with hills and valley plains in the middle and Poyang Lake Plain in the north. The Poyang Lake Plain and the two Lake Plain are the subsided lowlands in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. They are formed by the sediment deposition of the Yangtze River and the five major rivers in the province. They are narrow in the north and wide in the south, covering an area of nearly 20000 square kilometers. The surface is mainly covered with laterite and river alluvium. The laterite has been cut and slightly undulated. The lakeside area is also widely developed with lake fields and islets. The water network is dense, the rivers and harbors are intertwined, and the lakes are scattered.
The central and southern Jiangxi Province is dominated by hills, mostly composed of red sand shale and some phyllite and other soft rocks. After weathering and erosion, it is in a low, gentle and round shape, with an altitude of generally 200 meters. The elevation of the hills near the edge of the mountain is about 300-500 meters. The relative height is only 50-80 meters except that in the south it is more than 100 meters. Among the hills, there are basins between them, most of which extend along the river belt, and the larger ones are Jitai basin and Ganzhou basin. Most of the mountains are distributed on the edge of the province, mainly including: Huaiyu mountain in the northeast, Wuyi mountain range extending along the boundary between Jiangxi and Fujian in the East, Dayu mountain and Jiulian Mountain in the south, Mufu mountain, Jiuling mountain and Luoxiao mountain range (including Wugong Mountain, wanyang mountain and Zhuguang Mountain) in the northwest and West, which become the boundary mountain and watershed between Jiangxi and its neighboring provinces. The main trend of the mountains is northeast southwest, which controls the development of the main water systems and basins in the province. Most of the mountains are composed of ancient metamorphic rock series and granite, with steep peaks and thick deposits. Huanggang mountain (2157 meters) is the highest point in the province.
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