Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, referred to as "new", has its capital, Urumqi, located in Northwest China. It is one of China's five ethnic minority autonomous regions. With an area of 1664900 square kilometers, it is the largest provincial administrative region in China, accounting for one sixth of China's total land area. The permanent resident population of the seventh national census in 2020 was 25.8523 million.
Xinjiang is located in the hinterland of the Eurasian continent, with a land border of more than 5600 kilometers. It borders on Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Mongolia, India and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. In history, it is an important channel of the ancient Silk Road. Now it is a necessary place for the second "Eurasian Continental Bridge", and its strategic position is very important. There are 56 ethnic groups living in Xinjiang, mainly including Han, Uygur, Kazak, Hui, Mongolia, Kirgiz, Xibe, Tajik, Uzbek, Manchu, Daur, Tatar and Russia. It is one of the five ethnic minority autonomous regions in China. In the results of the sixth national census, Xinjiang ranks fifth in the proportion of people with higher education in 24 provinces and urban areas. Xinjiang will fully implement the 14-year free education policy in southern Xinjiang, promote 14-year free education in other regions, and gradually realize 15-year free education in the whole region, that is, 3 years of preschool, 6 years of primary school, 3 years of junior middle school and 3 years of senior high school.
In 60 BC, the central government of the Western Han Dynasty established the western region capital protectorate, and Xinjiang officially became a part of Chinese territory. In 1884, the Qing government set up a province in Xinjiang. Xinjiang was peacefully liberated in 1949. On October 1, 1955, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was officially established. As of February 2021, Xinjiang now governs 4 prefecture level cities, 5 regions, 5 autonomous prefectures, 11 autonomous regions and county-level cities directly under the central government.
In 2020, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region will achieve a regional GDP of 1379.758 billion yuan, an increase of 3.4% over the previous year. By 2020, all the 3089000 poor people in Xinjiang will be lifted out of poverty.
|alias||Zhuzhou, Xiyu, Anxi, Xinjiang|
|area number||six hundred and fifty thousand|
|Administrative Region category||Autonomous Region|
|geographical position||The hinterland of the Eurasian continent in Northwest China|
|the measure of area||1664900km ²|
|Areas under jurisdiction||4 prefecture level cities, 5 regions, 5 autonomous prefectures, 11 autonomous regions and county-level cities directly under the central government|
|Government resident||479 Zhongshan Road, Tianshan District, Urumqi|
|climatic conditions||temperate continental climate|
|population size||25.8523 million (the seventh national census in 2020)|
|Famous scenic spot||Tianshan Mountain, Gaochang ancient city, Kanas Lake, Bosten Lake, devil City|
|airport||Urumqi diwobao International Airport, Kashgar International Airport, Shihezi Garden Airport, Yining airport, Korla airport, etc|
|train station||Urumqi station, Shihezi station, Yining station, Korla station and Kashgar station|
|License plate code||New a-new R|
|Regional GDP||1379.758 billion yuan (2020)|
|Party secretary||Guo Guo Chen|
|Chairman of the Autonomous Region||Elken tuniyaz (agent)|
In ancient times, Xinjiang was called the western region. The term western region specifically refers to the geographical scope of Xinjiang from ancient times to the reign of Emperor Qianlong in the middle of the Qing Dynasty.
Before the Qing army entered the customs, its territory was limited to Northeast China. After entering the customs, it quickly unified most of China. However, in some areas, its rule was finally established after many years of repetition. Several generations of emperors in the early Qing Dynasty regarded the unification of all China as their own responsibility. Through the efforts of several generations, the area controlled by the Qing government in China continued to expand and consolidate. By the time of Emperor Qianlong (1736-1796), the decrees of the Qing government could finally be implemented in every corner of China. Emperor Qianlong called the area finally ruled by the Qing government he established as Xinjiang. After the Qing government calmed down the rebellion in Junggar, the northern and southern regions of Tianshan, which was called the western region in ancient times, were also called Xinjiang.
The name Xinjiang has another meaning. After Zuo Zongtang recovered Xinjiang from agubai in 1878, the Tsarist Russian invaders were forced to return to Ili in 1882. Therefore, Zuo Zongtang strongly advocated the establishment of provinces in the north and south of Tianshan. In his memorial to the emperor of the Qing Dynasty, he called Xinjiang "a place forced by other nationalities and a new return to his hometown". Therefore, taking Xinjiang as the name of the province has a new meaning. That is, Xinjiang has been an inherent territory of China since ancient times, but because it is the lost land newly recovered from agubai and tsarist Russia, Xinjiang is named as a province, which means "new return of hometown". In 1884, Xinjiang Province was established and officially named Xinjiang province. Traditionally speaking, it has become a noun referring specifically to the western regions, and the word "Xinjiang" has officially become a special noun referring specifically to China's western regions, which has been used until now.
Archaeological data from all parts of Modern Xinjiang show that human activities existed in Xinjiang at the latest six or seven thousand years ago. In the Neolithic Age about two or three thousand years ago, traces of human ancestral activities have appeared in the north and south of Tianshan Mountain, such as SANDAOLING in Hami, qijiaojing, Astana in Turpan Basin, Chaiwobao in Urumqi county, and Mulei, Qitai, Ili, Kuqa, Bachu, Qiemo, Khotan, Pishan, etc The carving technology and coexisting pottery colors and patterns are similar to those in Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and other places in China. The painting of triangle pattern, vortex pattern and string pattern of painted pottery unearthed 3000 years ago in Xinjiang and the shape of pottery beans have affected the development of painted pottery culture and art in Gansu and the mainland.
The real and specific records of the geographical history of the western regions in ancient Chinese history began in the Han Dynasty. Similarly, in the Han Dynasty, the central government began to set up local government institutions in the western regions. Therefore, since the Han Dynasty, the western regions have been an integral part of China. By the early Western Han Dynasty, the social economy in the north and south of Tianshan had developed greatly.
The great cause of conquering the western regions of the Western Han Dynasty began with the expedition against the Huns. Xiongnu was a strong nomadic nationality in the grassland area of northern China during the Qin and Han Dynasties. The unified jurisdiction of the Han Dynasty over the northern region, including the western region, ended the long-standing division of nomadic tribes in the region, and created conditions for the formation of a national unity.
In order to defeat the Huns and consolidate their rule, Liu Che, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, decided to "connect the western regions, break the right arm of the Huns, and isolate the southern Qiang and Yueshi". Therefore, he first sent Zhang Qian to the western regions twice to strengthen the ties with the western regions and jointly deal with the Huns. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty ordered Li Guangli to invade Dawan in the first year of the Taichu period (104 BC) and twice in three years (in today's Fergana basin in Central Asia), so that many cities and countries in the western regions were subject to the Han Dynasty one after another. In 102 BC, the Han army conquered Dawan city (now Fergana), which greatly increased the prestige of the Han Dynasty among countries in the western regions. The following year, the Han Dynasty stationed troops in Luntai, Quli and other places in the western regions, and placed envoys and captains under their command.
Due to the internal strife of the Xiongnu, Wang Xianxian, who was in charge of the western regions, Shan led more than 10000 people to the Han Dynasty. The Han envoy Zheng Ji, who protected Shanshan to the west, welcomed it, and the ruling power of the Xiongnu in the western regions collapsed. Therefore, the Han government sent Zheng Ji to protect Shanshan from the Southwest Road to "protect the North Road (West of Cheshi), so it was called Duhu". In 60 BC, the central government of the Western Han Dynasty established the western region capital protectorate, and Xinjiang officially became a part of Chinese territory.
During the Western Han Dynasty, with the exchange and dissemination of economic culture between the East and the west, it greatly promoted the further development of social economy in the western region. Flax, broad beans, pomegranates, garlic, grapes, alfalfa and other crops from the western regions have been introduced into the mainland one after another. Dawan horse, Wusun horse and all kinds of fur, known as the "heavenly horse", have also continuously entered the Central Plains through the "Silk Road". At the same time, silk and silk fabrics from the central plains were also introduced into the western regions and spread to Europe. Advanced production tools and agricultural experience, such as iron molds, iron hoes and other iron agricultural tools and field substitution methods, well digging technology and iron smelting technology, were introduced into the western regions along with the soldiers.
At the beginning of the Eastern Han Dynasty, there was no time to operate the western regions. At first, they wanted to control the western regions through Shache to fight against the Xiongnu, but the countries in the western regions were dissatisfied with the slavery and aggression of Shache King Xian, and all the countries in the western regions were attached to the Xiongnu. In 73 ad, Emperor Ming of the Han Dynasty sent generals to attack the Huns in the north of the frontier, and sent banchao to Shanshan and Khotan to kill the Hun envoys. Shanshan and Khotan sent their sons to serve, which belonged to the Han Dynasty. In 74 ad, Shule returned to the Han Dynasty. In the winter of that year, the Eastern Han Dynasty established the western regions' capital guard and Wuji school captain, restoring the Han Dynasty's rule over the western regions.
In 76 ad, Yanqi and kuci attacked the western regions and protected Chen mu. Emperor Zhang of the Han Dynasty gave up managing the western regions and gave up except Wuji school captain and Duhu. In 91 ad, the Han army defeated the Xiongnu in Altai mountain. In the winter of that year, kuci, Gumo and Wensu were attached. The Han Dynasty reset the capital protection of the western regions, took ban Chao as the capital protection, ruled the city of kuci and tagan, and set the long history of the western regions and Wuji captain. In 94 ad, ban Chao broke Yanqi, and all the more than 50 countries in the western regions belonged to the Han Dynasty.
When Ren Shang was the protector of the western regions, he was strict in politics, which aroused the dissatisfaction of all countries. In the autumn of 106 ad, the western countries rebelled against the Han Dynasty. In the Han Dynasty, Duanxi was the capital of the western regions. In 107 ad, Emperor Han'an, on the ground that "the western regions are far away, there are several betrayals, and the officials and scholars tuntian, their expenses have nothing to do", stopped the protection of the western regions and welcomed the officials and scholars tuntian in Yiwulu and Liuzhong. After the Han Dynasty abandoned the western regions, the northern Xiongnu regained possession of the western regions. In 123 and 126 ad, ban Yong successively defeated King Ili and King Huyan of the Huns. In 127 ad, Yanqi begged for surrender, and all the countries in the western regions belonged to the Han Dynasty.
In 221 ad, the regime of Cao Wei (220-265 AD), one of the Three Kingdoms, inherited the Han system, set up "Wuji school captain" in the western region, ruled Gaochang (Turpan), and then set up a long history of the western region to manage many nationalities in the western region. At the end of the Western Jin Dynasty (265-316 AD), Zhang Jun, the founder of the former Liang regime (301-376 AD), launched an expedition to the west, occupied Gaochang area and established Gaochang county. The Northern Wei Dynasty set up Shanshan town and Yanqi Town to strengthen the governance of the western regions.
The Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties (AD 220-ad 589) was a period of great ethnic integration in China. Various ethnic groups migrated frequently, and many ancient ethnic groups entered Xinjiang, such as Rouran, Gaoche, dunda, Tuyuhun, etc. Rouran, a descendant of the Donghu people (ancient Chinese family name), an ancient ethnic group in the northern grassland, rose in the Mongolian grassland in the early fifth century, established a powerful political power in 402, and competed with the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-534). Gaoche, also known as Chile and tiele, was originally nomadic in Baikal Lake, erhun River and Tula River Basin. In 487 A.D., more than 100000 tribes (households) belonging to Fu Zhiluo and his brother poor Qi moved westward to establish Gaoche state in the northwest of the front of Cheshi (now the old city of Jiaohe in Turpan). It started from the northern part of the Great Wall. At the end of the 5th century, it entered the Tarim Basin in the East, attacked Yueshi in the south, established political power, crossed the Pamir Plateau, and once controlled part of Southern Xinjiang. Tuguhun originated from Xianbei and moved westward from Liaodong (generally referring to the area east of Liaohe River) in the early 4th century. It gradually controlled the Di, Qiang and other nationalities in Gannan (Southern Gansu), Sichuan and Qinghai and established political power.
In the fifth year of the great cause of the Sui Dynasty (609), Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty toured Hexi, and Qu Boya, king of Gaochang, and other leaders and envoys of 27 countries came to Zhangye to meet. Tuyuhun promised to block and plunder the silk trade road in Hexi corridor. In 608 ad, the Sui Dynasty defeated Tuyuhun Fuyun. Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty set up Xihai, Heyuan and other counties in the east of the western regions and Qinghai. However, in addition to controlling the smallest Heyuan County in the east of Qinghai for a very short time, several other counties were not controlled by the Sui Dynasty. Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty sent Fu Shun to manage Yu Zhong. Only when he arrived in Xiping, he could not move forward and had to return. A few years later, Tuyuhun Fuyun recovered all the lost land and attacked the right river of the Sui Dynasty, which the prefectures and counties of the Sui Dynasty could not resist.
In 634 (the ninth year of Zhenguan), Li Jing, Li daozong and Hou Junji of the Tang Dynasty broke Tuyuhun several times. Tuyuhun Wang Fuyun hanged himself. Fushun led Tuyuhun to surrender to the Tang Dynasty. In 640 (the 14th year of Zhenguan), the Tang army occupied Gaochang, set up Xizhou there, and set up Tingzhou in Khan futu city (now jimusar); In the same year, Anxi capital was set up in Gaochang, and then moved to Kuqa and changed to Anxi Dadu capital. The four towns of Tong'an West: kuizi, Shule, Khotan and Zaiye (today's Tokamak city of Kyrgyzstan), which are equivalent to the Chu River Basin in today's Xinjiang, Eastern Kazakhstan and Northern Kyrgyzstan. From 656 (the first year of Xianqing) to 664 (the first year of Linde), Wu Zetian assisted Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty for the queen to listen to the government. In the following two decades, the Tang army launched a series of expeditions against the Western Turks. Tang Gaozong launched an army to attack the Western Turks in two ways, North and south, and destroyed the Western Turks in one fell swoop. In 657, the Western Turks completely surrendered, and all the territory of the Western Turks was owned by the Tang Dynasty. During the years of Xianqing and longshuo (661-663), the Tang army calmed down the Western Turks, and the jurisdiction has been expanded to the East and west of Altai Shanxi to the Aral Sea and Congling to the cities on both sides of the Amu Darya River, including most of today's Xinjiang.
In 670, Tubo entered Anxi, and in 673, the Tang Dynasty regained control of Anxi; In 678, Tubo took kuizi and other four towns; In 679, the Tang Dynasty attacked Tubo with Cui Zhi's troops and occupied four towns such as kuizi and Chale; From 687 to 689, Wu Zetian reduced the defense of Anxi, and Tubo took the opportunity to occupy the four towns of Anxi; In 692, Wang Xiaojie, the general manager of Wuwei army, broke into Tubo, recovered the four towns of Anxi, resettled the Anxi capital to protect the house in Kucha, and stationed 30000 soldiers in Tang Dynasty. In 702, the Tang Dynasty set up the Beiting capital protectorate in Tingzhou. During the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty (712-756 AD), the Tang Dynasty set up "Qixi Jiedushi" on the two Dadu protectors, which was one of the eight Jiedushi at that time. Since then, the Tang Dynasty resisted the competition of the Tibetan and Arab empires for the western regions, and fought with the Tibetan and Arab empires and their affiliated forces many times in 715, 717 and 747 (Gao Xianzhi took xiaobolu) and 751 (the battle of Talos).
The an Shi rebellion broke out in 755 and the Tang Dynasty was seriously weakened. Around 790 A.D., Tubo occupied the Beiting of the western regions. After 790 A.D., Tubo occupied Anxi. Soon after, the Uighurs expelled Tubo and occupied the western regions. During the reign of Huaixin Khan (795-805), the Uighurs expelled Tubo and controlled Beiting. When the Uighur Baoyi Khan (reigned from 808 to 821), the Uighur forces had expanded westward to Yanqi and kuci. After the middle of the 9th century, both Tubo and Uighur declined, and this area entered the period of scuffle. Several countries coexisted in the western regions. Among them, there are local regimes such as Gaochang, black Khan dynasty and Khotan. After Mobei Uighur Khanate destroyed Gaochang and Kara Khanate in 840, Uighurs who moved westward to the western regions gathered with other Turkic speaking families to establish local political power. Khotan is an ancient Serbian settlement. After the fall of the Tang Dynasty, the Yuchi royal family in Khotan came into power and had close contacts with the Central Plains. They claimed the surname Li because they had been canonized by the Tang Dynasty. In the 10th and 11th centuries, the Hei Khan dynasties controlled today's western Xinjiang. At the same time, a branch of Uighur settled in central Xinjiang.
On the eve of the fall of the Liao state, the imperial clan Yelu Dashi led his troops to move westward. After occupying the old land of Uighur and black Khanate in Xizhou, Dashi expanded westward to the Amu Darya River Basin. Dashi became emperor in 1132 (i.e. 1131) and established the Western Liao regime. The territory includes the north and south of Tianshan Mountain, the west of Pamir Plateau to the West Bank of Amu Darya River to the south of Aral Sea, and the northeast of Balkash lake to the west of Mongolia.
In 1206, the Mongolian Empire was established and the country name was changed to yuan in 1271. During the Mongol and Yuan Dynasties, most of the western regions were the fiefs of Chagatai, the second son of Genghis Khan, that is, the Chagatai Khanate. In addition, in the Yuan Dynasty, Ali Mali (ALI Mali) province was set up in the current Yili River Basin, but it was soon incorporated into the Chagatai Khanate. Provinces were established on the South Bank of the Amu Darya River and later incorporated into the Yili Khanate. Today, there was a beluga Province in Urumqi, which was once occupied by the Chagatai Khanate, and later became the jurisdiction of the Yuan Dynasty.
The Ming Dynasty was in a state of retreat in the western regions, and set up the military and civilian Marshal's house in Northeast Kashmir and Western Tibet; In 1406, Hami guards were established, and local aristocratic leaders were appointed as officials at all levels to govern local military and political affairs, maintain the safety of business channels, and exercise Jimi control over the western regions. In the third year of Hongwu (1370), after the fall of the Chagatai Khanate, its descendants built Beisi Bali, and the capital was Beisi Bali (now Jimsar broke the city in the North). In the 16th year of Yongle (1418), the capital was moved to Yili (now Yining). In the middle of the 15th century, the Ministry of Turpan was powerful. In 1472, Hami and other garrisons were once broken by Turpan. The garrisons moved in and then recovered. They were merged again in 1514, and the Ming Dynasty finally retreated to Jiayuguan. In the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the eastern Chagatai Khanate evolved into the Yeerqiang Khanate.
In the 17th century, Junggar (a branch of Mongolia) rebelled and attacked Outer Mongolia. In 1697, the Qing army defeated Junggar and took control of eastern Xinjiang. During the reign of Emperor Yongzheng, a new territory was established in the southeast of Guizhou, also known as Xinjiang. At that time, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou and other places in the western region were newly incorporated into the regions under the rule of the Qing Dynasty, collectively referred to as "six halls of Xinjiang". According to the draft of the history of the Qing Dynasty: "in the 12th year, ha yuan was born into the new map of opening up the Miao border, and Yin Jishan supervised Yun and GUI, resulting in the change of Guizhou and Miao. At the beginning, the Miao border opened up two or three thousand miles, almost half of Guizhou Province, increased the camp and set up flood control, and most of the defense troops of all counties and counties in the hinterland moved to Xinjiang."
In 1755, the Qing Dynasty captured guleza; In 1757, the Qing Dynasty completely put down the Junggar rebellion. Emperor Qianlong named this land "Xinjiang" because of the meaning of "new return of hometown". In 1759, the Qing Dynasty calmed down the Hui tribe in the south of Tianshan Mountain, which took advantage of the disappearance of the Junggar tribe, that is, the rebellion of Xiaohe Zhuo, the leader of the Baishan sect of Islam. From then on, the Qing Dynasty completely established its stable rule over Xinjiang and lifted the threat of the Kazakh Khanate from the nobility of Junggar. The three Yuzi, large, medium and small, have successively expressed their obedience to the Qing Dynasty, and some herdsmen have moved back to Altay, Tacheng and Ili for grazing; It is not only Kazak and burut who require annexation, but also tribes in the west of the Congling mountains, such as Haohan, badak mountain, Pamir, buhar, Shanke, Tashkent and aiwuhan (Afghanistan) in today's western Xinjiang, have expressed annexation. In 1771, under the leadership of the leader vobassi, the turhutes defeated the Czar Russia and prevented them from returning to the motherland from the Kazakh grassland thousands of miles away.
The Opium War in 1840 was the beginning of modern Chinese society. After the Opium War, China's territorial sovereignty was trampled on by the great powers. The struggle task of the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang against foreign invasion, division and feudal exploitation and oppression was even more arduous. Xinjiang's destiny with the motherland is getting closer and closer.
After the first Opium War, Xinjiang, which is located in the northwest border of the motherland, was deeply invaded by Tsarist Russia. From 1860 to 1851, tsarist Russia forced the Qing government to sign the Sino Russian Beijing treaty, the Sino Russian agreement on the northwest boundary of the exploration division, and the Sino Russian articles of Association for trade between Ili and talbahatai. The Treaty of Tacheng in 1864 ceded the territory of more than 440000 square kilometers south of Balkash Lake in northwest Xinjiang to Russia and then to Tajikistan. In the spring of 1865, akuba of Central Asia, a vast country adjacent to Xinjiang, entered Xinjiang from Kashgar and ruled most of Xinjiang for six years, bringing calm disaster to the people of Xinjiang. In 1871, on the pretext that the Yili peasant uprising and the agubai forces threatened Russia's security, Russia occupied the Ili River Valley, including guleza city (Yining City), and the Qing Dynasty left only a few data points in Xinjiang, such as Tacheng.
In 1875, Zuo Zongtang, governor of Shaanxi and Gansu Province of the Qing Dynasty, took office as imperial envoy minister to supervise Xinjiang affairs. By January 1878, the Qing army successively recovered the north and south of Tianshan Mountain occupied by agubai, which is known as the "war of the Qing army to recover Xinjiang". In 1881 (the seventh year of Guangxu), Zeng Jize, an envoy of the Qing government, after a hard diplomatic struggle with tsarist Russia, reached the Sino Russian Ili treaty, which agreed that the Tsarist Russian troops would withdraw from Ili the next year. China paid compensation and allowed Russian businessmen to trade in Xinjiang without paying taxes, and Russia set up consuls in Jiayuguan and Turpan. In 1882, Ili returned to the embrace of the motherland.
From 1882 to 1884, tsarist Russia forced the Qing government to sign five demarcation protocols, including the Ili boundary treaty, the Kashgar boundary treaty, the Kota boundary treaty, the southwest boundary Treaty of tahaba, and the Sino Russian continued exploration of the Kashgar boundary treaty, in accordance with the principled agreement on modifying the South and North borders in the Sino Russian Ili treaty, thus seizing the west of the Horgos River More than 70000 square kilometers east of Zhaisang lake.
In 1884 (the tenth year of Guangxu's reign), the Qing government issued the imperial edict on the establishment of Xinjiang Province and established Xinjiang province. The governor was in charge of all military and political affairs in Xinjiang and implemented the same administrative system in Xinjiang as in mainland China. Liu Jintang was appointed the first governor of Xinjiang, and the political center of Xinjiang was moved from Yili to Dihua (now Urumqi).
In 1892, Russia forcibly occupied more than 20000 square kilometers west of the sarekool mountains in the southwest of Xinjiang in the Qing Dynasty (see the Tsarist Russian occupation of Pamir).
The Qing Dynasty's management of Xinjiang, both in scale and scope, was far better than previous dynasties, and the social economy made unprecedented progress and development. By 1909 (the first year of Xuantong), Xinjiang province had four roads, under which there were 6 prefectures, 10 departments, 3 prefectures and 21 counties or sub counties.
After the Qing Dynasty entered the 20th century, the bourgeois revolutionary movement was rising day by day. Shortly after the Wuchang Uprising in October 1911, Liu Xianjun, a revolutionary party in Xinjiang, planned to initiate the uprising in Dihua city. Failed because of betrayal by traitors. The following year, the revolutionaries led by Yang zanxu, Feng Temin and Li Fuhuang succeeded in the uprising in Ili. Declare the end of the reactionary rule of the Qing Dynasty in Ili. Later, due to the abdication of emperor Xuantong of the Qing Dynasty, Yuan Shikai ordered Yang Zengxin to be the governor of Xinjiang. Yang Zengxin used both soft and hard means to force the revolutionaries to compromise, and the Yili uprising led by the bourgeoisie failed.
After Yang Zengxin served as governor of Xinjiang, he died of infighting among the ruling group after ruling Xinjiang for 17 years. In 1928, following the governor of Xinjiang, Jin Shuren further deepened social unrest. At the end of 1933, Jin Shuren was forced to flee. Sheng Shicai took over as governor and began his 10-year rule.
Under the influence of some progressive youth and the help of the Soviet Union, Sheng Shicai formed the "six major policies" of "anti imperialism, pro Soviet, people's peace, honesty, peace and construction" in 1936. In 1937, the Lugouqiao Incident broke out the all-round war of resistance against Japan. In order to unite all forces to resist Japan together, the Communist Party of China has formed an anti Japanese national united front with Sheng Shicai. In October 1937, Sheng Shicai agreed to establish the Eighth Route Army Office of the Communist Party of China in Dihua, with Teng Daiyuan as the director. Subsequently, the Party Central Committee sent more than 100 party members to work in Xinjiang.
In 1941, German fascists launched the war of aggression against the Soviet Union. Sheng Shicai misestimated the situation and openly opposed the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of China. Create the "April 12 conspiracy riot case" to kill CPC members, kill CPC members such as Chen Tanqiu, Mao Zemin and Lin Jilu, abandon the six major policies and join the Kuomintang.
At the end of the Anti Japanese War, the Soviet Union intervened in Xinjiang affairs again. In 1944, the "Three District revolution" against Kuomintang unification broke out. Elihan Tulie stole the leadership in the early stage of the "Three District revolution", established the "East Turkestan Republic" in Yining and served as the "chairman". In September 1944, Chiang Kai Shek transferred Sheng Shicai to Nanjing, sent Wu Zhong to trust the governor of Xinjiang, and ordered Ma Bufang, chairman of Northwest warlord Gansu Province, to send an army of cavalry to all parts of Xinjiang for armed counter insurgency. The forces represented by Ahmadi River hasmu gradually eliminated the reactionary forces. In June 1946, Ahmadi River and abasov abolished the post of elihan Tulie and reorganized the "East Turkistan Republic" into the Council of Ili special region.
In 1949, at the end of the civil war between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, Deng Liqun was ordered to bring radio to Ili and Dihua (now Urumqi) to meet with the revolutionary leaders of the three districts, such as ahematijiang, ishakburke, abasov, Tao Shiyue and Bao erhan. The Central Committee decided to send five representatives from Xinjiang to attend the New Political Consultative Conference, and hoped that Uygur and Kazak representatives would attend. Five deputies were killed in the plane crash, and saifuding, alimujiang and Tu Zhi were sent again to attend the CPPCC National Committee meeting.
In 1949, the first field army of the Chinese people's Liberation Army led by Peng Dehuai liberated Lanzhou on August 26, and then the whole territory of Gansu. After that, through the mediation of Zhang Zhizhong, Tao Shiyue and Bao erhan, military and political leaders of the National Revolutionary Army in Xinjiang, announced the uprising of the Interim National Government leaving Guangzhou. On September 25, the first corps of the first field army captured Urumqi under the leadership of General Wang Zhen. October 1, 1955 was the founding day of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Xinjiang has 14 prefectures, prefectures and cities and 90 counties (cities), of which 34 are border counties (cities).
In the 1960s, the East Turkestan people's revolutionary party, which committed crimes repeatedly, was uncovered. In 1962, under the background of tense Sino Soviet relations, incited by the Soviet authorities, a large number of border people in Xinjiang fled across the border to the Soviet Union. In 1969, China and the Soviet Union had an armed conflict in tielieketi, Xinjiang (tielieketi incident).
In the 1970s, under the severe crackdown of the Chinese government, the activities of ethnic separatist forces in Xinjiang were at a low ebb.
In December 1981, the Chinese government decided to restore the Xinjiang production and Construction Corps, which was abolished in 1975. The production and Construction Corps began its second venture, and its construction and development entered a new period.
In the 1980s, the activities of ethnic separatist forces in Xinjiang intensified, and a series of riots and riots occurred. Since the 1990s, ethnic separatist organizations and gangs in Xinjiang have increased sharply. Under the influence of religious extremism, separatism and international terrorism, some "East Turkistan" forces at home and abroad have turned to separatist and destructive activities with terrorist violence as the main means.
In January 2014, with the approval of the State Council, Shuanghe city at the county level was established in Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, implementing the "division city integration" model of BINGTUAN City, which is under the management of the fifth division of Xinjiang production and Construction Corps. On February 26 of the same year, Shuanghe City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was officially unveiled. Shuanghe city is the seventh city in the 60 years since the establishment of Xinjiang production and Construction Corps.
On March 18, 2015, kekekedala was approved to be built as the eighth city of Xinjiang corps.
In April 2015, with the approval of the State Council, Turpan region was abolished and a prefecture level Turpan city was established. The newly established prefecture level Turpan city implemented the system of municipal leading districts and counties. The original organizational system (county level) of Turpan city was changed to Gaochang District, while Shanshan county and tuokesun County remained unchanged.
On January 7, 2016, the State Council (Guo Han  No. 9) approved the cancellation of Hami Prefecture and county level Hami City and the establishment of prefecture level Hami City. Hami Municipal People's government is located at No. 19, Jianguo South Road, Yizhou district. Yizhou district is established in Hami City, and the administrative area of the original county-level Hami City is the administrative area of Yizhou district. Yizhou District People's government is located at No. 2, Guangdong Road, Donghe District street. Hami City governs Balikun Kazakh Autonomous County, Yiwu county and the newly established Yizhou District of Hami region.
On December 6, 2019, with the approval of the State Council, it was agreed to establish a county-level huyanghe city directly under the central government of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. No. 8, Guangming East Road, 130th regiment, seventh division, Xinjiang production and Construction Corps, huyanghe Municipal People's government.
In January 2021, with the approval of the State Council and the reply of the Ministry of civil affairs, Shawan County was abolished and a county-level Shawan city was established. The administrative area of Shawan city was the original administrative area of Shawan County. Shawan Municipal People's government was located at No. 29, Century Avenue South Road, sandaohezi town. With the approval of the State Council, it is agreed to establish Xinxing city at the county level directly under the central government of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and the people's Government of Xinxing city is located at No. 57, Lanxin East Road, Huangtian farm, 13th division.
As of February 2021, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has jurisdiction over 4 prefecture level cities, 5 regions, 5 autonomous prefectures and 11 county-level cities directly under the central government.
Municipal districts, county-level cities and counties
Shuimogou District, Tianshan District, shayibak District, Xinshi District, Toutunhe District, Dabancheng District, Midong district and Urumqi county
Karamay District, Dushanzi District, Baijiantan district and Wuerhe District
Gaochang District, Shanshan county and tuokesun County
Yizhou District, Yiwu County, Balikun Kazakh Autonomous County
Aksu City, Wensu County, Kuqa City, Shaya County, Xinhe County, Baicheng County, Wushi County, Awati county and Keping County
Kashgar City, Shufu County, Shule County, Yingjisha County, Zepu County, Shache County, Yecheng County, Maigaiti County, yuepuhu County, Jiashi County, Bachu County, Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County
Hotan City, Hotan County, Moyu County, Pishan County, Luopu County, Cele County, Yutian County and Minfeng County
Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture
Changji City, Fukang City, Hutubi County, Manas County, Qitai County, jimusar county and Mulei Kazak Autonomous County
Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture
Bole City, Alashankou City, Jinghe County, Wenquan County
Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture
Korla City, Yanqi Hui Autonomous County, Luntai County, Yuli County, Ruoqiang County, Qiemo County, Hejing County, Heshuo county and Bohu County
Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture
Atushi City, aktao County, AHEQI county and Wuqia County
Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
Yining City, Kuitun city, Horgos City, nilek County, Yining County, Huocheng County, Gongliu County, Xinyuan County, Zhaosu County, Tekes county and Chabuchar Xibe Autonomous County
Tacheng City, Wusu city, Shawan City, Emin County, Tori County, Yumin County, hebukesaer Mongolian Autonomous County
Altay City, Burqin County, Fuyun County, Fuhai County, Habahe County, Qinghe County and Jimunai County
Administrative units at the county level directly under the central government of autonomous regions
Shihezi, alar, tumushuk, Wujiaqu, Beitun, Tiemenguan, Shuanghe, kekedala, Kunyu, huyanghe and Xinxing
Updated in 2021
Xinjiang is located between 73 ° 40 ′～ 96 ° 18 ′ E and 34 ° 25 ′～ 48 ° 10 ′ n. Xinjiang is the largest provincial administrative region in China. The total area of Xinjiang accounts for one sixth of China's land area (1.66 million square kilometers), and the length of the boundary line accounts for one fourth (more than 5000 kilometers). Its area is 40000 square kilometers more than eight times the sum of Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province. Among them, Ruoqiang County of Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture is the largest county in China.
Mountains and basins are arranged alternately. The basin is surrounded by high mountains, which is known as "three mountains and two basins". Altai Mountain in the north and Kunlun mountain system in the South; Tianshan Mountains lie across the central part of Xinjiang and divide Xinjiang into two parts: Tarim Basin in the South and Junggar Basin in the north. It is customary to say that the south of Tianshan is the south, the north of Tianshan is the north, and Hami and Turpan basins are the East. The lowest point in Xinjiang, Turpan Aiding Lake, is 155 meters below sea level (also the lowest point on land in China). The highest point, mount chogori, is located on the Kashmir border, with an altitude of 8611 meters. Gurbantunggut Desert in Xinjiang (46 ° 16.8 n, 86 ° 40.2 E) is the farthest place on land from the ocean, 2648 km (straight-line distance) from the nearest coastline.
The Xinjiang Kyrgyz border crosses the Tianshan Mountains. Turgat port (3752 meters above sea level) is located at the border.
There are Altai Mountains in the north of Xinjiang and Kunlun Mountains, Altun Mountains and Tianshan Mountains in the south. As a symbol of Xinjiang, Tianshan Mountains traverse the central part, forming the Tarim Basin in the South and the Junggar Basin in the north.
Xinjiang is far away from the sea and deep inland. There are high mountains around it. The ocean air flow is not easy to reach, forming an obvious temperate continental climate. The temperature difference is large, the sunshine time is sufficient (the annual sunshine time reaches 2500 ~ 3500 hours), the precipitation is small, and the climate is dry. The average annual precipitation in Xinjiang is about 150 mm, but the precipitation varies greatly. The temperature in southern Xinjiang is higher than that in Northern Xinjiang, and the precipitation in Northern Xinjiang is higher than that in southern Xinjiang. In the coldest month (January), the average temperature is below minus 20 ℃ in Junggar basin. The absolute minimum temperature in Fuyun County on the northern edge of the basin once reached minus 50.15 ℃, which is one of the coldest areas in China. In the hottest month (July), the average temperature in Turpan, known as "Huozhou", is above 33 ℃, and the absolute maximum temperature once reached 49.6 ℃, ranking the first in China. Due to the great daily temperature difference between spring and summer and autumn and winter in most parts of Xinjiang, it has always been said that "wear leather jacket early, wear yarn at noon, and eat watermelon around the stove".
Tarim River, Ili River, Erqisi River
Bosten Lake, Kanas Lake, Sailimu Lake, Ebinur Lake and Edin Lake
There are more than 500 rivers in the snow and glacier breeding of the three mountains in Xinjiang, which are distributed in the basins in the north and south of Tianshan Mountain, including more than 20 larger rivers, such as Tarim River (China's largest inland river), Ili River, Erqis River (flowing into the Arctic Ocean), Manas River, ulungu River and Kaidu River. On both banks of many rivers, there are countless oases, quite rich in the scenery beyond the great wall of "ten miles of peach flowers and ten thousand willows". There are many lakes with beautiful natural landscape in Xinjiang, with a total area of 9700 square kilometers, accounting for more than 0.6% of the total area of Xinjiang. Among them, the top ten famous lakes are Bosten Lake, EBI lake, brento sea, ayagekuli lake, Sailimu Lake, aqigekule lake, whale lake, Jili Lake, aksayi lake and aisiman lake.
There are more than 18600 unique large glaciers in Xinjiang, with a total area of more than 24000 square kilometers, accounting for 42% of the glacier area in China. The ice reserve is 258 million cubic meters. It is a natural "solid reservoir" in Xinjiang. Xinjiang is extremely rich in water resources, and its per capita share ranks first in the country. The great desert accounts for 2 / 3 of the desert area in China, of which the Taklimakan Desert in the Tarim basin covers an area of 336700 square kilometers. It is the largest desert in China and the second largest mobile desert in the world, second only to the rubkhari desert on the Arabian Peninsula. Gurbantunggut Desert in Junggar basin, covering an area of 48000 square kilometers, is the second largest desert in China.
Xinjiang is the main natural forest area in the arid areas of Western China. Forests are widely distributed in mountainous areas and plains, accounting for nearly 1 / 3 of the total forest area in Northwest China. Tianshan and Altai mountain areas are covered with lush virgin forests. Most of them are good building materials such as Siberian larch, Xueling spruce and conifer. The timber volume of these mountain coniferous forests accounts for more than 97% of the total timber volume in Xinjiang. Both banks of Tarim River, Manas River and other rivers are the distribution area of plain broad-leaved forest. In the Tarim River Basin, Populus euphratica and Populus tomentosa, which are world-famous precious tree species, are clustered. They are not only widely used timber forests, but also windbreaks in the depths of the desert. The main afforestation tree species in Xinjiang include more than 60 kinds of poplar, willow, elm, ash, maple, locust, white pine, Elaeagnus angustifolia, mulberry and various fruit trees.
Xinjiang is rich in wild animals. There are different wild animals in northern and southern Xinjiang. There are more than 500 kinds of wild animals in the province. The animals in Northern Xinjiang include snow leopard, sable, brown bear, beaver, otter, marmot, squirrel, snow rabbit, North goat, lynx, etc., the birds include swan, Thunderbird, snow chicken, woodpecker, etc., and the reptiles include flower snake, grassland viper, swimming snake, etc. In southern Xinjiang, there are camels, Tibetan antelopes, wild yaks, wild horses, Tarim rabbits, pikas, plateau rabbits, jungle cats, grassland spotted cats, etc., and reptiles include sand python, lizard, etc.
Xinjiang has a wide range of minerals, large reserves and broad development prospects. There are 138 kinds of minerals discovered, of which 9 kinds of reserves rank first in China and 32 kinds rank first in Northwest China. It is rich in oil, natural gas, coal, gold, chromium, copper, nickel, rare metals, salt minerals, building materials and non-metals. Xinjiang has 20.86 billion tons of oil resources, accounting for 30% of China's onshore oil resources; The amount of natural gas resources is 10.3 trillion cubic meters, accounting for 34% of China's onshore natural gas resources. Xinjiang has great potential for oil and gas exploration and development and considerable prospect. The predicted coal resources in Xinjiang are 2.19 trillion tons, accounting for 40% of the country. Gold, precious stones, jade and other resources have a wide variety and are well-known in ancient and modern times.
The area of land directly available for agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry in Xinjiang is 1.028 billion mu, accounting for more than one tenth of the land suitable for agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry in China. Reserve cultivated land is 223 million mu, ranking first in China. Xinjiang is one of the five major pastoral areas in China. There are a large number of excellent pastures around the "three mountains" and "two basins", with a total area of 770 million mu, ranking third in China after Inner Mongolia and Tibet. The theoretical solar energy reserve is 1450 ~ 1720 kwh / m2 · year, and the total annual sunshine hours are 2550 ~ 3500 hours, ranking the second in China.
On May 5, 2011, the Statistics Bureau of Xinjiang Autonomous Province released the data of the sixth national census of Xinjiang. The permanent resident population of the whole region is 21813334, that of Urumqi is 3110280, that of Karamay is 390000, that of Turpan is 630000, that of Aksu is 239000, that of Kashgar is 4 million, that of Altay is 640000 and that of Hotan is 1.82 million, Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture is 480000, Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture is 118000, Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture is 5000000, Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture is 530000, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture is 1600000, Shihezi city is 800000, alar city is 290000, tumushuk city is 110000 and Wujiaqu City is 110000. Among the population, the Han population is 8746148, accounting for 40.1% of the total population, and the population of ethnic minorities is 13067186, accounting for 59.9% of the total population; The male population is 11190228, accounting for 51.30%; The female population is 10623106, accounting for 48.70%. The sex ratio of the total population (100 women, male to female ratio) decreased from 107.24 in the fifth national census in 2000 to 105.34; The population aged 0 ~ 14 years was 4530645, accounting for 20.77%; The population aged 15-64 years was 15932420, accounting for 73.04%; The population aged 65 and over was 1350269, accounting for 6.19%; The population with University (college or above) level is 2319950; The population with high school (including technical secondary school) level is 2526385; The population with junior high school level is 7873675; The population with primary school level is 6560438.
By the end of 2019, the permanent resident population of the whole region was 25232200, an increase of 364600 over the end of the previous year, including 13.0879 million urban permanent residents, accounting for 51.87% of the total population (urbanization rate of permanent residents), an increase of 0.96 percentage points over the end of the previous year. The annual birth population was 205400, with a birth rate of 8.14 ‰; The dead population was 112300, with a mortality rate of 4.45 ‰; The natural growth rate is 3.69 ‰.
In 2020, according to the results of the seventh national population census, the permanent resident population of the whole region will be 25.8523 million.
Xinjiang is a region inhabited by many ethnic groups, with a total of 56 ethnic groups. Among them, 13 ethnic groups are Han, Uygur, Kazak, Hui, Kirgiz, Mongolian, Tajik, Xibe, Manchu, Uzbek, Russian, Daur and Tatar. With a population of more than 1 million, there are four ethnic groups: Uighur, Han, Kazak and Hui, and two ethnic groups: Kirgiz and Mongolia.
Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Committee of the Communist Party of China
Guo Guo Chen
Xuekelaiti zaker (Uygur), Wang Junzheng, Zhang Chunlin, Li Yifei, he Zhongyou
member of the standing committee
Li Wei, Xu Hailong, Elken tuniyazi (Uygur), Tian Wen (female), Li Yifei, sharheti ahan (Kazak), Yang Xin, Zhang Chunlin, Wang Mingshan, Chen Weijun, Zhang Zhu, yusufjiang maimeti, yilzati aihematijiang
Standing Committee of the people's Congress of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
Xiao Kaiti Yiming (Uygur)
Li Xuejun, Wang Yongming, Dong Xinguang, badai (Mongolian), Suoyue, Li Ningping, zumreti ubuli (Uygur), Tohti Yakov (Uygur)
People's Government of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
Elken tuniyazi (Uygur)
Peng Jiarui, gilla yishamuddin (Uygur), Zhao Qing, manlik siyiti, haderbick hamuza (Uygur), Yang Fasen and Chen Weijun
Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Committee of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference
Nurlan abudoumanjin (Kazak)
Juaiti Yiming (Uygur), mutailifu wubuli (Uygur), Kong Xinglong, dou Wangui, Qiu Shuhua, Yang Yong, yilimu Sabir (Uygur), Ma xiongcheng (HUI), abudurekfu tumniazi (Uygur)
First Secretary of the Party committee and first political commissar of Xinjiang production and Construction Corps: Chen Quanguo
Party secretary and political commissar of Xinjiang production and Construction Corps: Wang Junzheng
Deputy secretary and commander of the Party committee of Xinjiang production and Construction Corps: Peng Jiarui
Deputy political commissars of Xinjiang production and Construction Corps: Kong Xinglong, Li Xinming, Shaofeng, Zhang Wenquan, Liu Jianming, Mutan Rifu maitituoheti (Uygur)
Deputy commanders of Xinjiang production and Construction Corps: Yao Xinmin, Zhang Yong, Li Ping (female), Lu Xuping
Secretary General of Xinjiang production and Construction Corps: Li Jidong
In 2014, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was 926.41 billion yuan, an increase of 10.0% over the previous year. Among them, the added value of the primary industry was 153.860 billion yuan, an increase of 5.9%; The added value of the secondary industry was 392.782 billion yuan, an increase of 10.8%; The added value of the tertiary industry was 379.768 billion yuan, an increase of 10.9%. According to the resident population, the per capita regional GDP was 40607 yuan, an increase of 8.4%.
The ex factory prices of industrial producers decreased by 3.8%, including 1.7% for light industry and 4.1% for heavy industry. The purchase price of industrial producers decreased by 2.5%. The price of agricultural means of production decreased by 2.2%. The price of fixed asset investment rose by 0.3%.
In 2019, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was 1359.711 billion yuan, an increase of 6.2% over the previous year. Among them, the added value of the primary industry was 178.175 billion yuan, an increase of 5.3%; The added value of the secondary industry was 479.55 billion yuan, an increase of 3.7%; The added value of the tertiary industry was 701.986 billion yuan, an increase of 8.1%. The added value of the primary industry accounted for 13.1% of the regional GDP, the added value of the secondary industry accounted for 35.3%, and the added value of the tertiary industry accounted for 51.6%. The per capita regional GDP was 54280 yuan, an increase of 4.5% over the previous year.
By 2020, Xinjiang's 3.089 million poor people will be lifted out of poverty, 32 poor counties will be lifted out of poverty, and 3666 poor villages will be withdrawn.
The agricultural economic benefits have been significantly improved, and the unit yield level of main crops, per capita agricultural output value and per capita share of main agricultural products all rank at the upper middle level of the country. The gross agricultural product increased from 586 million yuan in 1949 to 88.354 billion yuan in 2006.
In 1983, the history of food transfer was ended. In 1984, there was more than self-sufficiency in food, and food transfer began in 1985.
In 2006, grain output increased nearly 10 times compared with 1949, making it the province with the largest amount of grain transferred out in Northwest China; Meat production increased 30 times; Cotton production accounts for one third of the total cotton production in China, which is the largest commercial cotton production base in China; The forest and fruit horticulture industry around Tarim Basin has developed rapidly, with a total area of more than 10 million mu. The "famous, special and excellent" products such as Hami melon, grape and fragrant pear are famous at home and abroad; The vegetable area has increased from 9.25 thousand hectares to 186.82 thousand hectares, and the self-sufficiency rate of fresh vegetables in winter in major cities has reached 70%; 87 kinds of foods have been certified as green food marks by China Green Food Center; The commodity rate of agricultural products reached more than 63%.
In 2014, the total output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery in Xinjiang was 274.401 billion yuan, an increase of 6.8% over the previous year, of which the agricultural output value was 195.511 billion yuan, an increase of 7.2%; The forestry output value was 4.939 billion yuan, an increase of 5.8%; The output value of animal husbandry was 65.120 billion yuan, an increase of 5.7%; The output value of fishery was 1.96 billion yuan, an increase of 5.7%; The output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery services was 6.87 billion yuan, an increase of 6.5%.
In 2019, the grain planting area in Xinjiang was 33.0542 million mu, a decrease of 0.7% over the previous year. Among them, the wheat planting area was 15.9239 million mu, an increase of 2.9%; The corn planting area was 14.958 million mu, down 3.5%. The cotton planting area was 38.1075 million mu, an increase of 2.0%. The oil planting area was 3279100 mu, down 2.5%. Sugar beet planting area was 898600 mu, an increase of 4.7%.
In 2019, Xinjiang's grain output was 15.2707 million tons, an increase of 228400 tons over the previous year, an increase of 1.5%. Among them, the output of summer grain was 5.7928 million tons, an increase of 0.9%; The output of autumn grain was 9.4779 million tons, an increase of 1.6%. Among the grain output, wheat output was 5.7603 million tons, an increase of 0.7%; The output of corn was 8.5837 million tons, an increase of 3.7%.
In 2019, the cotton output in Xinjiang will be 5.02 million tons, a decrease of 2.1%. The oil output was 664100 tons, a decrease of 1.8%. Sugar beet output was 4.4533 million tons, an increase of 4.9%.
In 2019, the output of characteristic forest fruits in Xinjiang was 17.2944 million tons, an increase of 7.8% over the previous year. Among them, the output of garden fruits was 11.1872 million tons, an increase of 5.6%; The output of nuts was 1246900 tons, an increase of 16.7%; The output of fruit melon was 4.8603 million tons, an increase of 10.8%.
In 2019, the output of pig, cattle, sheep and poultry meat in Xinjiang was 1606000 tons, an increase of 2.2% over the previous year. Among them, the output of mutton was 603200 tons, an increase of 1.6%; Beef output was 445200 tons, an increase of 6.1%; Pork output was 376200 tons, down 1.3%; The output of poultry meat was 181400 tons, an increase of 13.4%. The output of poultry eggs was 404600 tons, an increase of 8.6%. Milk output was 2044200 tons, an increase of 4.9%. There were 49.401 million cattle, sheep and pigs, a decrease of 0.3% over the previous year; There were 45128300 cattle, sheep and pigs, an increase of 1.2%.
In 2019, the aquaculture area in Xinjiang was 114.29 thousand hectares, down 5.1%. The output of aquatic products was 166700 tons, a decrease of 4.4% over the previous year. Among them, the output of aquaculture aquatic products was 152000 tons, down 5.2%; The output of fishing aquatic products was 14700 tons, an increase of 5.0%.
In 2019, the total power of agricultural machinery in Xinjiang was 28.5561 million KW, an increase of 5.6% over the previous year. The comprehensive mechanization level of crop cultivation and harvest is 84.89%, the machine tillage rate is 97.45%, the machine sowing rate is 93.38%, and the machine yield is 59.64%.
Before the reform and opening up, the average annual growth rate of the region's total industrial output value was 11.7%; After the reform and opening up, the average annual growth rate was 11.8%. More than 50000 industrial enterprises have been established, forming a modern industrial system with a certain scale, with mineral resources development and deep processing of agricultural and sideline products as the leading force, including oil and gas exploitation, petrochemical industry, iron and steel, coal, electric power, textile, building materials, chemical industry, medicine, sugar making, papermaking, leather, cigarette and food, It occupies a leading position in the national economy. The total industrial output value increased from 98 million yuan in 1949 to 289.488 billion yuan in 2006. Some products occupy an important position in the country. For example, in 2006, the output of natural gas and crude oil was 16.4 billion cubic meters and 24.75 million tons respectively, ranking first and third in the country; 537900 tons of finished sugar, ranking fourth in China.
In 2014, Xinjiang's industrial added value was 317.96 billion yuan, an increase of 10.0%.
In 2019, Xinjiang's industrial added value was 386.166 billion yuan, an increase of 4.5% over the previous year. Among them, the added value of industries above designated size increased by 4.7%. In industries above Designated Size, by economic type, the added value of state-owned holding enterprises increased by 4.0%, joint-stock enterprises increased by 3.5%, foreign-invested enterprises and enterprises invested by Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan increased by 5.5%, and private enterprises increased by 3.0%. In terms of industrial categories, the mining industry increased by 8.0%, the manufacturing industry increased by 1.2%, and the production and supply of electricity, heat, gas and water increased by 10.7%. In terms of light and light industries, light industry increased by 1.1% and heavy industry increased by 5.1%.
Among the ten major industries in the whole year, the added value of oil and gas exploitation industry increased by 5.0% over the previous year; Power and heat production and supply increased by 10.8%; Oil, coal and other fuel processing industries increased by 0.4%; The manufacturing of chemical raw materials and chemical products decreased by 0.7%; The coal mining and washing industry increased by 13.2%; Nonferrous metal smelting and calendering industry decreased by 7.1%; The non-metallic mineral products industry increased by 6.0%; Professional and auxiliary mining activities increased by 40.0%; Ferrous metal smelting and calendering industry increased by 8.4%; The textile industry grew by 1.7%.
In 2019, the profit of Industrial Enterprises above Designated Size in Xinjiang was 62.336 billion yuan, a decrease of 19.9% over the previous year. In terms of economic types, state-owned holding enterprises realized a profit of 35.834 billion yuan, a decrease of 24.2% over the previous year; Joint stock enterprises reached 57.347 billion yuan, down 21.4%; Foreign invested enterprises and enterprises from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan invested 1.984 billion yuan, a decrease of 19.3% over the previous year; By industrial category, the mining industry realized a profit of 26.838 billion yuan, down 16.2%; The manufacturing industry was 25.386 billion yuan, down 37.4%; The production and supply of electricity, heat, gas and water reached 10.112 billion yuan, an increase of 93.9%. The annual cost per 100 yuan of operating income of Industrial Enterprises above designated size was 80.99 yuan, an increase of 1.77 yuan over the previous year; The profit margin of operating revenue was 5.5%, down 1.7 percentage points.
In 2019, the product sales rate of Industrial Enterprises above Designated Size in Xinjiang was 98.9%; The export delivery value of industrial products was 13.532 billion yuan, an increase of 27.2%. The added value of the social construction industry was 103.729 billion yuan, an increase of 1.9% over the previous year.
In 2005, the total retail sales of social consumer goods in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region reached 63.778 billion yuan.
In 2014, the total retail sales of social consumer goods in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was 227.965 billion yuan, an increase of 11.8% over the previous year, with an actual increase of 9.9% after deducting price factors.
In 2019, the total retail sales of social consumer goods in Xinjiang was 336.16 billion yuan, an increase of 5.5% over the previous year. According to the statistics of business locations, the retail sales of urban consumer goods reached 303.4 billion yuan, an increase of 5.3%; The retail sales of rural consumer goods reached 32.76 billion yuan, an increase of 7.5%. According to the statistics of consumption types, the retail sales of goods reached 287.9 billion yuan, an increase of 5.0%; Catering revenue was 48.26 billion yuan, an increase of 8.6%.
Among the retail sales of commodities of units above Designated Size, the retail sales of grain, oil and food increased by 5.4%, beverages increased by 5.3%, tobacco and alcohol decreased by 2.6%, clothing, shoes and hats, knitwear and textiles decreased by 12.6%, cosmetics increased by 1.1%, gold, silver and jewelry decreased by 13.5%, daily necessities decreased by 3.7%, household appliances and audio-visual equipment decreased by 7.2%, and Chinese and Western medicines increased by 7.4%, Furniture increased by 17.1%, communication equipment decreased by 6.9%, construction and decoration materials decreased by 19.2%, petroleum and products increased by 5.4%, and automobiles increased by 1.4%.
On July 30, 2020, the production and marketing docking activity of agricultural products in poor areas of Xinjiang (Kashgar) was held online, with a signed amount of 775 million yuan.
After the founding of new China, the party and the state formulated and implemented a series of ethnic and religious policies in line with national conditions based on the reality of multi-ethnic groups in Xinjiang. The system of regional national autonomy has been implemented in areas inhabited by ethnic minorities to ensure that the people of all ethnic groups are truly masters of their own affairs. A number of historical and cultural heritages of ethnic minorities, such as the historical epic jianger and Manas of ethnic minorities and the large-scale classical music "Twelve Mukam" of Uygur, have been effectively protected. We will conscientiously implement the party's policy on freedom of religious belief, and respect and protect religious figures, religious sites and the normal religious activities of the masses. Hold high the great banner of national unity and vigorously carry out ideological education activities with patriotism and national unity as the main line. We severely cracked down on the backbone elements of ethnic separatism, ethnic violent terrorist criminals and elements led by ethnic and religious extremists, carried out in-depth crackdown and rectification struggle, strengthened control over religious affairs according to law, and maintained the overall social and political stability of Xinjiang.
By 2019, there were 54 colleges and universities in Xinjiang. In the whole year, 10100 graduate students were enrolled, an increase of 12.0% over the previous year; 26900 graduate students, an increase of 12.8%; There were 6600 graduates, an increase of 8.0%. The enrollment of ordinary colleges and universities was 144900, an increase of 21.1%; 427000 students, an increase of 13.9%; 84400 graduates, an increase of 3.8%.
There were 158 secondary vocational education schools, with 87100 students enrolled in the whole year, a decrease of 13.6% over the previous year; 255400 students, an increase of 0.7%; 68000 graduates, down 0.8%.
336 ordinary high schools enrolled 170100 students, an increase of 3.0% over the previous year; 528400 students, down 3.9%; 186900 graduates, an increase of 5.1%.
870 junior middle schools enrolled 347900 students, an increase of 8.2% over the previous year; 977100 students, an increase of 5.7%; 294900 graduates, down 0.7%.
3640 ordinary primary schools enrolled 530000 students, an increase of 13.1% over the previous year; There were 2.068 million students in school, an increase of 7.4%; 348600 graduates, an increase of 7.7%.
There were 28 special education schools, with an annual enrollment of 800, a decrease of 3.6% over the previous year; 4500 students, an increase of 12.0%; 600 graduates, down 52.8%.
7725 kindergartens, with 462200 students enrolled in the whole year; There were 1.519 million students in school, a decrease of 2.5% over the previous year; 514800 graduates, an increase of 10.5%.
Ordinary colleges and Universities
Xinjiang University (a world-class university), Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang Normal University, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Xinjiang University of Finance and economics, Xinjiang police college, Xinjiang Institute of engineering, Xinjiang Academy of art, Xinjiang Tianshan vocational and Technical University, Xinjiang Normal College, Xinjiang Vocational University, Urumqi Vocational University, Xinjiang communications vocational and technical college Xinjiang Industrial Vocational and technical college, Xinjiang electromechanical vocational and technical college, Xinjiang energy vocational and technical college, Xinjiang Railway Vocational and technical college, Xinjiang Light Industry Vocational and technical college, Xinjiang Modern Vocational and technical college, Xinjiang Construction Vocational and technical college, Xinjiang Sports Vocational and technical college, Xinjiang Kexin vocational and technical college
Shihezi University (world-class Discipline Construction University), Xinjiang Shihezi vocational and technical college, Shihezi Engineering Vocational and Technical College
Tarim University, Tarim vocational and Technical College
Kashgar University, Kashgar vocational and Technical College
Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
Yili Normal University, Yili vocational and technical college, Xinjiang applied vocational and Technical College
Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture
Changji college, Xinjiang Changji vocational and technical college, Xinjiang Agricultural Vocational and Technical College
Xinjiang Institute of technology, Aksu vocational and Technical College
Karamay campus of China University of Petroleum (Beijing), Xinjiang Second Medical College, Karamay vocational and Technical College
Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture
Xinjiang Institute of science and technology, Bayingolin vocational and Technical College
Xinjiang University of political science and law
Hotan normal college, Xinjiang Uygur Medical College, Hotan vocational and Technical College
Tiemenguan vocational and technical college, Xingxin vocational and Technical College of Xinjiang production and Construction Corps
Hami vocational and Technical College
Turpan vocational and Technical College
Xinjiang Vocational and Technical College of science and technology
Altay vocational and Technical College
Tacheng vocational and Technical College
Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture
Bortara vocational and Technical College
Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture
Kizilsu vocational and Technical College
Updated to 2020
Xinjiang has 6 radio stations; 53 medium and short wave transmitting stations and broadcasting stations; Medium and short wave transmission power reaches 2819 kW; 159 sets of programs, producing 270900 hours of radio programs, which are broadcast in five languages: Uygur, Chinese, Kazak, Kirgiz and Mongolia; The coverage rate of broadcast population reached 94.9%. Blind spots where radio cannot be heard are rapidly disappearing.
Xinjiang has 8 TV stations; 88 radio and television stations; 554400 satellite receiving and transferring stations; 911 TV transmitting stations and broadcasting stations; 198 TV programs were broadcast; 85000 hours of TV programs; It has also opened five language TV channels and rolling broadcasting throughout the day, expanded the TV population coverage to 95.29%, and achieved the Xinjiang wide TV networking goal of "one star in Tianshan and one underground network" of the autonomous region. There are 2.08 million cable TV users in Xinjiang, including 1.88 million digital TV users.
Xinjiang publishes about 3000 books, newspapers, periodicals, audio-visual products and electronic publications in six languages: Uighur, Han, Kazak, Mongolia, Kirgiz and Xibo. Among them, 128 newspapers and 208 periodicals are published in 6 languages. There are nearly 40000 press and publication employees, of which 60% are professional and technical personnel, and 63% are ethnic minority professionals. Xinjiang has 98 Xinhua bookstores above the county level, 205 distribution outlets of Xinhua bookstores, 1 book wholesale market, 140 book wholesale units and 1830 retail bookstores, with an annual distribution of about 230 million books and periodicals.
In 2019, there will be 1210 newly approved projects in the autonomous region level science and technology plan, 1 major science and technology special project in the autonomous region, 11 key R & D special projects in the autonomous region, and 35 demonstration special projects for the transformation of scientific and technological achievements in the autonomous region. At the end of the year, there were 111 research and technology development institutions affiliated to departments above the county level. Among them, there are 90 natural science research and technology development institutions, 6 scientific and technological information and literature institutions, 6 social and Humanities Research and technology development institutions, and 9 transformed scientific research and technology development institutions. There are 56 key laboratories, including 2 state key laboratories. 100 engineering technology research centers have been listed, including 5 at the national level. It has 664 high-tech enterprises; There are 19 high-tech industrial development zones, including 2 at the national level and 17 at the autonomous region level. There are 47 productivity promotion centers, including 9 national demonstration centers. There are 42 star creation worlds, including 34 national ones. There are 87 maker spaces, including 9 national ones. There are 38 science and technology business incubators, including 9 at the national level.
In 2019, Xinjiang accepted 14771 patent applications, including 3544 invention patent applications. 8652 patents were granted, including 856 invention patents. 687 technology contracts were registered, with a turnover of 782 million yuan, including 720 million yuan.
In 2014, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region built 11 county-level national fitness activity centers, 32 township farmers' sports fitness projects and 150 administrative village farmers' and herdsmen's sports fitness projects. He won 5 gold medals, 3 silver medals and 7 bronze medals in international competitions. He won 38 gold medals, 45 silver medals and 59 bronze medals in the national competition. The annual sales of sports lottery tickets reached 2.846 billion yuan, an increase of 88.6%; The public welfare fund for sports lottery was 637 million yuan, an increase of 72.2%.
In 2019, athletes of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region won 14 gold medals, 14 silver medals and 7 bronze medals in international competitions. Won 136 gold medals, 153 silver medals and 172 bronze medals in the national competition.
By the end of November 2019, Xinjiang will achieve full coverage of the standardized construction of 898 township health centers and 8602 village clinics, completely eliminate the "blank spots" of 1795 village doctors, and realize that there are qualified village doctors in every village.
By 2019, there were 15644 medical and health institutions in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, including 1632 hospitals and health centers, 91 maternal and child health centers (institutes and stations), and 3 specialized disease prevention and control centers (institutes and stations). Hospitals and health centers have 152679 beds. There are 158700 health technicians, including 57772 practicing (Assistant) doctors and 65046 registered nurses. There are 114 centers for Disease Control and prevention, and 3736 health technicians in the Centers for Disease Control and prevention. There are 921 township health centers with 29950 beds and 21961 health technicians in township health centers.
In 2019, all poverty-stricken villages in Xinjiang have been connected to broadband network, and the broadband coverage of administrative villages in the region has jumped to 99%; In that year, Xinjiang telecom enterprises invested 126 million yuan to build 518 5g demonstration and commercial pilot stations.
On November 14, 2020, Xinjiang announced that the poverty-stricken counties were "cleared".
Xinjiang is located in the northwest border of the motherland, with a vast territory. The traffic problem has been a bottleneck of economic development for a long time. After more than 50 years of construction, a comprehensive transportation network has been initially formed, which is based on roads and railway as the backbone, including civil aviation and oil and gas pipelines, and connects all parts (States, cities) and counties in the region, and connects the western, central and eastern regions of China and surrounding countries. By the end of 2005, the total mileage of highways in Xinjiang had reached 89500 kilometers, including 541 kilometers of expressways and 883 kilometers of class I highways. Urumqi, the capital, has been connected to all local (prefecture) capitals by high-grade roads above class II, and all 85 counties (cities) in Xinjiang are connected by Baiyou road. The operating mileage of Xinjiang Railway is 3009 kilometers.
Xinjiang Airlines was established in 1985 and merged into China Southern Airlines in 2002. Xinjiang already has 22 civil aviation airports, namely, Urumqi diwobao International Airport, Kashgar International Airport, Hotan airport, Shache Yeerqiang airport, Tumushuke tangwangcheng airport, Qiemo Yudu airport, Ruoqiang Loulan airport, Aksu Wensu airport, Kuqa kuci airport, Kurle airport, Turpan Jiaohe airport, Hami airport, Shihezi Garden Airport Karamay airport, Yining airport, narati airport, Bole Alashankou airport, Tacheng airport, Altay airport, Buerjin Kanas airport, Fuyun ketuohai airport and Yutian Wanfang airport are the provinces with the largest number of civil aviation airports in China.
On November 16, 2014, Lanzhou Xinjiang high-speed railway (Urumqi South Hami section) will be put into operation, marking that Xinjiang has officially entered the era of high-speed railway. After the opening of the bullet train, the initial operation speed is 200 kilometers per hour, and the operation time from Urumqi to Hami is shortened from 5 hours to about 3 hours.
On August 7, 2019, with the official opening of Kashgar (Shule) - Yecheng - Moyu section expressway, the first expressway connected to the outside world in Hotan area, all prefectures and cities in Xinjiang are connected.
Primitive society. Written in the book of mountains and seas and the biography of the son of Mu in the Warring States period, King Mu of Zhou visited Kunlun in the West and met with his mother. Among a large number of pottery unearthed in archaeological excavations in Xinjiang, the patterns and patterns of many painted pottery are the same or similar to those unearthed in the Central Plains at the same time. 3000 years ago, the painting of triangular patterns, vortex patterns and string patterns of painted pottery unearthed in Xinjiang and the shapes of pottery beans show that the art of painted pottery in Gansu and the mainland has affected the development of painted pottery culture in Xinjiang.
From October to November 1995, the colorful brocade quilt unearthed from coffin No. 3 of minfengniya site was woven with small seal characters and patterns of "the princes are faint, long live for generations"; A colorful brocade bag unearthed from coffin No. 8 has a seal character: "five stars come from the East and benefit China". It reveals the close political and economic relationship between Niya and the Central Plains Dynasty in the Han and Jin Dynasties. The magnificent desert, magnificent mountains and rivers, strange weather, tragic war wonders and other wonderful poems written by Cen Shen, Luo Binwang and Hong Liangji in the Tang Dynasty are well-known and have been handed down for a long time. They are called "frontier fortress poems" in the history of Chinese literature.
With the introduction of Buddhism from India along the Silk Road into the western regions and even mainland China. Buddhist culture became the most important content of the western regions at that time. Kucha Buddhist scholar and Buddhist sutra translator kumarosh came to the mainland to explain and translate Buddhist sutras and write Buddhist sutras. The eminent monks of the Eastern Jin Dynasty went to India to learn Scriptures through the western regions and wrote the records of the kingdom of Buddha. The meeting of Maitreya written in Uighur is the earliest drama and literature script born in the western regions in China. Kucha music, Gaochang music and Shule music played an important role in the music of Sui and Tang Dynasties. In addition to music, western traditional musical instruments such as pipa, harp, drum and horn were also introduced into the mainland and became the main musical instruments in the music performance of the Tang Dynasty and later generations. Western dances such as Hu Teng dance, Hu Xuan dance and Tuozhi dance were introduced into the Central Plains court and even the people.
Song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties. During the Kara Khan dynasty (from the end of the 9th century to 1211), with the introduction and gradual expansion of Islam into the western regions, the influence of Islamic culture on the culture of the western regions became greater and greater. The famous Turkic scholar Yu Xufu Hasi hajifu compiled the poetic encyclopedia "happiness and wisdom" reflecting the social and spiritual and cultural life at that time. The famous Uighur scholar Mahmud Kashkari wrote the Turkic reference book "Turkic dictionary" and the Uighur poet Yu Sufu Aji wrote the long love narrative poem "arifu and sainaim". There was a famous writer Ma Zuchang in the Mongol and Yuan Dynasties; Guan Yunshi, a famous Sanqu writer; Lu Mingshan, a famous agronomist, wrote a summary of Nongsang clothes and food. Chen Cheng, a traveler in the Ming Dynasty, wrote itinerary of the western regions, records of the western regions, etc.
Modern times. The spread and promotion of the revolutionary spirit such as the revolution of 1911 and the May 4th Movement in Xinjiang promoted the development of Xinjiang culture. During the war of resistance against Japan, the Chinese Communists represented by revolutionary martyrs such as Chen Tanqiu, Mao Zemin and Lin Jilu spread Marxism Leninism among the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang, publicized the correct proposition of the Communist Party of China on the establishment of an anti Japanese democratic united front, launched a massive Anti Japanese and national salvation movement, and promoted the development of national culture in Xinjiang, Many progressive cultural figures, such as Mao Dun, Du Chongyuan, Zhang Zhongshi, Zhao Dan and Wang Yi, engaged in cultural activities of Anti Japanese progress in Urumqi, and organized workers, farmers, teachers, students, staff, businessmen and other people of all nationalities to create and perform Anti Japanese War progressive songs, dramas, Qin opera, Beijing opera, Xinjiang opera and other drama programs. With the theme of praising the great struggle of resisting Japan and saving the country, Li mutrif, a famous patriotic poet, has written combat poems such as China and the reply to the years. Ethnic drama Yun Qian Mu, Uighur drama ARIF and sainaim, acrobatics Dawaz, Kazak Akon playing and singing sariha and Saman, alkalek, Kirgiz "Manas Qi" playing and singing Manas have successively moved to the art stage. Traditional ethnic literary and artistic activities, such as "maixilaifu" of Uygur nationality, "aken playing and singing club" of Kazak nationality, "kumzi playing and singing club" of Kirgiz nationality, Mongolian "Nadam conference", Xibo "westward migration Festival", Han "Yuanxiao Lantern Festival", have been handed down for a long time
Xinjiang dance, Xinjiang erhu and twelve Mukam (listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council on May 20, 2006)
Famous historical and cultural cities in Xinjiang (5)
Famous historical and cultural villages and towns in Xinjiang (6)
Shanshan County, Turpan, Xinjiang
Tuyugou Mazha Village
Shanshan County, Turpan, Xinjiang
Huocheng County, Yili, Xinjiang
Huicheng Township, Hami City, Xinjiang
Wubao Township, Hami City, Xinjiang
Karadala Township, Tekes County, Xinjiang
Xinjiang is a land of singing and dancing, melons and fruits, and gold and jade. There are 56 types of national tourism resources in Xinjiang, accounting for 83% of the national tourism resources. There are more than 1100 scenic spots in Xinjiang, ranking first in China. There is the world's second highest peak at an altitude of 8600 meters and China's lowest depression 154 meters below sea level.
Excellent tourist cities (13)
a county in Xin jiang
Strong tourism county (1)
Attractions: Kanas Scenic Area (AAAAA)
National Garden City (7)
National Garden County (5)
5A tourist attractions (7)
Tianshan Tianchi scenic spot (Fukang City)
Kanas Lake Scenic Spot
Grape Valley Scenic Spot
KEKETUOHAI scenic area (Fuyun county)
Nalati tourist attraction (Xinyuan county)
Zepu Jinhu Yangjing district (Zepu county)
Urumqi Tianshan Grand Canyon (Urumqi)
National scenic spots (4)
Xinjiang Tianshan Tianchi scenic spot (Fukang City)
Xinjiang Bosten Lake scenic spot (Bohu county)
Xinjiang Kumutag desert scenic spot (Turpan)
Xinjiang Sailimu Lake scenic spot (Bole City)
National Geoparks (7)
Xinjiang Buerjin Kanas Lake National Geopark
Xinjiang Tianshan Tianchi National Geopark
Xinjiang Qitai silicified wood Dinosaur National Geopark
Xinjiang Kuqa Grand Canyon National Geopark
Xinjiang Wensu Yanqiu National Geopark
Xinjiang Turpan Flame Mountain National Geopark
Xinjiang Fuyun ketuohai National Geopark
National Forest Park (17)
Xinjiang Zhaobi Mountain National Forest Park (Urumqi county)
Xinjiang Xiata Ancient Road National Forest Park (Zhaosu county)
Xinjiang Tianchi National Forest Park (Fukang City)
Xinjiang Altai mountain hot spring National Forest Park
Xinjiang Nalati National Forest Park
Xinjiang Habahe birch National Forest Park
Xinjiang Gongnaisi National Forest Park (Hejing county)
Wusu Foshan National Forest Park, Xinjiang
Xinjiang jiadengyu National Forest Park (burjin county)
Xinjiang haritureg National Forest Park
Xinjiang baihaba National Forest Park
Xinjiang Hami Tianshan National Forest Park
Xinjiang Tangbula National Forest Park (nilek county)
Xinjiang gongliuchaxi National Forest Park
Xinjiang Qitai Nanshan National Forest Park
Xinjiang jinhuyang National Forest Park (Zepu county)
Xinjiang kesang Karst Cave National Forest Park (nilek county)
National Nature Reserves (9)
Xinjiang Arkin Mountain National Nature Reserve (Korla)
Xinjiang Aibi Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve (Jinghe county)
Xinjiang Lop Nur Wild Camel National Nature Reserve
Xinjiang Ganjiahu Haloxylon ammodendron National Nature Reserve
Bayinbuluk National Nature Reserve, Xinjiang (Hejing county)
Xinjiang Tarim Populus euphratica National Nature Reserve
Xinjiang Tomur Peak National Nature Reserve (Wensu county)
Kanas National Nature Reserve, Xinjiang
Xinjiang West Tianshan National Nature Reserve (Gongliu county)
National Wetland Park (4)
Sailimu Lake National Wetland Park
Manas National Wetland Park
Chaiwobao Lake National Wetland Park (Urumqi)
Hebuxel National Wetland Park
Hongshan park is named for its location in Hongshan. Hongshan mountain is composed of purple sandy conglomerate, which is ochre red, so it is called "Hongshan". According to geological research, Hongshan rose together with Tianshan during the Himalayan orogeny about 80 million years ago. There are rare fossil resources on the mountain. Ancient cod fossils 270 million years ago and fossils similar to human shoe prints have been found.
Flame Mountain, known as chishi mountain in ancient times, is the most famous scenic spot in Turpan. It is located on the north edge of Turpan Basin and the North Road of the ancient Silk Road. It runs east-west. Flame Mountain is called "kiziltag" in Uighur, which means "Red Mountain". In Tang Dynasty, it was once called "Volcano" because of its heat. The mountain is more than 100 kilometers long, 10 kilometers wide at the widest point, about 500 meters above sea level, and the main peak is 831.7 meters above sea level. Flame Mountain, child mountain and barren ridge, with no grass and no birds. In midsummer, when the red sun is in the sky, the reddish brown mountains are illuminated by the hot sun, the sandstone is burning and flashing, and the hot air flow rolls up, just like the flaming flame, and the flame tongue lifts the sky, so it is also called Flame Mountain.
The Asian continental geographic center is located in baojiacaozi village, Yongfeng Township, Urumqi county, Urumqi City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the people's Republic of China. It is 87 ° 19'52 "east longitude and 43 ° 40'37" north latitude. It has been measured and surveyed by the Xinjiang Institute of geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences for more than two years.
In November 2014, Xinjiang was listed as the national rural informatization demonstration province.
On December 25, 2020, he was awarded the "advanced province (city) Award for unpaid blood donation" by the National Health Commission.
Du Feng, Wang Yanhong, Wang Jie, Liu Lina, adijiang, abudusiku mijiti
Film and television entertainment:
Lu Chuan, Tong Liya, Wang Yang, di lireba, Wang Xuebing, Wang Haiyan, Li Yapeng, Xu Jia, etc
Bi Shumin, Beiye, Liu Liangcheng, Dong Libo
Zhang Yangyang, an Mingliang, diribair, Bahar Guli, Duoliang, Wang Hongwei, alpha, etc
Li Yong, nigmaiti, Li Xia, Li Jiaming, etc
Han Yan (Ya Jie), Yue Mei, Li Yahong, Ma Wei
Adili wuhuer (Prince of the sky), Tang Yanfeng (outstanding entrepreneur), Wu Tianyi: academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering and winner of the "July 1st Medal".
Sichuan, or Sichuan for short, is one of China's 23 provinces, the capital of Chengdu. It is located in the interior of Southwest China, between 26 ° 03 ′ - 34 ° 19 ′, 97 ° 21 ′ - 108 ° 12 ′ e, Chongq.
Hebei Province, referred to as "Ji", is the provincial administrative region of the people's Republic of China, the capital of Shijiazhuang. It is located in North China, between 36 ° 05 ′ .
Jilin Province, for short. Luck "Yes. The People's Republic of China Provincial Administrative Region, provincial capital Changchun 。 Located in China Northeast Central region, with Liaoning , In.
Zhejiang, referred to as "Zhejiang", is the provincial administrative region of the people's Republic of China. Hangzhou, the capital of the province, is located in the southeast coast of Ch.
Henan Province, referred to as "Henan", the provincial administrative region of the people's Republic of China. Zhengzhou, the capital of Henan Province, is located in the central part of Ch.
Hubei Province, referred to as "e", is the provincial administrative region of the people's Republic of China and the capital of Wuhan. It is located in the central region of China, adjacent.
Hunan Province, referred to as Hunan, is one of the 23 provinces in China, the capital of Changsha. It is bounded between 24 ° 38 ′ - 30 ° 08 ′ n, 108 ° 47 ′ - 114 ° 15 ′ e, Jiangxi in the East.
Hainan Province, one of China's 23 provinces, is located in the southernmost part of China, referred to as Qiong, the capital of Haikou. Hainan Province is China's special economic zone and pilot free.
Guizhou, referred to as "Guizhou" or "Gui", is the provincial administrative region of the people's Republic of China. Guiyang, the provincial capital, is located in the hinterland.
Yunnan Province, or Yunnan for short, is one of the 23 provinces in China. It is located in the southwest and the capital of Kunming. It is bounded between 21 ° 8 ′ - 29 ° 15 ′ N and 97 ° 31 ′ - 106 °.
Tibet, or "Tibet" for short. Lhasa, the capital of Tibet Autonomous Region, is located in the southwest border of the people's Republic of China. It is one of the five ethnic autonomous regi.
Gansu, referred to as "Gan" or "long", is a provincial administrative region of the people's Republic of China and the provincial capital Lanzhou city. It is located in Northwest China, connecting Shaanxi in the East, Xinjiang in the w.