Yunnan Province, or Yunnan for short, is one of 23 provinces in China. It is located in Southwest China and its capital is Kunming. It is located between 21 ° 8 ′ - 29 ° 15 ′ N and 97 ° 31 ′ - 106 ° 11 ′ e. it is adjacent to Guizhou and Guangxi in the East, Sichuan in the north, Tibet in the northwest, Myanmar in the West and Laos and Vietnam in the south. The total area of Yunnan Province is 394100 square kilometers.
The terrain of Yunnan Province is high in the northwest and low in the southeast, and gradually declines from north to south. It belongs to mountainous plateau terrain, and the mountainous area accounts for 88.64% of the total area of Yunnan Province. The terrain is bounded by Yuanjiang Valley and the wide valley in the south of Yunling mountain range, which is divided into East and West terrain areas. The eastern part is the eastern and central Yunnan Plateau, which is an integral part of Yunnan Guizhou Plateau. It is characterized by gentle undulating low mountains and rounded hills; the western part is characterized by high mountains and valleys alternating with steep terrain, forming a strange and majestic mountain glacier landform. Yunnan Province is located in the Yangtze River, Pearl River, Yuanjiang River, Lancang River, Nujiang River and Daying river. Yunnan has a subtropical and tropical monsoon climate, and Northwest Yunnan has a plateau mountain climate.
As of August 2019, Yunnan Province has 8 prefecture level cities, 8 autonomous prefectures, 17 municipal districts, 16 county-level cities, 67 counties and 29 autonomous counties, with a total of 129 county-level divisions. 177 streets, 683 towns, 400 townships, 140 ethnic townships, a total of 1400 township level divisions.
In 2018, Yunnan Province has a permanent population of 48.295 million, with a GDP of 1788.112 billion yuan, a primary industry added value of 249.886 billion yuan, a secondary industry added value of 695.744 billion yuan, a tertiary industry added value of 842.482 billion yuan, and a per capita GDP of 37136 yuan.
Place name source
In the second year of Yuanfeng in the Western Han Dynasty (109 BC), Emperor Wu opened the west to the South and set up 24 counties with Yunnan as one of them. There are three ways to name the county "Yunnan". One is the theory of "colorful clouds appear in the South". When the county was built, colorful clouds appeared in Longxing Heshan, which is located in the north of Yunnan Yi village. The county is called "Yunnan" in the south of colorful clouds The second is the theory of "the south of Yunshan mountain", which means (now Binchuan Jizu mountain, often condensing clouds, several feet high, the county seat is called Yunnan in the south of Yunshan mountain); the third is the theory of "Emperor Wu pursues dreams". It is said that Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty dreams of Caiyun at night, sends envoys to pursue dreams, and pursues Caiyun in today's Xiangyun County.
In the Tang Dynasty, Luo Feng, an envoy of Nanzhao King's pavilion, went to Chang'an to worship the king of the Tang Dynasty. The king asked: where is the king? Make remote guide said: South cloud. So in the eyes of the imperial court, "Yunnan" was the name of the southwest frontier of the motherland. In 728, the emperor of Tang Dynasty granted Luo Feng the title of "king of Yunnan".
In 1274, Yunnan and other provinces were set up, and "Yunnan" was officially defined as the name of Yunnan region. In the region of Yunnan county, there were Yunnan county, Yunnan Province and Yunnan state, and the word "Yunnan" has been used all the time.
From Ming Dynasty to Qing Dynasty, the name of Yunnan county was mixed with the name of province, and Yunnan county was often called "little Yunnan". In 1918, "Yunnan county" was renamed "Xiangyun County" to avoid the same name of province and county.
Evolution of organizational system
Yunnan Province is one of the important birthplaces of human beings. Yuanmou ape man, who lived 1.7 million years ago, is one of the earliest human beings found in China and Asia.
In Xia and Shang Dynasties, Yunnan was one of the nine states in China. In the Yin and Zhou dynasties,
Yunnan is known as "the country of Baipu".
In the first three centuries, Zhuang Qiao, a general of the state of Chu, entered the Dianchi area and established the state of Dian.
In the Qin Dynasty, "wuchidao" was built and officials were appointed in Yunnan, which marked the beginning of the formal rule of Yunnan by the central dynasty.
In the second year of Yuanfeng (109 BC) of the Han Dynasty, during the reign of Emperor Wu of the Western Han Dynasty, the Southwest Barbarians were established, the king of Yunnan descended, and 27 counties were set up. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Yongchang County was set up in Baoshan, which also belonged to the Yizhou Prefecture. The rule of Yunnan was further deepened, and China's territory in the western region of Yunnan was basically established.
In the period of Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties, Yunnan, Guizhou and southwest Sichuan were called "nanzhong". During the Three Kingdoms period, part of the slave owners and nobles in nanzhong occupied their own territory. Zhuge Liang led a large army across Lu (today's Jinsha River) to pacify nanzhong and adjust the establishment of prefectures and counties.
In the Western Jin Dynasty, ningzhou, which was directly ruled by the central government, was set up in Yunnan, which was one of the 19 prefectures in China. At that time, iron ware was widely used in Yunnan, and new feudal production relations appeared in central and Northeast Yunnan. During the northern and Southern Dynasties, Yunnan entered the era of Xun's rule.
In 271, the first seven years of the Jin Dynasty, ningzhou was established. Taikang three years (282), the restoration of province into Yizhou, home Nanyi Xiaowei. Taian two years (303), the restoration of ningzhou. In the eighth year of Xianhe (333), Li Xiong sent Li Shou and his soldiers to capture nanzhong. Li Shou was granted the title of "King Jianning" and Cuan Chen was appointed the governor of Jiaozhou. Xiankang four years (338 years), divided into Anzhou. In the fifth year of Xiankang (339), Cuan Chen was demoted to Jin Dynasty. The Jin Dynasty granted him the title of governor of ningzhou and recognized his hereditary status. From then on, the Cuan family of Yi people ruled Yunnan for 400 years.
In the southern and Northern Dynasties, during the reign of Liang Datong, Nanning was rebuilt. In the last years of Chengsheng, Yunnan was not in qunman.
In the Sui Dynasty, the separatist forces were eliminated and Yunnan was put under the direct control of the central government. In the early Tang Dynasty, the scale of counties in the Han and Jin Dynasties was basically restored. In the 17th year of emperor kaihuang of Sui Dynasty (597), nanzhong was reopened, and Nanning was still set up, leading dozens of states in Jimi, and then led to the governor's office in Yizhou.
In the Tang Dynasty, in the fourth year of Wude (621), Yao Zhou was placed in charge of Jimi Prefecture. In the sixth year of Zhenguan (633), he set up the governor's office in Rongzhou and supervised seventeen prefectures in nanzhong. In 707, the Tang Dynasty defeated the expansion power of Tubo, which invaded Erhai Lake in the south. In 738, piroge, the leader of mengshezhao tribe and ailaoyi people in Erhai Lake area, annexed the other five imperial edicts and established Nanzhao state. During the period of Nanzhao, the territory was Guizhou in the East, Irrawaddy River in the west, Xishuangbanna in the south, Dadu River in the north, Vietnam in the southeast, Myanmar in the southwest, and Tubo in the northwest Neighboring, the northeast and Rongzhou (now Yibin) across the vast territory. Nanzhao built the inner system and built the east city (today's Kunming). Taihe city (now Dali City) was established the following year. In the first year of Tianbao (742), Rongzhou was set as governor and Jimi as 36 prefectures. In the ninth year of Tianbao (750), Nanzhao occupied the whole territory of Yunnan, became a minister of Tubo, and usurped the name of Daming. In 788, Tubo was canonized as king of Japan. Five years later, he returned to Tang Dynasty. Ten years later, please change the name of Nanzhao. In the third year of Taihe (829), he rebelled against Tang Dynasty. In the 13th year of Dazhong (839), he called himself Empire and called himself Dali. In 879, Zheng Maisi killed Nanzhao King Jianda Changhe. In the fourth year of the reign of emperor Guanghua (901), Zheng Maisi won the throne and became king himself. In 928, Yang ganzhen built dayining. In the second year of Tianfu in the later Jin Dynasty (937), Duan Siping contacted 37 ministries to destroy the state of Dayi Ning and establish the state power of Dali. Dali regime basically inherited the border since Nanzhao, with eight prefectures, four prefectures and thirty-seven ministries, and implemented the feudal serfdom dictatorship. The rule of Dali state in Yunnan was basically the same as that of Song Dynasty in Central China. The king of Dali paid tribute to the Song Dynasty, and his leaders were successively granted the titles of eight prefectures and Dali king of Yunnan by the Song Dynasty, and became the assistants of the Southern Song Dynasty to resist the western front of Mongolian nobles. Dali regime always maintained the relationship of subordination to Song Dynasty.
In the Yuan Dynasty, in 1253, Kublai Khan led his army to take ge Nang to cross Jinsha to Yunnan and destroy Dali state. In 1260, he set up the "general manager of Dali State". In 1276, Kublai Khan appointed saidianchi · weisiding saidianchi as "the provincial governor of Yunnan Province", and the provincial capital, Zhongqing Road (Kunming). Since then, Kunming replaced Dali as the political center of Yunnan, and Yunnan was completely included in the unified governance scope of the Yuan Dynasty. Since then, the name of "Yunnan" has officially appeared as an institution at the provincial level. After that, mu'er was first appointed king of Yunnan in the Yuan Dynasty. In 1290, Gan Mala, the grandson of the emperor, was appointed king of Liang. The king of Yunnan ruled Dali, and the king of Liang was in charge of the whole province. In fact, there were two sets of regimes in Yunnan, namely, the provincial government and the royal government.
In the Ming Dynasty, in 1381, Zhu Yuanzhang sent Fu Youde, Lan Yu and Mu Ying to lead the army westward to pacify Yunnan. In 1382, he established the Secretary of Chengxuan, the Secretary of Taixing, the Secretary of chancha and the Secretary of Dujing. In the interior of Yunnan, there were government, prefectures and counties, which were dominated by officials. In the remote areas, there were Xuanwei, Xuanfu, Anfu, Shizong and Yuyi ”The mining and metallurgy industry developed rapidly, and the output of silver and copper ranked first in the country. In the late Ming Dynasty, the Great Western army represented by Li Dingguo once supported the exiled emperor Yongli, who took Kunming as the base to fight against the Qing army.
In the Qing Dynasty, Wu Sangui attacked Yunnan in 1659, and Yongli emperor and his entourage fled to Myanmar. In the first year of Kangxi (1662), Yongli Emperor Zhu Youlang and his son were captured from Myanmar by Wu Sangui and hanged in Jinchan temple in Kunming. The last dynasty of Ming Dynasty was destroyed. During the reign of Emperor Kangxi of Qing Dynasty, Wu Sangui's rebellion was smashed. During the Qing Dynasty, a large number of immigrants came to Yunnan and carried out the policy of "changing the land to flow back". Some areas in the frontier still retained the Tusi system. After the Opium War, France forced the Qing government to sign the Treaty of Vietnam between China and France, which classified Yunnan as France's sphere of influence, and Mengzi, manhuo, Hekou and other places as commercial ports. In 1907, members of Yunnan League held the Hekou uprising. Yunnan Vietnam Railway was built in 1910. Yunnan tin and other materials were mainly exported by railway. On October 30 of the third year of Xuantong (1911), the Kunming uprising (Chongjiu uprising) was launched to form the Dahan military government in Yunnan, which overthrew the rule of the Qing government in Yunnan.
In the Republic of China, after the revolution of 1911, the government, departments and prefectures were abolished, and only counties were reserved. The whole province was divided into four parts: Central Yunnan, Mengzi, Tengchong and Pu'er.
In the fourth year of the Republic of China (1915), on February 25, Cai E, Tang Jiyao and other leaders launched the movement to protect the country, which ignited the revolutionary fire of fighting against yuan to protect the country.
In 1928, Dao was abolished and a province was established.
In 1929, Chiang Kai Shek appointed Long Yun as the chairman of Yunnan provincial government. The local power faction led by Long Yun was established in Yunnan. After the outbreak of the Anti Japanese War, Yunnan became the rear area of the national anti Japanese War and a base for resettling inward moving enterprises and developing wartime industries. Yunnan sent 200000 Yunnan troops to the front lines of Taierzhuang and Wuhan, and invested more than 100000 migrant workers to repair the Yunnan Burma highway.
After the victory of the Anti Japanese War, Chiang Kai Shek removed Long Yun from the post of chairman of Yunnan Province, and Long Yun fled to Hong Kong. The Yunnan local party organization of the Communist Party of China carried out the struggle of organizing and mobilizing the masses to seize power by armed forces, and formed the "Guangxi Yunnan Guizhou border region column of the Chinese people's Liberation Army".
The people's Republic of China, in 1949, under the unified leadership of the party, liberated 61 counties and established 14 base areas. At the same time, the PLA field army sent troops south.
In 1949, the province was divided into 1 provincial city, 12 administrative supervision districts, 112 counties, 17 administrative bureaus and 2 flood control supervision districts. On December 9, Lu Han led an uprising in Kunming and Yunnan declared its peaceful liberation.
In March 1950, the people's Government of Yunnan Province was established.
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