Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, or Guangxi, is a provincial administrative region of the people's Republic of China. It is located in South China. Guangxi borders between 20 ° 54 ′ and 26 ° 24 'north, 104 ° 28 ′ to 112 ° 04' e, Guangdong in the East, Beibu Bay in the South and across the sea with Hainan. It borders Yunnan in the west, Hunan in the northeast, Guizhou in the northwest, Vietnam in the southwest. The land area of Guangxi is 23.76 The area of the sea area is about 40000 square kilometers.
Guangxi is located in the southeast edge of Yunnan Guizhou Plateau in the second step of China. It is located in the west of the hills of Liangguang, with high and low terrain in the northwest, showing a northwest-southeast incline. The landform is composed of six categories: mountain, hill, terrace, plain, stone mountain and water surface. Guangxi is a subtropical monsoon climate, which crosses four major water systems, namely Pearl River, Yangtze River, Red River and coastal area.
By the end of 2018, Guangxi had jurisdiction over 14 prefecture level cities, 51 counties, 12 autonomous counties, 8 county-level cities, 40 municipal districts, 56 million 590 thousand registered residence population and 49 million 260 thousand permanent residents, achieving 2 trillion and 35 billion 251 million yuan of gross domestic product (GDP), an increase of 6.8% over last year. Per capita GDP of 41489 yuan per capita, 5.8% above the previous year, ranking twenty-eighth in 31 Chinese mainland provinces.
The origin of place names
During the spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, Lingnan was part of the Baiyue area and Guangxi was a part of Baiyue.
In the history of the book of geography of Han Dynasty, it is written: "from the intersection toe to the Huiji, there are more and more places.".
In 214 BC, the Qin Dynasty conquered Baiyue, and set Guilin County, Nanhai county and Xiangjun in the south of Lingnan. Now most of Guangxi is Guilin county and Xiangxian County, so Guangxi called Guangxi "Gui" from here. Guangxi is named after two, one is Xiantong for three years (862), the south of the ridge is divided into two ways: East and West, and Yongguan is the governor of the West Road in Lingnan, and becomes an independent political district. In addition, the administrative unit formed by the Song Dynasty - "Guangnan West Road", later referred to as "Guangxi Road"; Second, it is named "Guangxin", which is divided by Guangxin, Guangdong in the East and Guangxi in the West. This is the origin of the name Guangxi. In 1363, the Bank of Guangxi Province was set up, which was the beginning of Guangxi Province. During the period of the Republic of China, Guangxi established provinces following the Qing Dynasty. In March 1958, Guangxi Province was changed to "Guangxi cadong autonomous region", and in October 1965, Guangxi cadong autonomous region was renamed Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.
Evolution of organizational system
Guangxi has a long history, and Guangxi had primitive human life and rest as early as 800000 years ago. In the late Paleolithic period, 40000 or 50000 years ago, there were "Liujiang people" and "Qilin mountain people" working here to make living and living. The Qilin mountain people, which were 20-10000 years ago, have learned and used drilling and sharpening stone tools. The site of Zhenpi rock in Guilin indicates that ancient people in Guangxi have begun to engage in primitive agriculture, animal husbandry and pottery making industry about 10000 to 6000 years ago. The site of Zengpiyan is a typical cave site of Neolithic age from 12000 to 7000 years ago. It was discovered in 1965. It is not only one of the ancient ancestors of modern South China and Southeast Asia, but also one of the important origins of ancient human pottery.
In the pre Qin period, the south of the five ridges was called the place of Baiyue. Guangxi was divided into the West ou and Luoyue. The earliest ancient country in Guangxi, the ancient country of Cangwu is recorded in the literature. Cangwu ancient country exists at the same time as Yao Shun in Central Plains. Cangwu ancient country is mainly distributed in Xiangjiang River Basin and southern region, North and northwest of Guangdong, northwest and east of Guangxi. Around the Warring States period, in most areas of Guangxi, some regions of Guangdong appeared two major countries, namely, Xi'ou and Luoyue, which was the peak period of the southern region of the five ridges. The state of quding, which exists in the same time with the Western ou and Luoyue countries, is also the entity of the state established by the ancestors of Zhuang nationality. The state of quding is located at the junction of Guangxi, Yunnan and Guizhou provinces. Lingnan area has little in the records of the history of the Central Plains, and has been described by later generations in the vocabulary "the place outside, the hometown of miasma". Many people think that the beginning of Lingnan civilization was conquered by the 500000 army of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty, and the local Aboriginal "hundred Yue people" (the ancestors of Lingnan) leaped into the feudal society from the primitive clan stage of ignorance. In recent years, archaeology has found that this view is a misunderstanding of history. A large number of cultural relics unearthed show that there are brilliant Neolithic and Bronze Age civilizations in Lingnan area, and they are one of the birthplaces of Chinese civilization.
In 222 BC, after the unification of the six countries by Ying Zheng, the king of Qin "conquered the king of the hundred Yue by the South", and Tu Sui was sent to attack the south of the five ridges by 500000 Qin troops. In 214 BC, the Qin army basically occupied the south of the five ridges. Then, the Lingnan area that Qin Shihuang seized was set up with three counties, namely Guilin County, Xiangxian county and Nanhai county. Guangxi is divided into Guilin county and Xiangxian County, which is the first time in Guangxi history to divide administrative region.
In the early Han Dynasty, Zhao Tuo, a South China Sea lieutenant, attacked Guilin county and Xiangxian county to establish the South Yue country. In the six years of Yuanding (111), Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty was Pingding the South Yue. Cangwu Guangxin (the capital of Jiaozhou in ancient Han Dynasty, located in the area of Wuzhou, Hezhou and Guangdong, Guangxi Province) became the administrative center of 9 counties in Jiaojiao. The Han Dynasty divided the South Vietnam into nine counties. Among them, it is located in the Jiaojiao part of Guangxin County, Cangwu county. In the Western Han Dynasty, Hepu was one of the starting ports of "maritime Silk Road" in China. In the late Eastern Han Dynasty, Jiaojiao was changed to Jiaozhou. Now Guangdong Province includes the whole South China Sea County under the jurisdiction of Jiaozhou, and also includes Cangwu County, Hepu County, Jingzhou Guiyang County and Yangzhou Yuzhang county. Jiaozhou in the Eastern Han Dynasty included the southern and central parts of the Vietnam, Guangxi and Guangdong, China.
During the Three Kingdoms and Jin Dynasties, Guangxi was first Wu, and then it was attributed to the successive changes of the Southern Dynasties, song, Qi, Liang and Chen. During the Three Kingdoms period, in 217 years (22 years of Jian'an), Wu divided the Jiaozhou state into Guangzhou and Jiaozhou, and bu Qian transferred Jiaozhou administration from Guangxin to Panyu. Jin belongs to Guangzhou. In song, Qi, Liang and Chen, Guangxi belonged to Xiangzhou and Guangzhou.
Sui is the Ministry of Yangzhou. At the end of Sui Dynasty, Guangxi was based on xiaomilling. In the early Tang Dynasty, the state and county were set up. Lingnan 45 is divided into five Dudu governments (also known as Lingnan five pipes) in Guangzhou, Guangxi, Rong, Yong and Annan, and is subordinate to Lingnan road. After 655 years, all the five governments were under the jurisdiction of Guangzhou. The chief was called the five government (governor) governor and was concurrently served by the governor of Guangzhou. In 756 (six years from suzong to Germany), the five government elites were promoted to the governor of Lingnan.
In the third year of Xiantong in Tang Dynasty (862), the south of the mountain was the East and the west of Lingnan. The emperor promoted Yongguan to be the governor of the West Road of Lingnan. This was the first independent political area in Guangxi. Guangxi economy and culture had been greatly developed in Tang Dynasty, and "Guibu" was famous; Guangxi, Yongzhou, Liu, Rong and other important towns rose; and a famous water conservancy project Xiangsi Dai was built to communicate with Guangxi river and Liujiang River.
During the Five Dynasties and ten countries, Chu and Southern Han Dynasty competed for Guangxi for a long time. In Song Dynasty, Guangnan road was divided into Guangnan East Road and Guangnan West Road, and Guangnan West Road was abbreviated as Guangxi. Guangxi began with the name of Guangxi.
Hengshanzhai (Pingma Town, Tiandong county), Yongping Village (in Ningming County) and Qinzhou became the international market towns in southwest national market or trade with Jiaozhi in Song Dynasty. The output of tin and lead of non-ferrous metals was in the forefront of the country; Wuzhou Yuanfeng supervision became one of the six supervision of the Southern Yangtze River; the textile, especially ramie, was of high quality, and the color of cloth produced in the left and right rivers was abundant Rich. The Yuan dynasty ruled Guangxi mainly focused on military control, and stationed troops near the main passes to carry out the military nature of the tunding fields; during the Yuan Dynasty, Guangxi was a province of Hu Guang Xing Zhongshu.
In the twenty third year of the Yuan Dynasty to the Zhengzheng period (1363), the Bank of Guangxi Province of China was set up, which was the beginning of Guangxi Province.
In Ming Dynasty, the name of the province was abolished, and the three-level regional system of division, government (state) and county (tuzhou) was established. The country is divided into 13 political ministers. In June (1369) of the second year, Hongwu transferred Lianzhou and Qinzhou, which were originally under the jurisdiction of Guangxi, to Guangdong. In the ninth year of Hongwu, the emperor of Ming Dynasty, Guangxi was established as the official Secretary of Guangxi Chengxuan, and the name of "Guangxi" was fixed accordingly. Guangxi political envoy division is divided into 11 governments and 3 counties under the jurisdiction of Zhili Prefecture. The 11 governments are Guilin (for Lingui County, Guilin today), Liuzhou (for Maping, Liuzhou today), Qingyuan (for Yishan), and for Sien (first for Qiao Li, for present-day Ma Shan, then for martial arts, and for today's Wuming), Siming (for Siming tuzhou, Ningming today), pinglefu (for Pingle), Wuzhou (for Cangwu, Wuzhou today), Xunyu (zhiguiping), Nanning The three Zhili states are: Guishun state (governing the west of Jingxi), Tianzhou (governing the east of the current Tiandong), Sicheng state (governing Lingyun today). In addition, the whole state was originally Hunan Province, Hongwu in the 27th year (1394). After the whole state (now Quanzhou, Guanyang and resources) was changed from the government of Huguang Yongzhou to Guangxi, Guangxi has been formed in general. At the end of Ming Dynasty, there are 13 prefectures, 4 states, 44 counties, 34 tuzhou, 6 prefectures and 5 chief divisions in Guangxi. Ming Xianzong established the governor's office in Wuzhou. In the forty-five years of Jiajing, the governor of Guangdong was changed from Wuzhou to Zhaoqing, Guangdong Province.
During the Qing Dynasty, the four levels of provinces, roads, governments (Zhili Hall) or states (Zhili prefecture) and county level were implemented. Guangxi Province is re established, and the capital of the province is located in Guilin (Guilin city).
Guangxi Province is divided into 11 governments, 2 Zhili departments and 2 Zhili States, which respectively govern the counties and cities. The 11 governments are Guilin (for Lingui, Guilin today), Liuzhou (for Maping County, Liuzhou today), Qingyuan (for Yishan), and for the military (for martial arts, today's Wuming), Sicheng (for Lingyun), pinglefu (for Pingle), Wuzhou (for Cangwu, Wuzhou today), Xunzhou (for Guiping), Nanning (for Xuanhua, Nanning today), Taiping (for good governance, and now for good Chongzuo, Zhen'an mansion (governing Tianbao and today's moral protection); two Zhili halls are: Shangsi Zhili Hall (governing the present and the upper thinking), Baise Zhili Hall (governing the present hundred colors); 2 Zhili states are: Zhili prefecture (governing the Yulin today), and Guishun Zhili prefecture (ruling the present Jingxi). In addition, the government of Lianzhou (governing Hepu today) and Zhili state (now Qinzhou) belong to Guangdong Province. Libo County was originally in Guangxi Province, and in the 10th year of Yongzheng (1732) of the Qing Dynasty, it was under the jurisdiction of Guizhou Province. At the end of Qing Dynasty, there were 13 prefectures, 4 states, 44 counties, 34 tuzhou, 6 tuxian, 10 Tusi and 3 long lawsuits in Guangxi.
The 1911 Revolution overthrows the Qing Dynasty and established the Republic of China in 1912.
During the period of the Republic of China, Guangxi followed the Qing Dynasty as the province, with the same region as the Qing Dynasty. Guangxi Province was established until the Republic of China, the capital of which was in Guilin. It was once moved to Nanning from 1912 to 1936. In the first year of the Republic of China, Zhili Prefecture and hall were changed into government. The province was divided into 10 governments: Guilin, pinglefu, Liuzhou, Qingyuan, Wuzhou, Xunyuan, Nanning, Taiping, Zhen'an and Si'an, respectively. In the second year of the Republic of China (1913), the government system was abolished and the counties were directly under the jurisdiction of the province. In the sixth year of the Republic of China (1917), the province was divided into six roads: Guilin Road (for Guilin today), Liujiang Road (for Liuzhou), Nanning Road (for Nanning today), Cangwu Road (for Wuzhou today), Zhennan Road (for Longzhou today), and Tiannan Road (for today's 100 colors), respectively governing all counties. The measures for the return of soil to the jurisdiction of the local government in Ming and Qing Dynasties were completed in the 18th year of the Republic of China (1929), and all tuzhou and tuxian counties were transformed into new counties. In the 15th year of the Republic of China (1926), according to the principle of military and political unity, the system of Taoism was abolished and the province was divided into several districts. In nineteen years of the Republic of China (1930), the province was divided into 12 civil groups. On December 16, 1927, Huang Shaohong led the Guangxi Department to discuss Guangdong in Wuzhou. The war between Guangdong and Guangdong broke out, which led to the Guangzhou incident. Guangdong key members were in Guangzhou, December 11, 1927, the Communist Party launched the Guangzhou Uprising. After the Guangxi war, the Guangxi system divided troops and attacked Guangzhou in two ways, occupying Zhaoqing, Sanshui and Hekou. The Fourth Army of Guangdong army made every effort to capture Dongjiang, returned to Guangzhou to block the Guangxi army, and the Guangxi army changed its plan and turned to Dongjiang. In the twenty third year of the Republic of China (1934), the civil corps area was changed into an administrative supervision area. During this period, Guangxi ruled for 28 years for the new and old GUI warlords. In 1949, the province was divided into 1 city (Guilin), 15 districts (1-15 districts) and 99 counties before the establishment of the people's Republic of China. Qinzhou, Hepu, Lingshan and Fangcheng are still under the jurisdiction of Guangdong Province. Since Guangxi was established, until the Republic of China, the capital of Guangxi Province was mostly in Guilin, and only moved to Nanning from the first year of the Republic of China to the twenty fifth year of the Republic of China (1912-1936). Guangxi was a model Province in the period of the New Guangxi system in the Republic of China, and it was the base of the warlords of the Guangxi system in China.
On December 11, 1949, the PLA occupied Guangxi Province and established Guangxi Province. The capital of the province is Nanning.
From 1951 to 1955, Qinzhou and Lianzhou (namely, Qinzhou, Fangchenggang and Beihai) were transferred from Guangdong to Guangxi.
On December 10, 1952, the caddies autonomous region of West Guangxi was established in Yongning, Yishan and Baise;
From 1955 to 1965, Qinzhou and Lianzhou were once again assigned to Guangdong. In March 1956, the Western Guangxi caddie autonomous region was changed to the Western Guangxi caddie Autonomous Prefecture. In October, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China put forward the initiative to establish Guangxi caddies autonomous region. In December, in view of the preparation for the construction of Guangxi cadong autonomous region, the State Council decided to cancel the Guangxi West cadong Autonomous Prefecture.
In June 1957, the State Council made a decision on the establishment of the Guangxi cadong autonomous region and adopted the corresponding resolutions at the fourth meeting of the first National People's Congress held in July of the same year.
On March 5th, 1958, Guangxi Province was changed to "Guangxi cadong autonomous region", and the first level "Guangxi caddie autonomous region" was established.
In 1965, Qinzhou and Lianzhou were once again assigned to Guangxi. On October 12, the same year, with the approval of the State Council, "Guangxi cadong autonomous region" was renamed "Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region".
Since 1978, the anniversary of the establishment of the autonomous region was set to be December 11, which is consistent with the day when the PLA occupied Guangxi, the right Jiangsu Vier and the red 7th army.
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