Shaanxi, referred to as "Shaanxi" or "Qin", is located in the hinterland of China, the provincial administrative region of the people's Republic of China, Xi'an, the capital of the province, in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, Shanxi, Henan in the East, Ningxia and Gansu in the west, Sichuan, Chongqing and Hubei in the south, Inner Mongolia in the north, between 105 ° 29 ′ and 111 ° 15 ′ e, 31 ° 42 ′ to 39 ° 35 'in the north, with a total area of 205600 square kilometers. The geoorigin of the datum point of China's longitude and latitude and the national time center of Beijing time are located in the province.
Shaanxi Province is high in the north and south, low in the middle, and consists of plateau, mountain, plain and basin, among which Loess Plateau accounts for 40% of the land area of the province. It crosses the Yellow River and Yangtze River system and spans three climatic zones. The northern Great Wall of Northern Shaanxi is characterized by moderate temperate seasonal monsoon, and the central and Northern Shaanxi are warm temperate monsoon climate, and southern Shaanxi is a north subtropical monsoon climate.
Shaanxi is one of the important birthplaces of Chinese nation and Chinese culture. There are 14 regimes, including Western Zhou, Qin, Han and Tang Dynasties, which were founded in Shaanxi.
By the end of 2018, Shaanxi has 10 prefecture level cities (one of which is a sub provincial city), 30 municipal districts, 6 county-level cities and 71 counties, with a permanent population of 3864400000, and the total regional product (GDP) of 244.8332 billion yuan.
Shaanxi is one of the important birthplaces of the Chinese nation. The site of Shangchen in Lan Tian, Xi'an, 2.2 million years ago, is the earliest site of human activities in Northeast Asia. It is 420000 years earlier than the earliest primitive human "Yuanmou Man" in China, and rewrites the history textbooks.
The Dali people in Weinan, 260000 years ago, were the origin of Chinese lineal ancestors, breaking the recognition that modern humans were all descended from African ancestors.
More than 8000 years ago, the founding grandmother of the Chinese nation, the distant ancestors of Yan and Huang, Fuxi and Nuwa's mother and the head of Huaxu state, created Chinese farming culture, and created the eightthousand years of Chinese civilization history. From Huaxu to Huaxia, from China to China, a Chinese national culture was formed, which was the source of Chinese civilization.
The site of Banpo in Xi'an more than 6000 years ago is a famous site of Yangshao cultural matrilineal clan village in the Yellow River Basin.
More than 5000 years ago, the Yellow Emperor tribe living in Jishui River Basin of Shaanxi Province and Yandi tribe in Jiangshui River Basin, have been integrated in the conflict, and gradually formed the earliest ethnic community in Chinese history, the Chinese nationality, and opened the 5000 year civilization history of the Chinese nation.
In the ancient times, Shaanxi was the place of Yongzhou and Liangzhou.
Western Zhou Dynasty (1046-771)
Zhou was an ancient tribe in Guanzhong, Shaanxi Province. Its ancestors were abandoned and cultivated well. Yao and Shun were named "Hou Ji" and Tai (now Wugong County and Yangling District). The Gongliu moved from Tai to Ying (between Binxian and Xunyi counties) and then to Zhouyuan (the junction of Fufeng County and Qishan County) in the Yang of Qishan. Zhou people built cities, land in Xinjiang, set up officials and established army here. In the late Shang Dynasty, they had become the powerful vassal states in the middle reaches of Weihe River. Jichang (Wen Wang) moved to Fengjing (now the area of Mawang village, Chang'an District, Xi'an city). Jichang died, and his son Jifa (King Wu) was in the throne, and he built Haojing (around Doumen Town, Fengdong New Area) on the East Bank of Fenghe River, and repaired wangxuye.
He was appointed 11 years (1046 BC), and after the battle of herdsmen, the king of Wu destroyed merchants and established Zhou Dynasty, which was called the Western Zhou Dynasty.
You king has no way, and the state is in a hurry. In the 11th year of Zhou Youwang (771 BC), Shen Hou and Canrong broke the pickaxe capital, killed you king and died in the West Zhou Dynasty.
Qin Dynasty (221-207)
Dafi, the ancestor of the Qin people, was the descendant of Zhuanxu, the son of the Yellow Emperor, and Shun gave him the surname Ying. Qin Mugong, Ren Xiangong, modest heart to remonstrate, destroy the country 12, open the land thousands of miles, national strength is growing.
In the year 361 BC, yingquliang took the position and reused Shang Yang to change the law, which made the economy of Qin developed, and the military combat power was strengthened constantly, and developed into the most prosperous and powerful feudal states in the late Warring States period. Wang Ying Zheng of Qin successively destroyed Han, Zhao, Wei, Chu, Yan and Qi, and completed the great cause of unification.
In the twenty-six years (221 years ago), the emperor was named by Ying Zheng and "Qinshihuang" in history. The system of government and county was abandoned, and the whole country was divided into 36 counties, Shangjun in the north of Shaanxi, Hanzhong County in the south of Shaanxi, and the auxiliary area of guanzhongji with internal history. The same book, the same track and the unified measurement and balance shall be implemented. The Huns were attacked to the north, and the South was hundred Yue. The Great Wall was built to reject foreign enemies and the Lingqu was dug to connect the water system. The establishment of the centralized power system has laid the basic pattern of China's political system for more than 2000 years, which has a profound impact on Chinese history.
In the thirty seventh year (210 years ago), the first emperor died of death in dunes (northwest of Guangzong County, Hebei Province) during his tour. His son Hu Hai was named Qin II.
In the first year of Qin II (209 BC), Chen Sheng and Wu guangqimu were soldiers because of the tyranny of Qin government and abuse of civil power. The world responded. Liu Bang and Xiangyu set up their troops against Qin.
Qin Zi was killed in the first year of Qin Zi (207 years ago).
Western Han Dynasty (202-9 years ago)
After the death of Qin Dynasty, Xiangyu was the king of Western Chu. He divided Guanzhong and Northern Shaanxi into three demolitions of Qin Dynasty: Zhang Han was king Yong, and he was the west of Xianyang, and the hills were abandoned (Xingping County of Shaanxi Province); simaxin was king of saiwang, and he was the king of Xianyang, and duqueryang (Lintong County in Shaanxi Province); Dongyi was king Zhai, and he was in charge of Northern Shaanxi and Du gaonu (now in Yan'an City of Shaanxi Province), which would be the same Liu Bang, who was named king of Guanzhong, was divided into a remote Han central region.
In the first year of Han Dynasty (206 BC), Liu Bang, the king of Han, led troops to cross Chencang (Baoji today), attacked Guanzhong, and Zhang Han committed suicide. Simaxin and Dong Yi surrendered, and Shaanxi was occupied by Liu Bang. In the five years of Han Dynasty (202 BC), Xiangyu Wujiang committed himself, Liu Bang was the emperor, and established the Han Dynasty. It was known as the Western Han Dynasty. Chang'an City, the capital teacher, was the first large-scale city in Chinese history.
During the reign of Han Dynasty, Wei Qing and huoquyi were sent to attack Huns on a large scale, pushing the northern territory of Han Dynasty to Mobei, and then opening up the southern territory.
In the second year of the founding of the Yuan Dynasty (139 years ago), Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty sent Zhang Qian (the city governor of Shaanxi Province) to lead more than 100 people to the western region. It was known as "hollowing out the western region" in history, and opened up a famous "Silk Road" and became an important channel for the exchange of civilization between East and West.
In the end of the Western Han Dynasty, the peasant uprising continued, and the foreign Qi forces were becoming increasingly popular.
In the first year of the new dynasty (8 years), Wang Mang usurped Han Dynasty, changed the national name to new, Ding capital Chang'an, and the Western Han Dynasty died.
The Eastern Han Dynasty, Wei Jin, North and South Dynasties (25-581)
After the establishment of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Guanzhong of Shaanxi Province kept the name of "three auxiliary forces", while Chang'an still maintained the name of jingzhaofu. In the first year of the early Qing Dynasty (190th), Guandong warlords pushed Yuan Shao as the leader of the alliance and begged DongZhuo.
In the first year of the early Ping Dynasty (190), DongZhuo threatened to sacrifice emperor Liu Xie to Chang'an. This move to the West did not bring prosperity to Shaanxi, but led to the war between warlords, Shaanxi experienced a great catastrophe.
The Eastern Han Dynasty died. China entered the period of Wei, Jin and the southern and Northern Dynasties. The political power of capital construction in Shaanxi Province included Western Jin, Qian Zhao, qianqin, later Qin, Daxia, Western Wei and Northern Zhou Dynasty. Except for the founding of Wancheng (now Jingbian of Shaanxi Province), the capital of Han Chang'an was built in the other dynasties.
Sui Dynasty (581-618)
In the first year of the Sui Dynasty, Yang Jian, the emperor of the Northern Zhou Dynasty, abandoned the emperor Jing of Zhou Dynasty to stand on his own, which was the emperor of Sui Dynasty. The next year, the new capital city, Daxing City, covering an area of more than 80 square kilometers, was built in the southeast of Chang'an City in Han Dynasty, planned by yuwenkai, a builder. Sui Dynasty emperor once again unified China, established three provinces and six departments system, established imperial examination, established the political affairs hall procedure system, supervision system, performance appraisal system, strengthened the government mechanism, which had a profound impact on the later generations. Because of its strong advocacy of thrift, abolishing miscellaneous taxes and storing grain, it soon made the world rich, people live and work in peace and work, and political stability. History called "the rule of opening up the emperor".
In the fourth year of Renshou (604), Yang jianaval, the second son Yang Guang, was succeeded, namely emperor Yang of Sui Dynasty. Yang emperor was in good fortune, not to pay attention to the people, and indulged in pleasure and extravagance. He finally lived in the seven years of Daye (611), and the civil change broke out and chaos broke out.
In the 13th year of Daye (617), Li Yuan, who started troops from Taiyuan, entered Chang'an City, and established Yang as emperor, namely Sui Gong emperor, and Sui Yang emperor, who was honored as emperor of the emperor of the emperor of the emperor of the emperor of the emperor of the emperor of the emperor of the emperor of the emperor of the emperor of the emperor of the emperor of the Yangtze River (now Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province).
In the 14th year of Daye (618), yuwenhua, general youtunwei and other people hanged the emperor of Sui Yang. Li Yuanwen immediately forced yang to take the place of Zen and died in Sui.
Tang Dynasty (618-907)
Tang Dynasty is the peak of ancient China, and the most prosperous period in ancient Shaanxi.
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