Shanxi, referred to as "Jin", is located in North China, the provincial administrative region of the people's Republic of China, Taiyuan, the capital of the province, which is located in North China. Shanxi borders between 34 ° 34 ′ and 40 ° 44 'north, 110 ° 14 ′ to 114 ° 33 ′ e, Hebei in the East, Shaanxi in the west, Henan in the south, and Inner Mongolia in the north, with a total area of 156700 square kilometers.
Shanxi Province is a typical mountainous plateau covered by loess, with a high and low terrain in the northeast and southwest. The plateau is uneven and the valley is vertical and horizontal, with landform of mountain, hill, platform and plain, accounting for 80.1% of the total area. Shanxi Province is located in two major water systems, namely, Yellow River and Haihe River, which belongs to the self-produced outflow type water system. Shanxi Province is located in the inland of the middle latitude zone, and belongs to the temperate continental monsoon climate.
By the end of 2018, Shanxi Province has 11 provinces, 11 County cities, 81 counties and 25 municipal districts The permanent population is 37.834 million, and the regional GDP is RMB 168.81 billion, of which, the added value of the first industry is 74.66 billion yuan, the added value of the second industry is 70.89 billion yuan, the added value of the tertiary industry is 89.88 billion yuan, and the per capita regional GDP is 45328 yuan, which is calculated as 6850 US dollars according to the average exchange rate in 2018.
Shanxi Province has been a sign of human activity since ancient times, and it is one of the birthplaces of Chinese civilization.
Archaeology shows that in ancient times, the south of Shanxi Province is the origin of the early dawn of human beings. The discovery of the fossil of "century dawn apes" in Yuanqu County of Yuncheng has pushed forward the appearance of anthropoid apes for 10 million years. In the early Paleolithic period about 1.8 million years ago, the primitive population thrived in the southern Shanxi Province. The Huohuo bone found at Xihoudu cultural site of Ruicheng County, yuncheng county, has pushed forward the history of human fire discovered in China for one million years; about 10-20000 years ago, in the middle of Paleolithic age, there were already appeared on both sides of Fenhe River and Datong and Shuozhou in Shanxi Province The primitive population and village are more concentrated. In the late Neolithic period, southern Shanxi had become the center of many states at that time. The discovery and research results of the pottery Temple site in Xiangfen County of Linfen indicate that this is the location of the capital of Emperor Yao and the earliest region of China. This makes Yao Shun Yu era, which was about 4500 years ago, became a history of faith from legend, and the 5000 years of Chinese civilization history was confirmed.
After Dayu died, his son began to take the throne. The early Xia Dynasty ruling center is located in Xiaxian area in Jinnan, Shanxi Province. The site of xiafeng in the east of Xiaxian county is an important Xia ruins.
In the Shang Dynasty, southern Shanxi was within its "state and Gyeonggi thousand li", and the rest of the country was scattered with more than ten tribes.
In the early Western Zhou Dynasty, the princes were divided into large-scale. The central and southern part of Shanxi Province was the territory of more than ten princes, among which the main state was Jin.
During the spring and Autumn period, the Jin developed strongly, gradually annexing the small countries around it, becoming one of the five hegemony in the spring and Autumn period. The territory of the Jin state during its peak period includes about 50 counties in the south central part of Shanxi, southwest Hebei, Northwest Henan and Eastern Shaanxi Province, including more than 10 counties in Shanxi. Jin was the origin of county system, and later Qin extended the system to the whole country.
In the 16th year of Zhou Dynasty (453 years ago), three families of Zhao, Wei and Han, the Qing families of Jin, were divided into three parts, which was called "three branches of Jin". Zhao, Wei and Han made Jin three points, becoming the Three Kingdoms in fact. In Shanxi, Zhao has jurisdiction over the central, northeast and southeast parts, Wei has jurisdiction over the southwest and the southeast, and South Korea has the jurisdiction of the southeast and the southwest. At first, the capital of Zhao was in Jinyang (the northeast of Jinyuan District in Taiyuan), the capital of South Korea was Pingyang (now Linfen Yaodu District), and the capital of Wei was in Anyi (the north of Xiaxian County, the present Yuncheng City), and then moved to Henan and Hebei with the expansion of the territory. In the twenty third year of the reign of Zhou Weilie (403 BC), the emperor of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty officially recognized Zhao, Wei and Han as princes. Therefore, Chinese history began to enter the Warring States period. Shanxi is divided into three territories: Zhao, Wei and Korea.
In the twenty-six years (221 years ago), Qin unified six countries and established the central centralized system in Xianyang (now the northeast of Xianyang, Shaanxi Province). The local government implemented the system of counties and counties, divided the whole country into 36 counties, and then added more than 40 counties. Now Shanxi and its surrounding Hebei and Inner Mongolia are six counties in Hedong, Taiyuan, Shangdang, Yanmen, Dai and Yunzhong. The two counties in the dynasties and Yunzhong are not in Shanxi, and there are more than 70 counties in Shanxi.
The Western Han Dynasty basically followed the system of Qin Dynasty, and the local government implemented the system of prefecture and county, and the whole country was divided into 13 states. Shanxi and its surrounding Shaanxi, Hebei, Inner Mongolia are under the jurisdiction of Tongzhou, Youzhou and Shili prefecture (the Chang'an area of Beijing), and are under the jurisdiction of Taiyuan, Shangdang, Yanmen, Xihe, Dai and Hedong counties. Among them, Xihe county and dai2 county are not in Shanxi, and there are more than 90 counties in Shanxi.
The local system of Eastern Han Dynasty followed the Western Han Dynasty. In the late Western Han Dynasty and the Eastern Han Dynasty, the Huns, Qiang and Xianbei of the northern minority gradually moved into Shanxi and developed vigorously. By the middle of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Shanxi became a multi-ethnic area in the north, central and western regions.
In the early Three Kingdoms period of Wei, Jin, North and South Dynasties, Shanxi is now the state of Wei. In the first year of Yongan in the Western Jin Dynasty (304), Liu Yuan, the chief of Hun, set up the army of Zuogong city (now Lvliang Lishi District) to establish the Han Dynasty, and soon moved to Pingyang (now Linfen Yaodu District), and established the first ethnic minority regime in the North. Then Liu Cong, his son, defeated Chang'an (now northwest of Xi'an, Shaanxi Province) to destroy the Western Jin Dynasty, and thus began the situation of "five Hu and sixteen countries" in Chinese history to be separated from one side. During this period, the Xia state, founded by the former Zhao and the Capricorn leaders of shile, the former Zhao and Xianbei leaders, created by the former Zhao and the Capricorn leaders of LiuYao and Fu Hong, the leaders of the di nationality, created by Yao Chang, the aristocrats of the qianqin and Di, created by the later Qin and Xianbei leaders muronghong, created by the leaders of the Xiyan and Xianbei, muronghang, the leaders of the Hun, and Helian, the leaders of the Hun tribe, established the Xia state The territory of Northern Wei and other countries founded by the leader of Xianbei nationality tuobaxi.
In the five years of Northern Wei Dynasty (439), the Yellow River Basin was unified in Northern Wei Dynasty, which ended the situation of northern fragmentation. Shanxi was the territory of Northern Wei Dynasty. In the third year of Yongxi (534), the Northern Wei Dynasty was divided into Eastern Wei and Western Wei. Most of Shanxi was Eastern Wei territory, and the southern part was Western Wei territory. Later, the Northern Qi Dynasty replaced the Eastern Wei Dynasty and the Northern Zhou Dynasty replaced the Western Wei Dynasty. In the six years since the establishment of Germany in the Northern Zhou Dynasty (577), the Northern Zhou Dynasty destroyed the Northern Qi Dynasty, and Shanxi was unified as the territory of the Northern Zhou Dynasty.
After the Sui Dynasty was established, the county level system was initially cancelled in the local government. The general office was set up in the Zhuzhou of yaochong, and the governor and governor of the state was used to dominate several neighboring states. The four prefectures of Shanxi Province are the union, the generation, the Xi and Shuo. Later, the state was changed to county, and the local government implemented the county two-level system, and at most 190 counties were set up in the whole country. Shanxi and its surrounding Hebei and Inner Mongolia are divided into 14 counties, Taiyuan, Dingxiang, Mayi, Yanmen, Loufan, Xihe, Lishi, Shangdang, Changping, Linfen, Longquan, Wencheng, Hedong and Zhengping. Among them, 14 county offices are in Shanxi, and there are more than 90 counties in Shanxi.
Li Yuan, the Tang Dynasty, set up the Tang Dynasty. Shanxi was regarded as the place of "Longxing" by Tang Gaozu. Taiyuan was named as the "north capital" and "Beijing" of Tang Dynasty.
In Song Dynasty, Shanxi was the main developed area in northern China.
In the Yuan Dynasty, there were 11 provinces in China, Shanxi, Shandong and Hebei, and were called the hinterland of the Yuan Dynasty. Datong, Pingyang (Linfen and Taiyuan) became the famous capitals of the Yellow River Basin.
After entering the semi colonial and semi feudal society, Shanxi's economic and cultural development was seriously damaged.
Shanxi, as an old revolutionary area, established a Socialist Youth League in Taiyuan in the tenth year of the Republic of China (1921), and carried out revolutionary activities. After the long march of the red army reached northern Shaanxi, Mao Zedong led the main force of the Red Army to cross the river to the East, spreading revolutionary fires all over the west, middle and south of Shanxi.
After the outbreak of the Anti Japanese War, the three main forces of the Eighth Route Army entered Shanxi and established the base area for anti Japanese after the enemy. During the 14 years of Anti Japanese War, Shanxi was an important strategic fulcrum of the national anti Japanese War; the local Party organizations of Shanxi Province trained 150000 Communist Party members and sent 600000 hot blood youth to the Eighth Route Army in the base area.
In April, the thirty eighth year of the Republic of China (1949), Shanxi Province was liberated. In September, the people's Government of Shanxi Province was established.
As of 2018, Shanxi Province has 11 prefecture level cities, Taiyuan City, the capital of which is located in the middle of Shanxi Province, and the remaining 10 cities are from north to South: Datong, Shuozhou, Xinzhou, Yangquan, Luliang, Jinzhong, Changzhi, Jincheng, Linfen and Yuncheng. No.3, provincial government of Shanxi Province, Xiaodian District, Taiyuan city.
Among the 11 prefecture level cities in the province, Xinzhou is the largest in the jurisdiction, and Yangquan is the smallest; among the 117 county administrative units, the largest area is Luliang Xingxian, Xinzhou Yuanping City and Shuozhou Pinglu District, and the smallest is Linfen Quwo County, Linfen Houma City and Yangquan mining area. It has 1398 towns, townships and streets (564 towns, 632 townships and 202 streets), and 28079 formed villages.
Shanxi Province is an inland province in China, which is located on the Loess Plateau on the East Bank of the middle reaches of the Yellow River and the west of North China Plain. Taihang Mountain is the boundary in the East and adjacent to Hebei Province; the Yellow River is located in the West and south, and faces Shaanxi and Henan; the great wall outside the North borders Inner Mongolia. The boundary is a parallelogram of northeast oblique southwest, with a long distance between North and south, and a length of 682km in length: the southernmost end is in the south of Nanzhang village, Ruicheng County, 34 ° 34 ′ north; the northernmost end is in Yuantou village, Tianzhen County, and 40 ° 44 'North. The distance between East and West is short, and the width is about 385 km: the easternmost end is in the east of Nankeng village, Guangling County, longitude is 114 ° 33 ′ East, and the west end is in the west of Wangcun, mayor of Yongji County, and 110 ° 14 'East. The total area of the province is 156700 square kilometers, accounting for 1.6% of the total area of China.
Shanxi Province is located in the east wing of the Loess Plateau in the west of North China. The landform is a mountainous plateau covered by loess in general, and the whole contour is slightly parallelogram from northeast to southwest. The landform types are complex and diverse, including mountain, hill, plateau, basin, platform, etc., of which 80% are mountainous and hilly, and 20% of Pingchuan River Valley, such as plateau, basin and platform. Most of the areas are over 1000 meters above sea level, which is in a strong uplift situation compared with the eastern North China Plain. The highest is the peak of yetoufeng in Wutai Mountain in the northeast, with an altitude of 3058m, which is the highest peak in North China; the lowest is the south edge Yuncheng Yuanqu County, the southeast Xiyang River enters the Yellow River, with an altitude of only 180 meters. The terrain of the situation is very high and low.
Shanxi Province has mountains and hills, rolling hills and ravines, with a total terrain of "two mountains and one Sichuan". The East and west sides are mountainous and hilly uplift, and a series of Pearl like basins are sunk in the middle, and the plain is distributed in the middle. The East is a massive mountain formed by Taihang Mountain as the main vein. From north to south, Hengshan, Jingzhu mountain, Wutai Mountain, guanzhoushan, Taihang Mountain, Taiyue Mountain and Zhongtiao Mountain range, and their affiliated Lishan Mountain and Jiangcheng mountain are mainly formed. The mountain is magnificent and has an elevation of more than 1500 meters. The west is the Loess Plateau with Luliang Mountain as the main body. From north to south, there are seven peaks, Hongtao mountain and Luliang Mountain, including Guanshan Mountain, Luya Mountain, Yunzhongshan, Heicha mountain, guandili mountain, Zijing mountain and Longmen Mountain, with an altitude of more than 1500 meters, and the highest elevation of Guandi mountain reaches 2831 meters. From north to south, there are nine "many" fault basins in Yanbei, Xinzhou, Taiyuan, Luliang, Yangquan, Changzhi, Jincheng, Linfen and Yuncheng. The main outline of the province is very similar to a concave shape.
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