Ganquan County, located in the middle of Yan'an City, Shaanxi Province, belongs to the hilly and gully region of the Loess Plateau in Northern Shaanxi Province, with a semi humid inland monsoon climate. With a total area of 2300.7 square kilometers, the county has a total cultivated area of 609000 mu, with a forest grass coverage rate of 78.4%, of which the forest coverage rate is 50.5%.
Ganquan is named after the spring at the foot of Shenlin mountain, 5km southwest of the city, which is known as the "hometown of beautiful water". It is recorded in the Western Zhou Dynasty that Diaoyin county was established in the Qin Dynasty, Linzhen County in the early Northern Wei Dynasty, Fulu County in the first year of Wude in the Tang Dynasty, and Ganquan County in the first year of Tianbao. Scenic spots include the site of Zhidao in Qin Dynasty, the "beautiful water spring" named by Emperor Yang of Sui Dynasty, the Bailu temple built in Tang Dynasty, the Millennium ginkgo tree, and the ancient tombs of Song Dynasty.
In March 2019, it was listed as the first batch of revolutionary cultural relics protection and utilization area sub County list. On July 29, 2020, it will be included in the National Health township (county) naming list of 2017-2019 cycle.
History of Zhixian County
In the Western Zhou Dynasty, it belonged to the state of Zhai at the beginning, and later to the state of Jin.
The spring and Autumn period (770-476 BC) belongs to the state of Jin.
During the Warring States period (475-221 BC), it belonged to Wei at the beginning and Qin later. Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC), set Diaoyin County, subordinate to the county. Today, the southeast of Ganquan (Daozhen area) is under the jurisdiction of Diaoyin County; today, the northwest of Ganquan (Shimen to Qiaozhen) is under the jurisdiction of gaonu County, subordinate to Shangjun county.
During the Qin and Han Dynasties, Xiang Yu was granted the title of Sanqin, and Ganquan belonged to the state of Zhai.
In the Western Han Dynasty (206-247 BC), Diaoyin county was set up in the southeastern part of the territory, and gaonu county was set up in the northwestern part of the territory.
In the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220), it was under the jurisdiction of Diaoyin county and gaonu county at the beginning, under the jurisdiction of Shangjun County, and later Xia state.
In the Three Kingdoms (220), Wei set up Qingzhou County and built Qingzhou City (now Shimen), which later belonged to Xia state.
The Western Jin Dynasty (266-316) belongs to Xia state. Before and after Qin Dynasty (351-417), it was under the jurisdiction of Changcheng County, which was subordinate to Changcheng county.
In the first year of Taihe (477) of the Northern Wei Dynasty, Yincheng county was set up. It is located in Yanjiagou village, now Xiasiwan township. It governs the northwest of the present territory and the south of Zhidan County. Eight years (484) set up Shicheng County (Governance in Qingzhou site), jurisdiction of today's East Ganquan.
In 554, Shicheng County was changed into Yincheng county and attached to Shangjun County; Changcheng county was changed into Sanchuan County, belonging to minzhou and attached to Zhongjun county.
In the second year of Baoding in the Northern Zhou Dynasty (562), the Yincheng administrative office was moved to Shigui town (now the south of Shenmu county), and the original jurisdiction was transferred to Yincheng county.
In the third year of kaihuang (583), the county system was abolished and the system of state and county was implemented. In the third year of Daye (607), the county system was restored and Yanzhou was changed into Yan'an county. Today, the northwest part of the territory is under the jurisdiction of Yincheng, which is subordinate to Yan'an County; Luojiao county (now Fu County) is set up, and the southeast part of the territory is under the jurisdiction of Luojiao County, which is subordinate to Shangjun county.
In 618, the first year of Wude in Tang Dynasty, Fulu county was set up in the territory, which governs the East and south of the territory. Abandoned County for the state, subordinate to the state. In the second year (619), Yincheng county was changed to Jincheng county (without examination), and Luopan County, Xinchang County, tulang county and Yongzhou county were set up. In the fourth year of Zhenguan (630), Yongzhou moved to Luoyuan county. Eight years (634), the withdrawal of Luopan, Xinchang, Tu Long County, jurisdiction into Jincheng County, Li Yan Prefecture. In the first year of Tianbao (742), Fulu county was replaced by Ganquan County and Luojiao county (formerly minzhou); Jincheng county was replaced by Fuzheng county and Yan'an county (formerly Yanzhou). In the first year of the Qianyuan Dynasty (758), the county was removed and the state was restored. Ganquan was attached to Bingzhou and Fuzheng was attached to Yanzhou.
The Five Dynasties and ten states (907-979) were established by Ganquan and Fuzheng, which were subordinate to minzhou and Yanzhou.
In 1089, Yanzhou was changed to Yan'an Prefecture. Ganquan and Fuzheng counties belong to Yan'an Prefecture.
Jin (115-1234), which was in the old system of Ganquan County and Fuzheng County, belonged to Yan'an Prefecture of Minyan road.
Yuan (1265), the withdrawal of Linzhen county (now Southeast of Yan'an City), into Ganquan County; 269, the withdrawal of Fuzheng County, jurisdiction into Ansai County.
In May 1369, Yan'an road was changed to Yan'an Prefecture and Ganquan County was under the jurisdiction of Yan'an Prefecture. In 1376, the Secretary of Shaanxi Chengcheng government was set up.
In the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), the administrative system of province, road, government and county level was implemented. Ganquan County was under the jurisdiction of Yan'an Prefecture, yanyusui Road, Shaanxi Province.
In the second year of the Republic of China (1913), the system of government, prefecture and department was abolished. There were two levels of road and county under the province. Ganquan County was subordinate to Yulin road in Shaanxi Province. In 1927, the Dao system was abolished and the county was directly under the provincial government. At the beginning of 1935, Northern Shaanxi and Shaanxi Gansu border Soviet areas were established, and Ganquan was liberated. Today, Laoshan is under the jurisdiction of Fugan Revolutionary Committee; Qingquan and Linzhen are under the jurisdiction of Hongquan Revolutionary Committee; Daozhen and fuchunchuan are under the jurisdiction of bengan Revolutionary Committee. In November, the Soviet government of Ganluo county was established, which was subordinate to Shaanxi and Gansu Province. Qiaozhen, Xiasiwan and Shimen under the former Ansai administration entered Ganluo County, and Linzhen under the former Ganquan administration entered Yan'an county. In 1937, Ganluo county government was changed to Ganquan County Anti Japanese democratic government, which was under the jurisdiction of Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia Border Region Government; at the same time, Ganquan County Government of Kuomintang (which was under the jurisdiction of the southeast of Ganquan and the south of Yan'an City) was under the jurisdiction of the second administrative supervision department of Shaanxi Provincial Government of Kuomintang.
In 1941, Ganquan was a county directly under the central government of the Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia border region. In 1942, the Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia border region was divided into Yanzhi, Suide, Guanzhong, Longdong and trilateral regions, and Ganquan was changed into Yanzhi.
In May 1949, Yanfu district was abolished and Northern Shaanxi administrative office was established. Ganquan district was subordinate to northern Shaanxi administrative office. On May 1, 1950, the Northern Shaanxi administrative office was abolished and the Yan'an District Commissioner Office of Shaanxi Province was established. Ganquan was subordinate to Yan'an district. In December 1958, Ganquan County was merged into Yan'an county. In September 1961, Ganquan County system was restored. In 1969, Yan'an area was renamed Yan'an area. Ganquan has been under the jurisdiction of Yan'an area since then.
It is located in the middle of Yan'an area. It is located at 108 ° 45'34 ″ - 109 ° 33'46 ″ E and 36 ° 6'57 ″ - 36 ° 37'33 ″ n. It is adjacent to Yan'an City in the East, Zhidan County in the west, Ansai District in the north and Fu County in the south. The county is 333 km south to Xi'an, the provincial capital, and 40 km north to Yan'an. The county is about 80 km long from southeast to northwest and 50 km wide from northeast to southwest.
Ganquan is a hilly and gully region in the Loess Plateau of Northern Shaanxi. Its geomorphological features are long from southeast to northwest and narrow from northeast to southwest. Luohe River runs through Ganquan County from northwest to Southeast. The terrain inclines from northwest to Southeast, with an altitude of 950-1625m. Dunliang in the west is the highest point in Ganquan County, with an altitude of 1625 meters. The riverbed of lanjiachuan in the south is the lowest point, with an altitude of 950 meters. Luohe Valley is relatively flat, with a width of 500-1000 meters, accounting for about 10% of the total area of Ganquan County. In the rest of the vast area, the Loess Hilly Gully crisscross distribution, the relative height difference is less than 200 meters.
Ganquan County belongs to the plateau continental monsoon semi humid climate, four seasons cold and warm, dry and wet. Warm and windy in spring, hot and rainy in summer, cool and humid in autumn, cold and rainy in winter, short in summer and long in winter. The annual average temperature is 8.6, the annual average sunshine hours is 2478.7 hours, the average sunshine hours is 6.8 hours, the temperature difference between day and night is large, the annual average frost free period is 148 days, and the annual rainfall is 126.3 mm.
Ganquan County has a total capacity of 314.2 million cubic meters and a self-produced water of 612.2 million cubic meters. The total amount of surface water runoff is 612.9 million cubic meters, accounting for 4.7% of the total precipitation; the total amount of shallow groundwater is 39.1 million cubic meters, accounting for 2.3% of the total precipitation. The average evaporation depth is 523 mm and the transpiration is 1.199 billion cubic meters, accounting for 92.9% of the total precipitation. The total amount of water resources in Ganquan is 60.83 million cubic meters, including 612.9 million cubic meters of channel runoff, 1.174 cubic meters of water per capita and 198 cubic meters of water per mu. The water reserve is large. The 50% guarantee rate of Luohe River is 25m3 / s, and the exploitable capacity is 1377 watts based on the flow calculation.
Ganquan County is rich in plant resources, with a vast area and a wide range of species. There are 1742800 mu of forest resources, with a coverage rate of 50.61%; 1007298 mu of grass resources, with a total of 71 families and 365 species; 465524.73 mu of crops. Ganquan is a zonal vegetation, which belongs to the northern deciduous oak forest zone of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest zone. The coverage rate of arbor and shrub forest in Ganquan County is 50.69%. The forest is mainly young mixed forest. Secondary forests account for about four fifths of the forest age structure. The total volume of live wood is 425.31 cubic meters, the annual gross length rate is 5.3%, and the gross length is 225000 cubic meters. The net growth rate is 2.15%, and the net growth is 91000 cubic meters.
Fish are carp, grass carp, red carp, black carp, bighead carp. There are many kinds of amphibians, most of them belong to Bufonidae and Ranae. There are mainly toads and frogs. Reptiles include turtle, gecko, cobra, Agkistrodon halys, Zhuyeqing, occasionally Bungarus multicinctus, and red snake.
Birds include duck, goose, eagle, chicken, pheasant, pheasant, pigeon, turtledove, cuckoo, sparrow, owl, warbler, Daisheng, woodpecker, swallow, magpie, grey magpie, crow, crow, crow, lark, oriole, willow warbler, tit, sparrow, rosefinch, Morant monster, Huang Gao, pigeon tiger, Han Banchi, thrush, parrot and Starling.
Mammals include mole, bat, pika, sable, mouse, squirrel, chipmunk, vole, hamster, wolf, fox, jackal, wolf dog, poodle, weasel, weasel, badger, otter, leopard cat, cat, leopard, horse, mule, donkey, ox, pig, goat, sheep and wild boar.
The peak population of Ganquan County was in the years of Tianshun, Jiajing and Longqing in the Ming Dynasty. There were about 2530 households and 27071 people in Ganquan County. In the second year of Tongzhi in the Qing Dynasty (1863), due to the shortage of soldiers, followed by disease and wild wolves
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