Turpan, a prefecture level city under the jurisdiction of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, is located in the central part of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It is an olive shaped Intermountain basin in the east of Tianshan Mountains, surrounded by mountains on all sides, belonging to the typical continental warm temperate desert climate. It has jurisdiction over one district and two counties, with a total area of 69713 square kilometers. In 2017, it had a total population of 637300.
Turpan is located in the hinterland of the Eurasian continent. It is the gateway of Urumqi and an important transportation hub of the new Silk Road and the Eurasian Continental Bridge. Lanzhou Xinjiang Railway and southern Xinjiang Railway meet here, forming a three-dimensional transportation system of "highway, railway and aviation" with Turpan airport and G30 line. It has the location and convenient transportation advantages of "connecting north and south, connecting East with West, coming West and going east", and realizes the regional economic integration of Urumqi and Turpan. The first, second and third west to east gas transmission line, the Asia Europe optical cable, the second Xinjiang optical cable and the 750 kV West to East power transmission and transformation line run through the whole territory. In October 2017, it was awarded the title of national garden city.
In 2017, Turpan's GDP reached 26.252 billion yuan, an increase of 9.8% over the previous year. Among them, local GDP reached 22.564 billion yuan, an increase of 10.9% over the previous year. By industry: the added value of the primary industry was 4.920 billion yuan, an increase of 5.0%; the added value of the secondary industry was 12.208 billion yuan, an increase of 13.1%; the added value of the tertiary industry was 9.124 billion yuan, an increase of 9.3%.
Turpan is an important town on the ancient Silk Road. As early as the Neolithic age, there were human activities 6000 or 7000 years ago. At that time, people in Turpan were mainly hunting and gathering. After entering the slave society, the mode of production gradually changed to agriculture, and gradually settled in Turpan Basin. According to historical records, the indigenous people living in Turpan Basin are Gushi people. They established Gushi (later called Cheshi) state, Huhu state, xiaojinfu state, Cheshi houchengchang state and Cheshi Duwei state in Turpan Basin.
During the Western Han Dynasty, the Xiongnu in northern China controlled most of the western regions and constantly invaded the Han Dynasty.
In the third year of Jianyuan (138 BC), Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty sent Zhang Qian to the western regions to unite with other countries in order to break the "right arm" of Xiongnu. The place of "Gu Shi" is an important channel to open up the western regions, and its strategic position is extremely important. As a result, the Western Han Dynasty and the Xiongnu launched a long-term repeated struggle for "Gu Shi".
In the third year of Yuanfeng reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty (108 BC), Zhao fenu and Wang Hui, the generals of Han Dynasty, rode tens of thousands of Ke Loulan and broke Gu Shi. Gu Shi was renamed Che Shi, and Chen belonged to the Western Han Dynasty. Cheshi kingdom was formed from the north and south of Bogda mountain. Soon, the Huns took control of the Cheshi.
In the third year of the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty (99 BC), the Han Dynasty took Jiehe Wang Chengchu, the Xiongnu's demoted general, as the Kailing Marquis, and led the soldiers of Loulan to attack the chariot division. The Xiongnu sent Youxian king to lead tens of thousands of cavalry to rescue, and the Han soldiers were defeated.
In the fourth year of Han Zhenghe (89 BC), the Han Dynasty sent Kailing marquis to lead the soldiers of Loulan and other six countries to encircle the Cheshi. The Cheshi King surrendered to the Han Dynasty. In the first year of Yuanping (74 BC), Emperor Zhao of Han Dynasty, the Xiongnu re occupied the Cheshi and sent 4000 cavalry troops to garrison here.
In the first three years of Emperor Xuan of the Han Dynasty (71 BC), the Han Dynasty and Wusun allied forces to attack the Xiongnu from the east to the west, and the Cheshi garrisoned the field. The Xiongnu soldiers were afraid to flee, and the Cheshi belonged to the Han Dynasty. After that, the Cheshi king married the Xiongnu, and the Han Dynasty lost the Cheshi. In the second year of emperor Xuandi's land festival of the Han Dynasty (68 BC), Zheng Ji, the Minister of the Han Dynasty, led his troops to capture Jiaohe City of Cheshi, and sent 300 soldiers to garrison the Cheshi. The Huns sent troops to fight again. In the fourth year of Yuankang (62 BC), Emperor Xuan of the Han Dynasty gave up the chariot division. In the second year of shenjue reign of Emperor Xuan of Han Dynasty (60 BC), the Xiongnu was in civil strife, and the Xiongnu was forced to surrender to the Han Dynasty. Then the land of Cheshi belonged to the Han Dynasty. These five major disputes between drivers are known as "five disputes between drivers" in history. In the same year (60 years before the unification of the western regions) of the Western Han Dynasty, Duhufu was set up in the western regions, and Zheng Ji was the first Duhufu. Since then, the western regions have been included in the territory of the Han Dynasty. After the Cheshi returned to Han Dynasty, the Han Dynasty was divided into six kingdoms, namely, the king before and after the Cheshi and the northern part of the mountain. According to the biography of the western regions in the book of Han Dynasty, the city of Jiaohe (the ancient city of Jiaohe in Turpan City) was named Jiaohe because the river water was diverted around the city. When they went to Chang'an, they were 8150 Li long, 700 households, 650 mouths and 865 soldiers. ".
In the first year of the Yuan Dynasty (48bc), Wuji Xiaowei was set up in the former state of Cheshi in the Han Dynasty. He was stationed in Jiaohe City and was in charge of the affairs of tuntian in the western regions. In the fourth year of Yangshuo, Emperor Xiandi of Han Dynasty (21 BC), Wuji moved to gaochangbi. By the 25th year of Emperor Guangwu's founding in the Eastern Han Dynasty, Cheshi's former state had annexed all the countries in Turpan, and Jiaohe City became Turpan's first political, economic and cultural center.
After the 18th year of Yongping (75th year) of the Ming emperor of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the Xiongnu fought against the Han Dynasty and besieged the chariot division. Wuji was withdrawn and restored several times. In 123, the second year of emperor an's reign in the Eastern Han Dynasty, ban Yong, the commander of the western regions, led 500 soldiers out of tunliuzhong (now Lukeqin, Shanshan county) to conquer Cheshi. In the third year of the reign of Yan Guang (124), Wu Ji was reinstated as a captain.
In the Jin Dynasty, the former state of Cheshi returned to Jin, and the Wuji captain of Jin Dynasty was still located in Gaochang. After the demise of the Western Jin Dynasty, Liangzhou (now Wuwei, Gansu Province) formed the Zhang's regime. In 327, Zhang Jun, the former king of Liangzhou, captured Zhao Zhen, the rebel general of Wuji and set up Gaochang county. It belongs to Shazhou (now Dunhuang, Gansu).
In the first year of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (376), the Fu of the former Qin Dynasty established Qianliang. Gaochang county belongs to the former Qin Dynasty and belongs to Liangzhou. In the 10th year of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (386), Lu Guang, a former general of the Qin Dynasty, who was ordered to visit kuci (today's Kuqa) in the west, broke Yiwu pass and occupied Liangzhou, and built Houliang. Gaochang and Cheshi were in the former state and in the latter cool. In 394, Lu Guang sent his son Lu Fu to guard Gaochang, the capital of the western regions. In the first year of Long'an, Emperor an of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (397), duanye, the prefect of liangjiankang (now southwest of Jiuquan, Gansu Province), was the governor of Dadu, the herdsman of Liangzhou, the Duke of Jiankang, the emperor of Gaiyuan, and occupied Gaochang. In the fourth year of Long'an in the Eastern Jin Dynasty (400), Li Gao established Xiliang and set up a county in Gaochang. The former Minister of Cheshi belonged to Xiliang. In 412 of the eighth year of Yixi in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, the northern Liang Dynasty was established in Mengxun of Juqu.
In 420 A.D., Beiliang was dominated by Juqu, and Mengxun conquered Xiliang. Gaochang changed control of Beiliang, and the former state of Cheshi surrendered to it. In 439, the Northern Wei Dynasty destroyed Beiliang, and kaishuang established himself as Gaochang prefect. The remnant of Beiliang runs West to Shanshan (now Ruoqiang county).
In the third year of Taiping Zhenjun (442) of the Northern Wei Dynasty, under the leadership of Juqu, the remnant of Beiliang conquered Gaochang and changed to Chengping the next year. He also attacked the former state of Cheshi in the West. In the 11th year of taipingzhenjun in the Northern Wei Dynasty (450), Wang Yiluo, in the front of the Che division, went west with the Wei army and left his son to guard the country. Juqu Anzhou and Rouran united forces to besiege the city of Jiaohe, the former state of Cheshi. The Cheshi was defeated and ran West to Yanqi. The former state of Cheshi died. In 460, Gaochang was destroyed by Rouran, and a local Dynasty of Han nationality was established. Gaochangcheng became the political, economic and cultural center of Turpan.
Turpan entered the period of Gaochang kingdom from Kaibo Zhou. In the fifth year of Taihe reign of Emperor Wen of Wei Dynasty (481), the leader of Gaoche, a Fu to Luo, made Zhang mengming king of Gaochang. In 496 ad, the people of Gaochang killed Zhang mengming and established Ma Ru as king. In 501 A.D., Maru moved in, and the old people of Gaochang loved the land and didn't want to return to the East. So they killed Maru and made qujia king. Qu's kingdom of Gaochang was once attached to Rouran, Gaoche and Tujue, and was honored by Northern Wei, Western Wei, Zhou and Sui dynasties. The kingdom was established as a county, county and city system, with villages under the county and Li in the countryside.
When the Tang Dynasty destroyed Gaochang, there were Jiaohe, Tiandi and Nanping counties; Baisu, Yongan, Wuban, Yancheng, liupo, Shichang, Lin, Xinxing, Longquan, Anchang, Jiuquan, Weishen and Hengjie counties; Gaoning, Linchuan, ningrong, Yongchang, Zhucheng, dujin and Dongzhen counties. In 639, Gaochang rebelled against the Tang Dynasty and joined Western Turks to block the passage of western regions. In 640, the 14th year of Tang Zhenguan, the Tang Dynasty destroyed Gaochang, and Gaochang Kingdom ended its 180 year history. In 640 A.D., Hou Jun, the Minister of the Ministry of officials of the Tang Dynasty, gathered as the general manager of Jiaohe Daoxing army and led the division to attack Gaochang. After Gaochang was pacified, Xichang Prefecture was set up and changed into Xichang Prefecture. The county (township) and Li system were implemented, and five counties were under its jurisdiction. Gaochang County, Liuzhong County, Jiaohe County, Tianshan county (in today's Toksun county) and Puchang county (in today's Shanshan county). In the same year when the Tang Dynasty set up Xizhou, it set up Anxi Dadu's residence in Jiaohe City, with Qiao Shiwang as the first Anxi Dadu and governor of Xizhou. Anxi Dadu Prefecture governs 22 prefectures and 118 states. In the 22nd year of Tang Zhenguan (648), most of Anxi Prefecture moved to Qiuci. In the first year of Yonghui of Tang Dynasty (651), Xizhou was withdrawn. In 658, Tang Xianqing moved to Qiuci again. Xizhou was changed into the governor's office of Xizhou. In the second year of longshuo (662), the Tibetan army entered the western regions and began to compete with the western regions. In the first year of Tang Xianheng (670), Tubo and Western Turks captured 18 states in the western regions. Tang abandoned the four towns in Anxi and retreated to Xizhou. In the first year of Tang Dynasty (689), the prefecture of Anxi Dadu was moved to Xizhou. Tang Changshou first year (692), and moved to Qiuci. In the second year of Kaiyuan (714), the Tang Dynasty set up Tianshan army in Xizhou. In the first year of Tang Tianbao (742), Xizhou was changed into Jiaohe county. In the first year of Qianyuan (758), Xizhou was restored. In 790, Tubo and Uighur fought for Beiting (now jimusar), and Tubo occupied Beiting. After that, the west state was captured. Tubo and Uighur fought for Xizhou repeatedly for many years, and finally Uighur controlled Xizhou. Tang Dynasty
Chinese PinYin : Xin Jiang Wei Wu Er Zi Zhi Qu Tu Lu Fan Shi
Turpan City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
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