Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, referred to as "Changji Prefecture", belongs to Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the capital of which is located in Changji City. It is located in the north foot of Tianshan Mountain and the southeast edge of Junggar basin. The terrain is high in the South and low in the North, and tilts from southeast to northwest. It belongs to the middle temperate zone, which is a typical continental arid climate. With a total area of 73900 square kilometers, it governs two county-level cities, four counties and one Autonomous County In 2017, the total population was 1.406 million.
Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang was once the only way for the new North Road of the ancient "Silk Road" to lead to Central Asia and Europe. It has been the throat of the western regions and the barrier of Northern Xinjiang since ancient times. It is an important part of the core area of Xinjiang Silk Road Economic belt. Northern Xinjiang Railway, 312 national highway, 216 national highway, 115 provincial highway and Tuwu Wuda high-grade highway run through the whole territory. At the same time, Changji is also a pilot city of intellectual property strategy promotion project for small and medium-sized enterprises.
In 2018, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture achieved a GDP of 136.73 billion yuan, an increase of 5.1% over the previous year at comparable prices. Among them, the added value of the primary industry was 22.619 billion yuan, an increase of 4.5%; the added value of the secondary industry was 70.097 billion yuan, an increase of 3.7%; the added value of the tertiary industry was 44.014 billion yuan, an increase of 7.4%. The per capita GDP of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture was 83036 yuan, a year-on-year increase of 2.3%. It is equivalent to 12853 US dollars at the average exchange rate of that year.
"Changji" is originally a transliteration of "Yangji", originally Turkic, meaning "new". The name "Yangji Bali" (meaning Xincheng) was recorded as early as in the Turkic dictionary and the appendix of the geographical records of the Yuan Dynasty. The name of "Changji" evolved from Zhangbao, Yangji Bali, Changdu CI or changbali. In Yuewei Caotang notes or Xiyu Shuidao notes, it is said that the name of Changji is a transliteration of "Changpu" in Junggar (Mongolian), which used to be the name of a river.
Evolution of organizational system
In the Western Han Dynasty, the territory belonged to Cheshi state, one of the 36 states in the western regions. The houcheshi state was divided into the front part and the rear part. The territory belonged to the rear part of Cheshi. In the third year of the Taichu period of the Western Han Dynasty (102 BC), when the Han Dynasty set up "emissary Xiaowei" in the western regions, the Han Army ruled this area. In the fourth year of Yuankang (62 BC), Emperor Xuan of the Han Dynasty set up Wuji Xiaowei in Beiting (now Jimusaer county), which had been in Administration for more than 400 years.
From the beginning of the 3rd century to the middle of the 6th century, there were Nomadic Settlements of Gaoche, Rouran, Tujue, tielebu and other tribes in the territory.
In the 14th year of Tang Zhenguan (640), Tingzhou was set up, with jurisdiction over Jinman, Luntai, Pulei and Xihai counties, which is equivalent to most of Jizhou. In the second year of Chang'an (702), Empress Wu set up the Beiting Dadu mansion, which governed the vast area north of Tianshan Mountain and south of Balkhash Lake, and composed the most brilliant chapter in the history of ancient western regions.
In the Song Dynasty, the territory belonged to the Tibetan and Uighur Khanate.
In the early years of emperor Xianzong of Yuan Dynasty (1229), Shangshu province was set up in this territory. After the decline of Yuan Dynasty, the western regions went their own way. This territory belongs to Chagatai Khanate.
In 1697, the 36th year of the reign of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1697), the tribe of kardan was destroyed by Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty. In the 27th year of Qianlong's reign (1762), the territory was under the jurisdiction of general Yili. Later, Qianlong set up zhendidao in Dihua, which governed most of the territory. In the 10th year of Guangxu's reign (1884), Xinjiang was established as a province, and most of Changji Prefecture belonged to Dihua Prefecture.
On July 8, 1954, Changji Hui Autonomous Region was established.
On March 11, 1955, it was renamed Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture. In 1958, Manas, Hutubi, Qitai, jimusar, Fukang, Mulei and other counties were put under the jurisdiction of the whole Prefecture.
In 1959, Urumqi county was assigned to Urumqi.
After 1983, Changji City, Fukang county and Miquan county were established one after another.
In 2007, Miquan city of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture was merged into Urumqi City, and Miquan city was abolished; Midong District of Urumqi city was established, and the former administrative region of Miquan city and Dongshan District of Urumqi city was taken as the administrative region of Midong district.
As of October 2018, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture has jurisdiction over two county-level cities, four counties and one Autonomous County: Changji City, Fukang City, Manas County, Hutubi County, jimusar County, Qitai County and Murai Kazak Autonomous County. The state people's government is located at No. 54, Yan'an North Road, Changji City.
Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture is located in the north foot of Tianshan Mountain and the southeast margin of Junggar basin. It is located at 43 ° 20 ′～ 45 ° 00 ′ N and 85 ° 17 ～ 91 ° 32 ′ E. It is adjacent to Hami region in the East, Shihezi City in the west, Turpan city and Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture in the south, Tacheng and Altay regions in the north, and Mongolia in the northeast. Urumqi is surrounded from the East, West and North. It is 541 kilometers long from east to west and 285 kilometers wide from north to south, with a total area of 73900 square kilometers. Changji City is 38 kilometers away from the center of Urumqi in the East.
Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture is high in the South and low in the north. It slopes from southeast to northwest. In the south is Tianshan Mountain, in the middle is a vast alluvial plain, and in the north is a vast desert basin. This area is the north slope of Tianshan mountain across the south, which is called "north slope of Tianshan Mountain". In the East is Beita mountain (the junction of East-West Tianshan Mountain and North-South Altai Mountain), which is high in the South and low in the north, and inclines from southeast to northwest. It can be divided into four geomorphic units: Tianshan Mountain, inclined plain, desert basin and BEITASHAN mountain. The Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang cross the central part of Xinjiang from east to west, and are divided into southern and Northern Xinjiang. It is composed of three mountain systems: South Tianshan, Middle Tianshan and North Tianshan. The central plain is located between the southern Tianshan Mountains and the northern desert basin. It is a flat area with superior water and soil conditions formed by surface runoff alluvial and proluvial. It is commonly known as "oasis". To the north of the central plain of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture is Junggar Basin and Gurbantonggut desert. BEITASHAN is a branch of Altai Mountain in the east of Junggar basin, located in the northeast of Changji Prefecture, which is the boundary between Changji Prefecture and the people's Republic of Mongolia.
Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture belongs to the middle temperate zone, which is a typical continental arid climate with the characteristics of cold winter, hot summer and large temperature difference between day and night. Due to the influence of terrain conditions, there is a great difference in climate from south to north, with more summer precipitation in the South and significant desert climate in the north. Changji Prefecture has sufficient sunshine, with 2700 hours of sunshine per year; the heat condition is also relatively sufficient, with annual accumulated temperature of 3450 ℃, annual average temperature of 6.8 ℃, January average temperature of - 15.6 ℃, and July average temperature of 24.5 ℃; the annual average precipitation is 190mm, summer precipitation is significantly more than winter; the annual frost free period is 160-190 days.
The natural surface water in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture mainly includes glaciers, snow, rivers, springs and lakes. After human production activities, surface water systems such as reservoirs, canals and dams are formed. The general characteristics are: small area, limited quantity, uneven distribution; all are inland water systems, all flow from mountain to basin, short process, most of natural loss. Glaciers and snow cover are distributed in the high mountain area above 3800m in the south, which is a modern permanent snow cover area. Except Mulei County, all counties and cities in Changji Prefecture have glaciers and snow all year round. Changji Prefecture is located in the inland arid basin area, rivers are originated in the mountains, loss in the basin, for the inland river. The flow of the river is short and the water volume is small. Except Manas River converges into Manas Lake in the lower reaches, the rest are tailless rivers. The larger natural lakes in Changji Prefecture are Tianchi in the southern mountain area of Fukang City and Dongdaohaizi in the northern desert edge of Miquan county.
There are more than 1000 species of wild plants in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, which belong to three phyla, more than 70 families and more than 400 genera. Among them, there are more than 40 kinds of wild plants which are special products of Changji Prefecture, more than 90 kinds of wild plants which are rich in oil and have great development potential, and more than 70 kinds of wild plants which have been developed and utilized. There are more than 40 species of wild plants in Changji Prefecture, which are widely distributed, high yield, high utilization rate, or unique to Changji Prefecture. Among them, Xueling spruce and Tianshan snow lotus are widely distributed, and ferula Fukang, Caragana Junggar and Morchella are endemic species. There are more than 90 kinds of wild plants rich in various oils and fats in Changji Prefecture, which belong to more than 40 genera of 10 families, including 79 species of Cruciferae. There are 73 species of wild plants in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, accounting for 7% of the existing species.
There are 67 species of wild animals, 282 species of birds and 11 species of amphibians and reptiles in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture. In high mountain areas, there are many large or cold tolerant wild animals, mainly including snow leopard, brown bear, North goat, argali, rock sheep, dark bellied snow chicken, vulture, vulture and long tailed Citellus. There are mainly Cervus, wild boar, roe deer, wolf, red fox, marmot, Citellus tianshanensis, woodpecker, tit, star crow, mountain crow, warbler, mandarin duck, prairie eagle, hawk, jade belt sea eagle, various falcons, lynx, sable, grass rabbit and so on. The main wild animals in plain oasis area are various rodents, bats, grey backed falcon, steppe eagle, weasel, fox, Rhododendron and Desheng. The migratory birds in wetland mainly include divers, gulls, herons, geese, cranes, storks, etc. The large-scale wild animals include Mongolian wild donkey, gazelle and wolf, while the small-scale wild animals include all kinds of rats, sand lizards, rabbit monkeys, tiger weasels, moxa weasels, sand foxes, eagles, falcons, spotted bustard, sand chickens, sand bailing, etc. Among them, there are 59 species of national key protected wild animals, accounting for the largest proportion in Xinjiang
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