Karamay, a prefecture level city of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, is located in the west of Junggar basin, the central region of Eurasia and pan Central Asia. It is an important petroleum and petrochemical base of China, a new industrialized city of Xinjiang and a gathering area of petroleum and petrochemical industry in the world.
Karamay means "black oil" in Uyghur. Karamay is a city named after oil. Its name comes from Heiyou mountain, a group of natural asphalt hills in the northeast corner of the city. Karamay is the first large oil field for exploration and development after the founding of new China. It was established in 1958. In 2002, its crude oil production exceeded 10 million tons, becoming the first large oil field in Western China with a crude oil production of more than 10 million tons. On December 20, 2011, Karamay won the honorary title of "national civilized city".
Karamay has many tourist attractions. The ghost city of the world has been selected as "the most beautiful Yadan in China" and "one of the 50 Places in China most worthy of foreigners to visit". In 2017, Karamay was selected as the fifth national civilized city. In 2017, China's prefecture level cities ranked 14th in the overall well-off index. In November 2018, it was selected into the top 100 of the overall well-off index of Chinese cities.
In 2019, the city's GDP was 97.29 billion yuan, an increase of 6.1% over the previous year. In terms of three industries, the added value of the primary industry was 1.73 billion yuan, an increase of 3.7%; the added value of the secondary industry was 66.97 billion yuan, an increase of 2.5%; the added value of the tertiary industry was 28.59 billion yuan, an increase of 13.0%. The proportion of three industrial structure is 1.78:68.83:29.39.
In June 2020, the Central Committee for the rule of law was selected as the first batch of national government construction demonstration areas and projects.
The territory under the jurisdiction of Karamay belongs to the grassland area of Northern Xinjiang in history, where many nomadic tribes once thrived.
In the Qin Dynasty, Karamay was a nomadic land for Saizhong and others.
In the early Han Dynasty, it was controlled by the Dayue people who moved to the West.
During the northern and Southern Dynasties, the territory was the nomadic land of Gaoche and Turkic tribes, and then the territory of Turkic Khanate.
In the Sui Dynasty, the territory was tiele and other parts of Western Turk.
At the beginning of Tang Dynasty, it was a nomadic land of huluwu in the West Turkic land. In 657 A.D., after the Tang Dynasty settled the Western Turkic khanate, yanpo Dudu Fu (located near the present-day Karamay City) was set up in the area, which was under the jurisdiction of Kunling Dufu under Anxi Dufu. In 702 A.D., it was under the jurisdiction of beitingdu Prefecture. At the end of the Tang Dynasty, the area under the jurisdiction of Karamay was a nomadic area of other Uighur tribes, such as Geluolu, and later the northeast of the karahan Dynasty.
In 1130, Yelu Dashi, the royal family of Liao Dynasty, led the tribe to move westward to yemili (today's Emin county), and today Karamay is its territory. After the establishment of the Western Liao Dynasty in 1132, it belonged to the Western Liao Dynasty.
In 1218, Genghis Khan defeated the Western Liao regime. Today, the city is under the jurisdiction of the Mongolian Khanate. When Genghis Khan enfeoffed the sons, today Karamay area is wokuotai fiefdom. In 1251, after mengge Khan ascended the throne, he set up the province of Shangshu in balihang, which is now under the jurisdiction of Karamay. In 1309, today Karamay belongs to Chagatai Khanate.
In the Ming Dynasty, the turhute tribe of Wala Mongolia was nomadic here. In 1628, after turhute moved to the west, it belonged to the nomadic land of Junggar.
In 1755, after the Qing Dynasty calmed down the Junggar tribe, the territory under the jurisdiction of Karamay is now attached to. In 1762, the Qing government set up an office minister in korkhara Wusu. Today, Dushanzi, wuwuxin town and Gongqing town in the south of the city are under his command. In 1764, the Qing government set up a counsellor Minister of talbahatai, who is now in charge of the northwest of Karamay. In 1778, the Qing government established Suilai county (now Manas County) in the Manas River Basin, which was under the jurisdiction of Dihua Zhili Prefecture. The area under jurisdiction includes Baikouquan, Xiazi street, Daguai, Zhongguai, Xiaoguai and other areas in Karamay. In 1886, the kurkala Wusu Zhili office was established, which still governs the southern part of today's city and is under the jurisdiction of Zhendi road. In 1888, the Zhili Hall of talbahatai was established, which covers the northern part of the city. Daguai, Zhongguai and Xiaoguai in the eastern part of the city are still under the jurisdiction of Suilai and are under the management of Dihua (now Urumqi) government.
In 1913, the Zhili Office of talbatai and korkhara Wusu was changed into a county, still under the jurisdiction of the southern and northern parts of the city. In 1916, the counsellor of talbahatai was dismissed and Tacheng road was set up. Tacheng, Wusu and Shawan counties were under the jurisdiction of talbahatai. Today, Karamay City is under its jurisdiction. Since then, the city has been under the jurisdiction of the fifth administrative region and Tacheng district. Before the founding of new China, it was under the jurisdiction of Shawan County, Wusu County, Kelei half county (today's Tuoli county) and Hefeng County (today's hebukeser Mongolian Autonomous County).
In February 1955, the Dushanzi mining area administrative committee was established.
In 1956, according to the decision of the people's Committee of the autonomous region on the establishment of political power in industrial and mining areas, Dushanzi town was established at the county level. The administrative work committee was changed into the people's Committee of the town, which was directly under the people's Committee of the Autonomous Region. At the same time, Karamay Oilfield entered a period of large-scale development and construction. With the continuous development of oil industry and the continuous increase of oilfield population, a new type of oil industry city began to take shape.
On January 24, 1957, the 14th meeting of the people's Committee of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region decided to establish Karamay City, and submitted it to the State Council for approval to carry out the preparatory work for its establishment. On March 18 of the same year, the State Council agreed to set up the Preparatory Committee of Karamay City to carry out the preparatory work for the construction of the city. On June 20, Karamay Preparatory Committee of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was officially established.
On May 29, 1958, the State Council approved the establishment of Karamay City at the county level. The administrative areas include Karamay, Dushanzi, Kuitun, 60hu, Wuerhe, Baikouquan, Hongshanzui, qianshanlaoba, Baijiantan, Xiaoguai, Zhongguai and Daguai. On June 17 of the same year, the people's Committee of the autonomous region issued the "notice on the establishment of Karamay City and the abolition of Dushanzi town", which decided to abolish Dushanzi town. Under Karamay City, there are Dushanzi district and Wuerhe district. Three sub district offices have been set up in Karamay, Daguai, Zhongguai and Xiaoguai. Karamay City is under the direct leadership of the people's Committee of the autonomous region. On July 25, 1958, Karamay City held the first session of the first people's Congress, declaring the formal establishment of Karamay City.
On August 29, 1975, the State Council approved the establishment of Kuitun city (county level), with parts of Karamay City as the administrative region of Kuitun city, under the jurisdiction of Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, and the capital of Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture was moved from Yining City to Kuitun city.
On February 16, 1982, the autonomous region approved the upgrading of Karamay from a county-level city to a prefecture level city divided into districts. The city has four districts: Dushanzi District, Karamay District, Baijiantan district and Wuerhe district. In March of the same year, direct elections at the district and county levels began. From the end of June to the beginning of July, the people's congresses of each district were held respectively, and the Standing Committee of the people's Congress and the people's Government of each district were established. From then on until 1984, the Standing Committee of the Municipal People's Congress and the Municipal People's government were not established for some reason.
On August 17, 1984, the Autonomous Region decided that Karamay City is a county-level city directly under the central government of the autonomous region, which is not divided into districts.
In March 1985, the election of county-level cities was carried out. From July 20 to 25, the first session of the seventh Municipal People's Congress was held, the Standing Committee of the Municipal People's Congress and the Municipal People's government were formally established, and their subordinate offices were established. However, the state and the Ministry of civil affairs have always recognized Karamay as a city divided into districts.
On January 8, 1990, the autonomous region restored Karamay City as a prefecture level city divided into districts, under the jurisdiction of four districts: Karamay District, Dushanzi District, Baijiantan District, Wuerhe District, two townships: Wuerhe Township, Xiaoguai Township, six sub district offices (Tianshan Road, Shengli Road, Jinlong Town, wuwuxin Town, Sanping Town, Baikouquan); Karamay City is under the direct leadership of the people's Government of the autonomous region.
Before December 1997, Karamay City and Xinjiang Petroleum Administration Bureau formed a party committee (hereinafter referred to as the Party committee of Karamay City and Xinjiang Petroleum Administration Bureau, i.e. a set of leading bodies, which exercised both the functions and powers of Karamay City Party committee and Xinjiang Petroleum Administration Bureau Party committee), and the Municipal People's government and Petroleum Administration Bureau were set up separately.
On December 28, 2007, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) carried out business integration and professional restructuring of Xinjiang Oilfield. Xinjiang Petroleum Administration Bureau was abolished. Karamay City and Xinjiang Oilfield Company were a party committee (hereinafter referred to as city and oilfield Party committee, i.e. a set of leading bodies, which exercised both functions and powers of Karamay City Party committee and Xinjiang Oilfield Company Party committee), and the Municipal People's government and Xinjiang Oilfield Company Government and enterprise organizations are set up separately.
Karamay City governs four municipal districts, namely Karamay District, Dushanzi District, Baijiantan district and Wuerhe district. Karamay Municipal People's government is located at No. 60, Yingbin Road, Karamay district.
Karamay City is located between 84 ° 44 ′～ 86 ° 1 ′ E and 44 ° 7 ′～ 46 ° 8 ′ n, in the west of Junggar basin. It is close to jiayier mountain in the northwest, Tianshan Mountain in the South and Gurbantunggut Desert in the East. In the north and northeast, it is adjacent to hebukeser Mongolian Autonomous County, in the southwest, it is adjacent to Tuoli County, and in the south, it is adjacent to huyanghe City, Wusu city, Kuitun city and Shawan County. The central and eastern parts are open and flat, inclined to the center of Junggar basin. The city is 110 km wide from east to west and 240 km long from north to south. Karamay has a total area of 7733 square kilometers and an urban area of about 16 square kilometers. The altitude is between 270 and 500 meters. The urban area is 313 kilometers away from Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
Chinese PinYin : Xin Jiang Wei Wu Er Zi Zhi Qu Ke La Ma Yi Shi
Karamay City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
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