Ali Region Ali Region is the only region in Tibet Autonomous Region. It was called "Yangtong" before and after B.C., called "Nari" in Yuan Dynasty, and called "erlisi" in Ming Dynasty. It is located in the southwest of China, the west of Tibet Autonomous Region and the north of Qinghai Tibet Plateau (Qiangtang plateau). It is adjacent to Hotan Prefecture of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture in the north, Naqu city in the East and Shigatse City in the southeast, and Nepal, India and Kashmir in the southwest and West. According to the second land survey, the total area of the whole region is 337174.95 square kilometers, which is the second largest prefecture level unit in Tibet, second only to Naqu city.
By the end of 2017, the region had jurisdiction over 7 counties, including 7 towns and 30 townships, 11 neighborhood committees and 134 village committees. The administrative office is located at 6 Wenhua Road, Shiquanhe Town, Gar county. By the end of 2019, the resident population was 111 thousand and 600, and the registered residence population was 111 thousand and 300. It is estimated that in 2018, the GDP will reach 5.62 billion yuan and the local general budget revenue will reach 400 million yuan.
With an average altitude of more than 4500 meters, Ali is known as "the roof of the roof of the world", "the third pole of the world" and "the forbidden zone of life". The main mountains in the territory are Himalayas, Gangdise mountains, Karakorum Mountains, etc., the main rivers are Shiquan River, Xiangquan River, Kongque River, etc., and the main lakes are zharinanmucuo, Bangong Lake, Laangcuo, etc. The main tourist attractions are Guge Kingdom ruins, Tuolin temple, Zada tulin, etc.
On December 9, 2019, the people's Government of the Tibet Autonomous Region approved the withdrawal of Cuoqin County, Gaize county and Geji county from poverty-stricken counties (districts) in Ali Region. On October 9, 2020, it was awarded the title of the fourth batch of national ecological civilization construction demonstration cities and counties by the Ministry of ecological environment.
The word "Ali" is transliterated in Tibetan, which means "territory", "territory" and so on. Until the beginning of the 9th century, it was still called "Xiangxiong". In Chinese historical records, different dynasties used different names for it. In ancient Tibetan books, after the descendants of Zanpu came to this political area, which originally belonged to the 18 tribes of Xiangxiong, the upper part of the area was really subject to the jurisdiction of the descendants of Zanpu. Therefore, it was called "Ali".
Arigu is one of the early "Thirteen small states" in Tibetan areas, and the Han nationality is called "Yangtong" in historical records. After gradual development, Yangtong established the kingdom of Xiangxiong in the 4TH-5TH century. At its peak, the region was divided into three parts: the inner, the middle and the outer. The inner Xiangxiong was generally under the jurisdiction of today's Ali Region.
In the 13th century, the Guge Dynasty, together with Tibet, belonged to the Yuan Dynasty (1206-1368). It belonged to the "Marshal's office of the three route Xuanwei envoys, such as wuszangnarisu gulusun" established by the Yuan Dynasty, and was called "narisu gulusun" in the Yuan Dynasty. The specific affairs in Ali area were handled by the local government of Sakya.
The Ming Dynasty (1368 -) basically followed the old system of the Yuan Dynasty in the management of Tibet. Emperor Hongwu of the Ming Dynasty set up the military and civilian Marshal's office in Northeast Kashmir and Western Tibet. In the Ming Dynasty, it was called "Eris", and in the Qing Dynasty, it was called "Ali".
During the period of Heshuote khanate, a tributary of the Qing Dynasty, it was appointed by the Khanate Court (Gandan pozhang government was the subordinate government, and only had part of the management power). In the later period, lazang Khan appointed his son-in-law kangjinai to manage Ali Region. Later, with the support of the central government of the Qing Dynasty, Ali region gradually came under the local government of gaxia, Tibet, and later established Zong (equivalent to county) and the general manager of Ali Region Pipe - "alijiqiao".
After the peaceful liberation of Tibet in 1951, duiligaben was stationed in kaeryasha. It governs Budapest, Japan, Turkey and kadake.
In 1954, general manager Ali was set up to administer zhongbaluoqiang, pulanzong, zaburang, Daba, Rutu, kadake and other Zongxi.
In 1960, a special Ali district was set up, with a special office in garkunsha. In order to set up Gar county (in Yasha), RI Tu County (in Nasha), Ge Ji county (in Napo), Gaize county (in Longren, also known as lumarenbo), Zhongba county (in zhadong) and Pulan county (in Tuolin), zhaburang and Daba were merged to set up Zada County (in Tuolin). It has jurisdiction over seven counties.
In 1962, Zhongba county was assigned to Shigatse. It has jurisdiction over six counties.
In 1966, Ali special office moved from Gar county to Shiquan River in Gar county. Geer County moved from Yasha to kunsha (because of the establishment of Geer new township government in kunsha during the democratic reform, kunsha is also called Geer New Village).
In 1970, Ali area was changed into Ali area, and the area was located in Shiquanhe, Gar county. Cuoqin county (stationed in Mendong) was established by Lunan 4 District of Gaize county. Ali Prefecture governs 7 counties, including Gar (in kunsha), Geji (in Napo), Zada (in Tuolin), Coqin (in Mendong), Nitu, Gaize (in lumarenbo) and Pulan.
He returned to the leadership of the Tibet Autonomous Region on March 7, 1979. On February 5 of the same year, the Ali regional administrative office was officially established.
In 1997, the district administration office was stationed in Shiquanhe town. It has jurisdiction over 7 counties, namely, gar, Pulan, Coqin, Geji, Gaize, Zada and Nitu. (the above is sorted out according to the grand ceremony of Administrative Region)
In 1960, Ali district was established, with jurisdiction over seven counties, including Gar County, Rutu County, Geji County, Gaize County, Zhongba County, Pulan county and Zada county.
In January 1963, Zhongba county was assigned to Shigatse.
In 1970, Ali district was renamed Ali district.
In December 1970, four district offices, 21 communes and 55 production brigades were set up in Gaize County, and Coqin county was established.
In October 1983, the State Council approved that three district offices should be set up from Zhongba County, and longer county should be set up to be under the jurisdiction of Ali Region, but it was not implemented for some reasons.
In September 1999, the Ministry of Civil Affairs approved the cancellation of longer county.
Current situation of regionalization
By the end of 2017, Ali Prefecture had jurisdiction over 7 counties, including 7 towns and 30 townships, 11 neighborhood committees and 134 village committees. The administrative office is located at 6 Wenhua Road, Shiquanhe Town, Gar county.
Ali Region is located in the southwest of China, the west of Tibet Autonomous Region and the north of Qinghai Tibet Plateau (Qiangtang plateau). It is adjacent to Naqu city in the east by Daheng mountain, guoganjianian mountain, malgangmu mountain, Gezha mountain and xujianabo mountain; it is adjacent to the middle Gangdise mountains in the southeast by Shigatse City; it is adjacent to the southern foot of Kunlun Mountains in the north by Hotan Prefecture and Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region; it is adjacent to the western section of Himalayas in the southwest and west by Nepal, India and Kashmir. It is located between 78 ° 24 ′ - 86 ° 20 ′ E and 29 ° 41 ′ - 35 ° 52 ′ n, with an east-west span of 742 km and a north-south span of 688 km, covering an area of 337200 square kilometers.
The landforms in Ali area include mountains, valleys, earth forests, glacial erosion, impact fans, moraines and volcanoes. In history, this kind of feature was summarized as "Pulan" surrounded by ice and snow, "Guge" surrounded by rocks, and "Mayu" surrounded by lakes, which are collectively known as "Ali Sanwei".
The main mountains are Himalayas, Gangdise and Karakoram. In the South and southwest, there are deep gullies, valleys and sporadic impact fans; in the East and northwest, the terrain is relatively gentle, forming wide valleys and endless grassland Gobi. The general topographical feature is that the plateau rises from the south to the north, while the main ridge line of the major mountains gradually decreases. The highest point is namunani peak in Pulan County, with an altitude of 7694 meters. The lowest point is the langqinzangbo valley near shibuqi, Zada County, with an altitude of 2800 meters and the maximum relative elevation difference of 4894 meters.
Ali belongs to class II wind area, the annual average wind speed is more than 3.2 meters per second, the frequency of gale is more than 8, and the annual gale days are about 149 days. The annual average temperature is 0 ℃, and the daily average temperature changes greatly, which is really "wearing cotton padded jacket at night and yarn at noon". Shiquanhe town has low temperature and severe cold all year round in winter, and the annual average temperature is less than zero degrees. The extreme minimum temperature in winter is - 41 degrees, and the extreme maximum temperature in summer is 21 degrees. The temperature difference between day and night is quite large, the annual temperature difference is small, and the annual temperature difference is small. Where the altitude is more than 5000 meters, the daytime temperature in August is above 10 ℃, while the night temperature drops below 0 ℃.
The annual precipitation in Ali is quite small and seasonal. From October to April of the next year, the precipitation only accounts for 10% - 20% of the whole year, while from May to September, the precipitation is very concentrated, generally accounting for more than 80% of the annual precipitation.
Due to the high altitude, cold and dry climate, the annual rainfall is quite small, and the temperature difference between day and night is large. Ali's winter is long and cold.
According to the sixth census, there are 95465 permanent residents in Ali. Among them, there are 22962 households with a population of 87357, and the average population of each household is 3.80. Among the permanent residents, 49802 were male and 45663 were female, accounting for 52.17% and 47.83% respectively. The sex ratio (100 for female) was 109.06. According to age structure, there were 25367 people aged 0-14, accounting for 26.57%; 65576 people aged 15-64, accounting for 68.69%; 4522 people aged 65 and above, accounting for 4.74%. By region, there are 9657 people in Pulan County, 6883 in Zada County, 16901 in Gar County, 9738 in Nitu County, 15483 in Geji County, 22177 in Gaize county and 14626 in Coqin county.
According to registered residence statistics, 101672 people in the end of 2015 in Ali area, 104014 in late 2016, 107105 in late 2017, 109434 at the end of 2018.
Chinese PinYin : Xi Cang Zi Zhi Qu A Li Di Qu
Ali Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region
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