Heze, a prefecture level city in Shandong Province and the Peony Capital of China, is located in the southwest of Shandong Province at the junction of Shandong, Jiangsu, Henan and Anhui provinces. It is adjacent to Jining City in the East, Xuzhou City in Jiangsu Province and Suzhou City in Anhui Province in the southeast, Shangqiu City in Henan Province in the south, Kaifeng City and Xinxiang City in Henan Province in the west, and Puyang City in Henan Province in the north. It is between 34 ° 39 ′ - 35 ° 52 ′ N and 114 ° 45 ′ - 116 ° 25 ′ e, 157 km long from north to South and 140 km wide from east to west, with a total area of 12238.62 square kilometers.
Heze was originally a natural ancient river. It was connected with the ancient Jishui River and the Surabaya river. It was renamed Longchi in Tang Dynasty and xiayue Lake in Qing Dynasty. In 1735, Caozhou was promoted as a prefecture and attached to Guo to establish a county. Heze was named because there was "Heshan" in the South and "Leize" in the north. Heze has a long history and enjoys the reputation of "in the world". Heze, Leize, Dayeze and mengzhuze in Yugong are all in Heze. Fuxi, the founder of humanities, SHAOHAO, the emperor of Dongyi, Shun, the wise emperor, Chiyou, the warlord, Wu Qi, the reformer, Sun Bin, the strategist, fan Shengzhi, the agronomist, Liu Yan, the economist, and Wen Zisheng, the litterateur were all born here. Liu Bang's accession to the throne, Cao Cao's achievement of hegemony, Huang Chaoqi's righteousness, and Song Jiang's righteousness gathering all took place in Heze.
In 2019, Heze has two municipal districts, seven counties and two development zones. In 2020, the GDP of Heze City will be 348.311 billion yuan, with a year-on-year growth of 3.9%. Among them, the added value of the primary industry was 34.599 billion yuan, with a year-on-year increase of 3.8%; the added value of the secondary industry was 139.963 billion yuan, with a year-on-year increase of 0%; the added value of the tertiary industry was 173.749 billion yuan, with a year-on-year increase of 7.7%.
The origin of place names
"Heze" was originally a natural ancient Ze, which was collected by Jishui and annihilated for a long time. The site is 15 kilometers southeast of Heze City. In 1735, Caozhou was promoted to be a prefecture, and Fuguo county was set up, which was named Heze. Since then, "Heze" as a county, city, district name has been used. In August 1949, plain province was established, and the northwest part of the province was designated as Heze special area to govern Heze county. Since then, "Heze" has become a special district or regional name.
History of construction
According to historical records, as early as 4000 years ago, in the Neolithic age, the ancestors lived in Heze City and preserved many historical relics of primitive society, such as Anqiu mound in Mudan District, Guanyu mound in Dingtao District, anling mound in Cao County, Xiaoyu mound in Yuncheng County, douyu mound in Dongming County, Lishan mound in juancheng County, etc.
In the Xia Dynasty, the territory is divided into Yanzhou, Xuzhou and Yuzhou.
In the Shang Dynasty, there are three states in the central part of the territory, Shen state between Dingtao and Caoxian, Gu state and Li state between juancheng and Yuncheng.
In the Western Zhou Dynasty, the central part of the territory is Cao state, the eastern part is Lu state and Mao state, the northwest part is Wei state, the southern part is Song state, the southeast part is Gao state, the northeast part is Xugou state, and the southwest part is Guan state.
In the spring and Autumn period, the central part of the territory belongs to the state of Cao, the eastern part belongs to the state of Lu, the northwestern part belongs to the state of Wei, and the southern part belongs to the state of song.
During the Warring States period, the territory belongs to song, Lu and Wei in the early stage, and Qi, Wei and Chu in the later stage.
In the Qin Dynasty, the central and northern parts of the territory belong to Dongjun, and the southern and eastern parts belong to dangjun.
In the Han Dynasty, the territory now belongs to Yanzhou Jiyin County, Shanyang County, Dongjun county and the state of Liang in Yuzhou.
During the Three Kingdoms period, the territory now belongs to Jiyin County, Shanyang County, Dongjun county and Liang state of Yuzhou under the jurisdiction of Cao Wei.
In the Western Jin Dynasty, the territory is divided into Yanzhou Jiyin County, Puyang state, Gaoping state, Dongping state, chenliuguo state and Yuzhou Liang state.
During the period of Sixteen States in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, the territory was first occupied by the later Zhao, the former Yan, the former Qin and the later Yan, and then belonged to Jiyin, Puyang, Gaoping and beijiyin counties in the Eastern Jin Dynasty.
At the beginning of the northern and Southern Dynasties, the eastern part of the territory now belongs to the Liu Song Dynasty and the western part belongs to the Northern Wei Dynasty. In the third year of Xiaochang, Emperor Xiaoming of the Northern Wei Dynasty (527), xiyanzhou was set up, Jiyin county was changed to xiyanzhou, and the state and county were ruled by the same government. Soon, the prefectures moved to zuocheng (now libentun, Dingtao District). In the first year of Tianping (534), the Northern Wei Dynasty was divided into Eastern Wei and Western Wei. Today, the territory belongs to Jiyin county and Puyang County of Eastern Wei and Western Yanzhou. In 578, Emperor Wu of the Northern Zhou Dynasty destroyed the Northern Qi Dynasty, changed western Yanzhou into Caozhou, and still ruled zuocheng, which was the beginning of Caozhou's name.
In the Sui Dynasty, the central part of the territory is Caozhou, the northern part is Puzhou, the northeastern part is Yunzhou, the southeastern part is daizhou, and the southern part is Songzhou.
In the Tang Dynasty, the territory belongs to Henan Dao, Caozhou in the middle, Puzhou in the East, Yunzhou in the northeast and Songzhou in the south.
The Five Dynasties and ten States belong to Caozhou, Puzhou, Yunzhou, Songzhou and Danzhou.
In Song Dynasty, the territory first belonged to Jingdong West Road, Guangji army in the middle, Xingren Prefecture in the west, Yingtian Prefecture in the south, Puzhou in the north, Jizhou in the East and Danzhou in the southeast. Later, it belonged to Caozhou, Danzhou, guide mansion in Nanjing, Puzhou in Daming Road, Dongping mansion in Shandong West Road.
In the Yuan Dynasty, the territory now belongs to Zhongshu Province, Caozhou in the middle, Puzhou in the north, Jining road in the East and Daming Road in the northwest.
In the Ming Dynasty, most of the territory now belongs to Yanzhou Prefecture under the jurisdiction of Shandong Chengshi political secretary, and some of the western and northern parts belong to Daming Prefecture under the capital and Dongchang Prefecture under the jurisdiction of Shandong buzhengshi. In the first year of Hongwu in Ming Dynasty (1368), due to flood, Caozhou was moved to anling town (now anlingji, Mudan District), and then to Panshi town (now Cao county) the next year. In 1371, Cao Zhou was demoted to Cao county. In 1445, the Ming Dynasty restored Caozhou and led the two counties.
In the Qing Dynasty, most of the territory now belongs to Caozhou Prefecture of Shandong Province, while the western and northeastern parts belong to Daming Prefecture of Zhili Province and Yanzhou Prefecture of Shandong Province. In 1724, Caozhou was promoted to Zhili. In 1735, Caozhou was promoted to be a prefecture with jurisdiction over one Prefecture and 10 counties. At this time, the area of the district is slightly larger than that of Heze City.
In the early days of the Republic of China, except for Dongming County, which belongs to Zhili Province, the rest of the territory belongs to Shandong Province. In 1914, Jining road was set up between provinces and counties, and most of the counties in the territory belonged to Jining road. On October 22, 1925, Shandong Province increased the original 4 roads to 11 roads. Most of the counties in Shandong belong to Caopu Road, while Dongming county belongs to Daming Road in Zhili Province. In 1928, the system was abolished. Dongming County was directly under Hebei Province, and the rest of the counties were directly under Shandong Province. In 1932, Nanjing National Government set up the second administrative supervision district of Shandong Province in Heze.
From the 27th year of the Republic of China (1938) to the 34th year of the Republic of China (1945), the Communist Party of China established the eighth, tenth and eleventh special zones in Hebei, Shandong and Henan. During the war of liberation, the eighth special area was changed into the second special area, the tenth special area was changed into the fifth special area, the eleventh special area was changed into the third special area, and the seventh special area of Hebei, Shandong and Henan was newly built.
In September 1948, Heze was liberated.
In March 1949, the second, third, fifth and seventh special zones of Hebei, Shandong and Henan established by the Communist Party of China in Heze were renamed Linhe, Huxi, Southwest Shandong and Yunxi respectively. In August of the same year, plain province was established, which merged some counties of Linhe, Southwest Shandong and Yunxi special areas into Heze special area, which belongs to plain province with Huxi special area.
In November 1952, Pingyuan province was abolished, and Heze and Huxi special areas belonged to Shandong Province. Dongming County under the jurisdiction of the former Heze special district is under the jurisdiction of Zhengzhou Special District of Henan Province.
On August 20, 1953, Huxi district was abolished, Shan county, Fucheng County, Chengwu County and Juye County were assigned to Heze District, Jiaxiang County, Jinxiang County and Yutai County were assigned to Jining District, and Nanwang county was abolished to Liangshan County and Jiaxiang County.
By the end of 1953, Heze district had jurisdiction over 10 counties: Heze, juancheng, Yuncheng, Liangshan, Juye, Chengwu, Dingtao, Caoxian, Shanxian and Fucheng. The region of Heze City was basically formed.
On March 6, 1956, Fucheng county was abolished and divided into Cao county and Shan county. In December 1958, Dingtao County was abolished and divided into Chengwu and Heze counties; meanwhile, Heze district was abolished, and eight counties under its jurisdiction, including Heze, juancheng, Yuncheng, Liangshan, Juye, Chengwu, Caoxian and Shanxian, were included in Jining district.
In September 1959, Heze district was restored and still led the original eight counties. In October 1960, Heze county was changed into Heze City, and Pingyin County of Jinan City was assigned to Heze district. In March 1961, Pingyin County was assigned to Tai'an district. In October, Dingtao County was restored. On March 16, 1963, Heze City was changed into Heze county. In April, Dongming County was transferred from Kaifeng to Heze. At the end of the same year, Heze district had jurisdiction over 10 counties: Heze, Caoxian, Dingtao, Chengwu, Shanxian, Juye, Liangshan, Yuncheng, juancheng and Dongming. In March 1967, Heze district was changed to Heze district.
In September 1983, Heze county was changed to Heze city again. On December 22, 1989, Liangshan county was assigned to Jining City. On June 10, 2000, with the approval of the State Council, Heze area was changed to Heze City (prefecture level), and the original Heze City (county level) was changed to Mudan District.
Caozhou Prefecture governs 1 Prefecture and 10 counties, namely Puzhou, Heze, Dingtao, Chengwu, Caoxian, Shanxian, Juye, Yuncheng, Fanxian, Guancheng and Chaocheng. The three counties of fan, Guan and Chao and part of Puzhou were not in today's territory; Dongming County in today's territory belonged to Daming Prefecture of Zhili Province at that time; Liangshan County belonged to Shouzhang county and Wenshang County at that time, belonging to Yanzhou Prefecture; juancheng county was a part of Puzhou.
Republic of China
In May 1914, Shandong Province was divided into four roads. Today's Jining road is located in Heze, Caoxian, Dingtao, Shanxian, Chengwu, Yuncheng, Juye and Wenshang (some of them belong to today's Liangshan County)
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