Handan Handan is a prefecture level city in Hebei Province and a central city in the south of Hebei Province approved by the State Council. By 2019, the city has 6 districts, 11 counties and 1 county-level city under its jurisdiction, with a total area of 12073.8 square kilometers and a permanent resident population of 9.5497 million, including 5.5536 million urban population, with an urbanization rate of 58.15%.
Handan is located at the southern end of Hebei Province, the eastern foot of Taihang Mountain, the Taihang Mountains in the west, the North China Plain in the East, and the three provinces of Shanxi, Shandong and Henan. It is the hub of the four provinces of Shanxi, Hebei, Shandong and Henan, the hinterland of the Central Plains Economic Zone, and an important transportation hub in North China. The Beijing Guangzhou railway and the Beijing Guangzhou high-speed railway run through the north and south, the Han Chang railway and the Han Ji railway run across the East and West, and the Beijing Shenzhen Expressway, the Da Guang Expressway and the Taihang Mountain The expressway runs through the north and south, Qinglan Expressway and Handan Dalian Expressway run across the East and West, and the national highway 107, 106, 309, 230 (originally Wei highway), 234, 514 and 515 form the national and provincial trunk highway network. Handan airport is the key branch airport of the state.
Handan is a national famous historical and cultural city, with 3100 years of history. It gave birth to the early Neolithic Cishan culture 8000 years ago. In the Warring States period, Handan was the capital of Zhao state, and Wei county was the capital of Wei state. In the Han Dynasty, it shared the reputation of "five metropolises" with Luoyang, Linzi, Nanyang, and Chengdu. Linzhang county was the capital of Cao Wei, ran Wei, Qian Yan, Eastern Wei, and Northern Qi. In the Northern Song Dynasty, Daming Prefecture became the capital of Northern Song Dynasty In the Qing Dynasty, Daming Prefecture was the first capital of Zhili Province.
Handan is a national garden city, an excellent tourist city in China, a national greening model city, a national double support model city, a national excellent city for comprehensive management of social security, and a capital of Chinese idioms and allusions. It has two 5A scenic spots, the wa palace in Shexian county and the ancient city of Guangfu.
Handan has been used as a place name for three thousand years, which is a special case of Chinese place name culture. There are three main origins of names.
Statement 1: Handan wrote Gandan before the Warring States period. Some scholars believe that the sun rises over the horizon called Gan, the sun sets over the horizon called Dan. Handan is the place where the sun rises and sets.
Statement 2: Handan place name may be named by surname. Handan used to be a surname. Handan is a compound surname.
Statement 3: Zhang Yan of the state of Wei put forward in the book of Han Geography: "Han, the name of the mountain. Dan, do also. Hanshan is here. The characters of the city and the country all follow the name of the city That is to say, the place name of Handan originates from Hanshan. Under the east city of Handan, there is a mountain named Handan. Handan is the end of the mountain range. Handan is the end of the mountain range, so it is named Handan.
In ancient times, Nu Wa, the ancestor of human beings, created human beings by kneading earth and making stones to mend the sky in the ancient Zhonghuang mountain (WA Palace) in Shexian county.
More than 8000 years ago, the ancestors of the early Neolithic Cishan lived here, opening a new era of agricultural civilization. Cishan culture is 1000 years earlier than Yangshao culture. It is the earliest discovery place of millet and chicken in the world. The record of planting millet in the Yellow River Valley in China was advanced to 10000 years ago, which filled the gap of the former Yangshao culture and corrected the understanding of the world agricultural history on the time of planting millet.
The city of Handan originated from the Shang Dynasty. Handan was the capital of the Shang Dynasty during the hundreds of years when it was founded in Xingtai and moved to Yin (now Anyang). In the Bamboo Annals, there is a record of the late Shang Dynasty's construction of Li Gong BIE Guan in Handan, which proves that Handan city has a history of at least 3100 years. In 386 BC, Zhao Jinghou moved his capital to Handan. King Wuling of Zhao implemented the military reform of Hufu riding and shooting, which made Zhao one of the seven heroes in the Warring States period. In 430 BC, marquis Wen of Wei moved the capital of Wei from Anyi to huanshui (now Wei County, old Wei County Village), and took Yecheng (now Linzhang) as the auxiliary capital.
During the Warring States period, Handan, as the capital of Zhao state for 158 years, was the political, economic and cultural center of northern China.
After Qin unified the six states, Qin Shihuang divided the whole country into 36 counties. Handan was the capital of Handan county.
In the Western Han Dynasty, Handan city was known as "the most prosperous city in the world". In addition to Chang'an, the capital of the country, Handan City shared the reputation of five metropolises with Luoyang, Linzi, Chengdu and WAN (Nanyang).
In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Cao Cao built the capital of Ye City. The construction of the capital of Wei is famous for the symmetry rule of the central axis, and has built three platforms: tongquetai, Jinfeng and Bingjing. Wei Du Fu, written by Zuo Si in the Western Jin Dynasty, describes the prosperous scene of Ye City in Linzhang at this time.
The rise of Yecheng (now Linzhang) led to the southward movement of the political, economic, military and cultural centers to the north of the Yellow River. Linzhang, the capital of Wei Dynasty, became the capital of later Zhao Dynasty, ran Wei Dynasty, former Yan Dynasty, Eastern Wei Dynasty and Northern Qi Dynasty, which lasted 364 years and had a profound influence on later generations. Ye city is the birthplace of ancient capital planning and construction, the birthplace of Jian'an literature, the birthplace of Guiguzi, and the place where ximenbao governs ye and benefits the people.
In the Sui and Tang Dynasties, Dou Jiande regarded Guangfu as the capital of Xia Dynasty, which was one of the only two capitals established by the peasant uprising army in Chinese history. Daming rose in the Tang and Five Dynasties. In 621 ad, Daming, the capital of Weizhou, became the central city to the north of the Yellow River. In 923 ad, Li Cunxu ascended the throne of emperor in Daming, known as Zhuangzong in the later Tang Dynasty.
In the Song Dynasty, it was named Hebei Road Administration (provincial government). In 1042 ad, Daming was built as the capital of Peidu, known as Beijing Daming mansion. In the Jin Dynasty, it was the capital of pseudo Qi. At that time, Daming Prefecture had a population of more than one million, but it was later submerged. The present song city is completely preserved in the sand of the Yellow River below 4 meters. Once unearthed in the future, it will be as shocking as Pompeii in Italy.
In the Ming Dynasty, Handan County belonged to Guangping Prefecture of beizhili province. The Qing Dynasty inherited the Ming system and called Zhili Province. Daming mansion was once the seat of Zhili governor. Handan county is still under the jurisdiction of Guangping Prefecture. Guangping was the political and economic center of Handan in Ming and Qing Dynasties. At the beginning of the Republic of China, Handan was under the jurisdiction of Hebei Province in 1928.
Handan was subordinate to the Southern Hebei military region during the Anti Japanese war. Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, the local people carried out a heroic National Revolutionary War, constantly developed their own strength, attacked the enemy, and determined to drive the aggressors to the sea.
During the liberation war, Handan was the headquarters of the 129th division of the Eighth Route Army and the seat of the government of the Shanxi Hebei Shandong Henan border region. Liu Bocheng and Deng Xiaoping led the 129th division of the Eighth Route Army to Taihang and founded the Shanxi Hebei Shandong Henan liberated area. People's daily was founded here, and North China Xinhua radio, the predecessor of the Central People's broadcasting station, was born in Handan.
On October 5, 1945, Handan city was liberated and directly under the government of Shanxi Hebei Shandong Henan border region.
In August 1949, the people's Government of Hebei Province was established and Handan special zone was set up.
On December 22, 1952, Handan town was upgraded to Handan city.
In 1954, it was changed into a city under the jurisdiction of a province.
In 1956, Fengfeng city was merged into Handan city.
In 1983, Handan county was incorporated into Handan city.
In 1984, it became a provincial city.
In 1986, Wu'an county (later changed into a city) was assigned to Handan city.
In 1993, with the approval of the State Council, the Handan area was abolished and the prefectures and cities were merged. The counties under the jurisdiction of Handan area were put under the jurisdiction of Handan City, which is called Handan city.
In 2016, the State Council approved the adjustment of some administrative divisions of Handan City in Hebei Province (Guo Han  No. 157): 1. It was agreed to abolish Feixiang County and establish Feixiang District, with the former administrative region of Feixiang County as the administrative region of Feixiang District, and the people's Government of Feixiang district was stationed at No. 1, Guang'an East Road, Feixiang township. 2、 It is agreed to abolish Yongnian County and establish Yongnian district. The former administrative region of Yongnian County (excluding Nanyan Town, xiaoxibao Township and yaozhai township) is the administrative region of Yongnian district. The people's Government of Yongnian district is located at No. 25, Mingzhou Avenue, Linmingguan town. 3、 They agreed to abolish Handan County, put Hesha Town, Nanbao Township and Daizhao township of Handan County under the jurisdiction of Hanshan District, and put shangbi Town, nanlugu Township, Jianzhuang Township and Sanling township of Handan County under the jurisdiction of Congtai district. 4、 It is agreed that Gaoyu Town, Guanglu Town, xinzhuangying Township, huaguanying Township and Taicheng township of Ci County should be under the jurisdiction of Hanshan District, Lintan town and Nancheng township of Ci County should be under the jurisdiction of Fuxing District, and Nanyan Town, xiaoxibao Township and yaozhai township of Yongnian County should be under the jurisdiction of Congtai district.
In 2018, Handan city has 6 districts (Hanshan District, Congtai District, Fuxing District, Fengfeng mining area, Feixiang District, Yongnian District), 1 county-level city (Wu'an city), 11 counties (Linzhang County, Cheng'an County, Daming County, she County, Ci County, Qiu county, Jize County, Guangping County, Guantao County, Wei County, Quzhou County), 2 economic development zones (Handan economic and Technological Development Zone, Handan Jinan new area). Handan has 96 towns, 118 townships, 28 offices and 461 neighborhood committees.
According to the book of Han Dynasty, "Handan has a great river in the South (the ancient Yellow River) and Yan and Dai in the north. Although Chu is superior to Qin, he will not dare to control Zhao. If he is inferior to Qin, he will pay attention to Zhao. Zhao can succeed in the world because of the disadvantages of Qin and Chu." This shows the importance of Handan's geographical location.
Handan city is located in the southern end of Hebei Province, the eastern foot of Taihang, between 36 ° 20 ′～ 36 ° 44 ′ N and 114 ° 03 ′～ 114 ° 40 ′ E. It is bordered by Taihang Mountains in the west, North China Plain in the East and Shanxi, Shandong and Henan provinces, with a total urban area of 12073.8 square kilometers. Handan is located in the hub of the four provinces of Shanxi, Hebei, Shandong and Henan, the hinterland of the Beijing Tianjin Hebei Urban Agglomeration and the Bohai Rim Economic Zone. It is about 200 kilometers away from Shijiazhuang, Taiyuan, Jinan and Zhengzhou, and less than 450 kilometers away from Beijing, Tianjin and other metropolises. It is surrounded by three economic circles in China. It is located in the Beijing Tianjin Hebei Economic Zone. It connects the Yangtze River Delta economic circle in the East and the Pearl River Delta economic circle in the south.
The terrain of Handan city is from west to East
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