Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, with its capital in Delingha City, is one of the eight prefecture level administrative regions in Qinghai Province. It is located in the north of Qinghai Tibet Plateau and the west of Qinghai Province. The terrain is high in the northwest and low in the southeast. It is a Typical Alpine and dry continental climate zone. With a total area of 325800 square kilometers, the prefecture has jurisdiction over three county-level cities and three counties. By the end of 2019, there will be 520700 permanent residents in the prefecture.
Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is the Qudi of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. It connects Tibet in the south, Gansu in the north, and Xinjiang in the West. It is located in the center of the intersection of Qinghai, Gansu, Xinjiang and Tibet. It was also the auxiliary road of the ancient "Silk Road" leading to the western regions. Lanxila optical cable, Qingxin optical cable and Qinghai Tibet 750 kV AC / DC interconnection line run through the whole territory. Golmud Lhasa oil product pipeline and senenglan gas pipeline are distributed in the territory. Qinghai Tibet railway and national highway 109 and 315 run through the whole territory, and run through national highway 215, Western Corridor and provincial and state roads. They are the strategic support point and western hinterland connecting Tibet, Xinjiang and Gansu It is the transportation hub of the city.
In 2019, the GDP of the whole Prefecture will reach 66.611 billion yuan, with a year-on-year growth of 7.5% (according to the constant price, the same below). By industry, the added value of the primary industry was 3.75 billion yuan, an increase of 5.6%; the added value of the secondary industry was 43.896 billion yuan, an increase of 8.2%; the added value of the tertiary industry was 18.965 billion yuan, an increase of 6.2%.
Haixi has a long history. In ancient times, it was the Western Qiang area. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, it was under the jurisdiction of xianlingbeihe and other Qiang tribes. In the western part, it belonged to Ruoqiang state. In the fourth year of the first reign of emperor Ping of Han Dynasty, Wang Mang set up Xihai County, which was under the jurisdiction of the East. At the end of Wang Mang's reign, the county was abandoned and restored to Qiang territory.
In the late Eastern Jin Dynasty, the western part of the territory was Tuyuhun, and the eastern part was Xianbei Yifu (later in Tuyuhun). During the reign of Shiyin, the leader of Tuguhun (about 452 years), he built a city outline in Bailan (now Nuomuhong area in Dulan county). During the reign of fulianchou (491-529 years), he built the capital within his jurisdiction and later moved it to Fucheng (now tiebuqia ancient city, shinaihai Township, Gonghe County).
In 609, the Sui army defeated Tuguhun and set up four prefectures in the area, with Xihai County in the East and Shanshan County in the West. At the end of the Sui Dynasty, Tuyuhun returned to his former residence.
In 636, Tuyuhun became a tributary of Tang Dynasty. In the third year of longshuo (663), the Tubo Kingdom destroyed Tuyuhun and took possession of the land. The Prefecture under its jurisdiction once belonged to the Tubo Lacheng Festival envoy.
In the Song Dynasty, the western part of the territory was salivur (that is, Huangtou Huihe), and the eastern part was the influence area of the local Tubo regime, jiaosilou.
In the Yuan Dynasty, the northwest part of the Prefecture was under the jurisdiction of Shazhou Road, Gansu Province, and the rest was under the jurisdiction of xuanzhengyuan and other xuanweisi. During the reign of Emperor Shun of the Yuan Dynasty, Qu Xianda Lin's mansion was set up, and Buyan tiemu'er was appointed king of Ning to guard the western area of Qaidam.
At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, it was under the jurisdiction of Anding, areI, Quxian and Handong, and was concurrently managed by Xining Wei. Around the seventh year of Zhengde (1512) of Wuzong, the tribes of eastern Mongolia began to enter Qinghai, conquering the four guards outside the Great Wall, and thus became the ruling area of the tribes of eastern Mongolia. In 1637, he lived in Heshuote tribe of weilat Mongolia (West Mongolia) in Xinjiang. Under the leadership of his leader, Gu Shihan, he entered Qinghai and ruled the area under his jurisdiction.
In the third year of Yongzheng reign of Qing Dynasty (1725), the Qing court established 29 banners in the left and right wings of Mongolia League in Qinghai. Nine Mongolian banners were assigned to the jurisdiction of the "Minister of Mongolian affairs in Qinghai". In the 22nd year of Qianlong reign (1757), the Banchan Shang Shang Lama moved to Bayan Tuohui and Yuehuo Luoyi (today's Xiangri De area of Dulan county) and became the Panchen Xiangjia banner. In the eighth year of Xianfeng (1858), the wangshidaihai tribe of the Tibetan nationality moved to Jinjun county to live as a herdsman, and the local Mongolian Beiqian banner moved to Qilian. During the reign of Emperor Guangxu (1875-1908), two hundred tribes, Gouli and ri'an, moved into Dulan county.
In July 1912, the Minister of Qinghai affairs was changed to the chief executive of Qinghai affairs, and the areas under his jurisdiction belonged to him. The next year, the Mongolian government set up an additional mission to manage the affairs of Mongolia and Tibet. In the fourth year of the Republic of China (1915), it was transferred to the garrison envoy of Ninghai in Gansu Province. In the sixth year of the Republic of China (1917), it was under the jurisdiction of the governor of Dulan, and was attached to the garrison envoy of Ninghai in Gansu Province. In 1930, the governor of Dulan was changed to Dulan County, which governs the whole Prefecture and is subordinate to Qinghai Province. In 1938, the eighth Office of administrative inspector of Qinghai Province was established in Chahanwusu Town, Dulan county. In 1941, it was renamed the first office of administrative inspector of Qinghai Province, and Dulan county was under its jurisdiction. From 1935 to 1941, some Kazaks who lived in Xinjiang moved to the states under their jurisdiction.
In September 1949, Qinghai was liberated. In November of the same year, the people's Government of Dulan county (based in Chahanwusu) was established, which governs the whole Prefecture and Zhili Qinghai Province.
On September 26, 1952, Dulan county was abolished and a county-level "Dulan Mongolian Tibetan Kazakh Autonomous Region" was established.
On January 25, 1954, it was rebuilt into a special regional level "Haixi Mongolian Tibetan Kazakh Autonomous Region" (stationed in Chahanwusu).
On December 12, 1955, it was renamed "Haixi Mongolian Tibetan Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture".
In order to develop and construct the Qaidam Basin, the Qaidam Working Committee was set up in Golmud on July 30, 1955. As an agency of the Qinghai Provincial People's Commission, it deals with the daily work of developing and constructing the Qaidam Basin.
In February 1956, it was renamed "Qaidam Basin Working Committee", and in March of the same year, it moved to Dachaidan.
In April 1957, the Qaidam Basin Working Committee was abolished and the Qaidam basin administrative committee was established.
In January 1958, it was renamed "Chaidamu administrative committee".
In January 1959, the people's Committee of Haixi Prefecture was moved from Chahanwusu to Dachaidan and worked with the "Qaidam administrative committee".
On August 26, 1963, the "Qaidam administrative committee" was abolished, and the whole administrative region was called "Haixi Mongolian, Tibetan and Kazak Autonomous Prefecture".
In April 1966, the state capital moved to Delingha.
In May 1984, the Kazakh people in the whole Prefecture voluntarily requested and with the consent of the State Council, all of them moved back to Xinjiang.
On May 21, 1985, it was named "Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture".
On April 19, 1988, Delingha city at the county level was established, with Delingha town and Wulan county's five townships of waitatoula, Gobi, guolimu, Zongwulong and Xuji as the administrative regions of Delingha city.
On February 22, 2018, with the approval of the Ministry of Civil Affairs (min Han  No. 48), Mangya Administrative Committee and Lenghu administrative committee were abolished, and county-level Mangya city was established. The administrative region of Mangya city was under the jurisdiction of the former Mangya Administrative Committee and Lenghu administrative committee.
Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture governs three county-level cities and three counties, namely, Golmud City, Delingha City, Mangya City, Dulan County, Wulan county and Tianjun county. In addition, it has its own agency, the Dachaidan administrative committee, which administers Chaidan town and Xitieshan town directly under the jurisdiction of the Autonomous Prefecture. The people's Government of Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is located at 16 Ulan East Road, Delingha city.
Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is located in the north of Qinghai Tibet Plateau and the west of Qinghai Province, with Gansu in the north, Xinjiang in the west, Hainan and Haibei Tibetan autonomous prefectures in Qinghai in the East, and Yushu and Guoluo Tibetan autonomous prefectures in Qinghai in the south. The geographical coordinates are 90 ° 07 ′ - 99 ° 46 ′ E and 35 ° 01 ′ - 39 ° 19 ′ n. It is 837 km long from east to west and 486 km wide from north to south, covering an area of 300700 square kilometers. The Qaidam Basin, the main part of the prefecture, covers an area of 256000 square kilometers, accounting for 85.28% of the total area of the prefecture.
Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is dominated by Qaidam basin surrounded by Kunlun Mountain, Altun mountain and Qilian Mountain. The elevation of the basin is 2675-3200 meters, and the elevation of surrounding mountains is 3500-4500 meters. The terrain is high in the northwest and low in the southeast. From the edge to the center of the basin, there are five geomorphic types: high mountains, hills, Gobi, plains, lakes and marshes, which are distributed in a circular belt, and can be divided into three large geomorphic areas, seven medium geomorphic areas, and 23 small geomorphic areas. In terms of Genesis, it mainly includes tectonic landform, flowing water landform, Lake landform, glacial landform, periglacial landform, aeolian landform, loess landform, planation surface, karst landform and gravity landform.
Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is a typical cold and dry continental climate area. Due to its vast territory and complex topography, it can be divided into arid desert area of Qaidam Basin and alpine area around the basin. The climatic characteristics of the two regions are quite different. In the arid desert area of Qaidam Basin, because it is located in the hinterland of the mainland, surrounded by high mountains, it is difficult for the southwest warm and humid air to enter, so the precipitation is scarce and the climate is dry. The altitude of the basin is generally between 2700-3200 meters, which is still considered as a low-lying area in Qinghai Province, so the temperature is higher in Qinghai Province. The cold mountainous area around the basin has high terrain and cold climate. The main characteristics of precipitation in Haixi Prefecture are less precipitation days and less precipitation. The annual average wind speed of the whole Prefecture is different due to the influence of topography. The annual average wind speed of the basin is generally 3-4 M / s, and that of the mountain is more than 4 m / s. The altitude of Haixi Prefecture is between 2675 and 6860 meters. The air pressure, air density, oxygen content and water boiling point temperature decrease with the increase of altitude.
There are more than 160 rivers in Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, covering an area of about 500 square kilometers
Chinese PinYin : Qing Hai Sheng Hai Xi Meng Gu Zu Cang Zu Zi Zhi Zhou
Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province
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