Hubei Province, abbreviated as "e", is the provincial administrative region of the people's Republic of China and the capital of Wuhan. It is located in the central part of China, with Anhui in the East, Chongqing in the west, Shaanxi in the northwest, Jiangxi and Hunan to the south, Henan in the north, and between 29 ° 01 ′ 53 ″ - 33 ° 6 ′ 47 ″ n, 108 ° 21 ′ 42 ″ - 116 ° 07 ′ 50 ″ e, 740km in East and West, 470km in width from north to south, 185900 square kilometers in total, accounting for 1.94% of China's total area. The east end is Huangmei County, the west is Lichuan City, the southernmost is Laifeng County, and Yunxi county is the northernmost end.
Hubei Province is surrounded by mountains on the East, West and North, with low and flat middle, and slightly open incomplete basin to the south. In the total area of the province, the mountain area accounts for 56%, the hills account for 24%, the plain Lake area accounts for 20%, which belongs to the Yangtze River system. Hubei Province is located in subtropical region. Except for the alpine climate, most of the areas belong to subtropical monsoon humid climate.
By the end of 2018, Hubei Province has 12 prefecture level cities (one of which is a sub provincial city), one autonomous prefecture and four county-level administrative units directly under the central government, with 25 county-level cities, 36 counties, 2 autonomous counties and 1 forest area The total resident population is 59.17 million, and the total regional GDP is 3936.655 billion yuan, of which, the added value of the first industry is 354.751 billion yuan, the added value of the secondary industry is 1708.895 billion yuan, and the tertiary industry has completed an added value of 187.30 billion yuan. The tertiary industrial structure is 9.0:43.4:47.6.
The origin of place names
Hubei Province is located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and north of Dongting Lake, so it is named Hubei, or Hubei for short.
History of construction
During the Xia Dynasty, the influence of Xia culture has reached Jianghan area.
After the establishment of the Shang Dynasty, Hubei was included in the territory of the merchants.
In the Western Zhou Dynasty, there were many small states in Hubei. During the spring and autumn and Warring States period, the southern countries gradually unified in Chu.
After the unification of China (221 years ago), Qinshihuang abolished the separation of the seal and implemented the system of counties. The major parts of Hubei were South County, and the northwest, North and southwest were Hanzhong, Nanyang, Changsha, Qianzhong and Jiujiang counties, and several counties were concurrently located.
In the Western Han Dynasty (206-25 years ago), Hubei Province was the bayonet Department of Jingzhou.
In the period of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 years), the South County, Nanyang County, Jiangxia County, Hanzhong county and Lujiang County were located along the border.
During the Three Kingdoms (220-280 years), Wei, Shu and Wu competed for Jingzhou. Later Wei and Wu were divided into Jiangxia County, Wuchang County, Nanjun, Yidu County, Jianping County, Wuling County, Changsha County, Xiangyang County, Nanyang County, Nanxiang County, Yiyang County, weixingxian County, Xincheng County and Shangyong County.
During the two Jin (265-420 years), most of Hubei was still Jiangxia, Xiangyang, Nanjun, Jianping, Yidu, Yiyang, Nanxiang, Nanyang, Shangyong, new town, Nanping, Changsha, Tianmen, Wuling, Weixing and other counties in Jingzhou. They began to set up states, counties and counties.
During the period of the South and South Dynasties (420-589), Hubei was mainly in the southern region, and still had States, counties and counties. The number of overseas Chinese in the counties, counties and counties increased, and the change was frequent and the system was disordered.
After the unification of the whole country in the Sui Dynasty (581-618), the overseas Chinese first abolished the state, county and county, and the Sui Daye resumed in the three years (607). Except for the northwest and eastern corner, most of Hubei is Jingzhou, which dominates counties such as Nanjun, Yiling, jingling, Mianyang, Qingjiang, Xiangyang, Chongling, Hanjiang, Anlu, Yongan and Jiangxia. In 589, Jiangxia county was once renamed Ezhou, which was then the governing place. Hubei is now abbreviated as Hubei Province.
In the early Tang Dynasty (618-907), the whole country was divided into ten roads, and then increased to 15. The west of Hubei is the East Mountain Road, Huainan road in the East, the West Road of Jiangnan in the southeast and the middle road of Guizhou in the southwest. The government of Ezhou was changed in Jiangxia, and the capital mountain and rich water were changed to be the state of Juzhou. There were also 15 states, including Xiangzhou, Suizhou, Jun Zhou, Fangzhou, xiazhou, Fuzhou, Quanzhou and Qizhou, Anzhou, Huangzhou and Mianyang. After that, there are the governor of the East Road of Shannan, the envoy of Jingnan and the envoy of Wuchang, and they are divided into the States.
During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907-960), Xiangxiang, Jun, Fang, Sui, Xi, Fu and Anqi in Hubei Province were all five dynasties, and the three states of Huang, Qi and e belonged to Wu at the beginning and then Southern Tang Dynasty; Huangqi and Qi Prefecture returned to the Later Zhou Dynasty. Nanping (924-963) in Jiangling Area built Jiangling, according to Jing, GUI and Xia states; Shizhou belongs to Shu.
In Song Dynasty (960-1279), Jinghu North Road (which was first named Hubei Province) was set in the middle of Hubei Province, including Hubei, Fu, Xia, Guizhou and Jiangling mansion, De'an mansion, Jingmen army and Hanyang Army (33 counties under jurisdiction), accounting for most of Hubei Province; southwest Beijing Road was set in the north, including Suijin, Fang, Jun, Xiangyang Prefecture and Guanghua Army (19 counties); the Yangtze River was the boundary in the East The north is Huainan West Road, Qi and huangerzhou (5 counties are under jurisdiction), Jiangxi South Road in the south, which is Xingguo Army (3 counties are under jurisdiction); Shizhou in the West belongs to Kuizhou road; and Jiju state is in Southwest Hubei.
In the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368), there were 3 provinces in China and 11 provinces in the whole country. In Hubei Province, the south of the Yangtze River is Huguang province (governing the river and summer, Wuchang City in Wuhan City), including Wuchang Road, Xingguo Road, Hanyang mansion and Guizhou; the north of the Yangtze River is Henan Province, including Xiangyang Road, Huangzhou Road, Qizhou Road, Zhongxing Road, xiazhou Road and anlufu, Mianyang mansion and Jingmen Prefecture; the northwest corner belongs to Shaanxi Province, and the West Kuizhou road and Jiju state are Sichuan Province.
Hubei Province was a province of Huguang in the early Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). The latter country is divided into 13 political ministers. Today, Hubei is basically the general secretary of Huguang (for the administration of the river and summer, Wuchang District of Wuhan city today), including Wuchang government, Hanyang government, Huangzhou government, Chengtian mansion, De'an mansion, Jingzhou government, Xiangyang government and Yunyang mansion.
The Ming system was still used in the early Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). In the three years of Kangxi (1664), the lake was divided into two parts: Dongting Lake as the boundary, Hunan political envoy in the south, Hubei Provincial Political envoy in the north and Wuchang, the capital of Hubei Province. It was the beginning of Hubei Province construction, and the name of the province has been established and used to date. Hubei Province has basically formed the general situation of the administrative region of Hubei Province, which has eight governments, including Wuchang, Hanyang, Huangzhou, Anlu, De'an, Jingzhou, Xiangyang and Yunyang. By the end of Qing Dynasty, Hubei Province had 10 government, including 60 counties, 6 scattered States and 1 santing hall.
During the Republic of China, the overall division of Hubei Province changed little. In the first year of the Republic of China (1912), the government, state and department system were abolished and re divided. The provincial government districts were divided into two levels: the roads and counties; in the 16th year of the Republic of China (1927), the first level system of the roads and the two administrative districts of the provinces and counties were abolished; in the twenty-one years of the Republic of China (1932), an administrative supervision area was added between the provinces and counties; by the thirty eighth year of the Republic of China (1949), Hubei Province had a total of 1 city (Wuchang City, Hankou city) It is the national government directly under the central government), 8 administrative supervision area and 69 counties. In addition, Hankou is sometimes a provincial city and sometimes a special city.
Since the 16th year of the Republic of China (1927), the people's revolutionary armed forces led by the Communist Party of China have established many revolutionary regimes. During the land revolution war, the peasant regime of Huang'an was established, and expanded to the Soviet government of the special zone of Hubei, Henan and Anhui, and the five counties of the five counties of the Soviet in the west of Hunan and Hubei, and then changed to the Western Hunan Hubei Soviet government and the Western Hunan Hubei Provincial Soviet government. In April, the thirty years of the Republic of China (1941) during the Anti Japanese War, the administrative office of the border area of Hubei and Henan was established. From October to June 1946 in the thirty fourth year of the Republic of China (1945) to June 1946, it was expanded to be the administrative office of the Central Plains liberation zone. From August to may, the thirty-five years of the Republic of China (1946) and the thirty sixth year of the Republic of China (1947), five regions were successively established in Northwest Hubei. At the end of the thirty-six years of the Republic of China (1947), the Jianghan Administration Bureau and the Hubei Henan Administrative Bureau were established respectively.
In May, the thirty eighth year of the Republic of China (1949), the people's Government of Hubei Province was established.
After the founding of the people's Republic of China, a series of changes and adjustments have been made in the administrative divisions of Hubei Province. By 1990, Hubei Province had jurisdiction over 6 regions, 1 Autonomous Prefecture, 8 provincial municipalities, 22 county-level cities, 46 counties, 2 autonomous counties and 1 forest area.
By 2019, Hubei Province has 13 prefecture level administrative regions, including 12 prefecture level cities (one of which is a sub provincial city) and one autonomous prefecture, respectively Wuhan, Huangshi City, Shiyan City, Yichang City, Xiangyang City, Ezhou City, Jingmen City, Xiaogan City, Jingzhou City, Huanggang City, Xianning City, Suizhou City and Enshi Tujia Miao Autonomous Prefecture; 4 provincial and county-level administrative units, including 3 County level city and 1 forest area are Xiantao City, Qianjiang City, Tianmen City and Shennongjia forest area. No. 7 Hongshan Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan, Hubei Provincial People's government.
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