Great cold is the last of the 24 solar terms. Fighting finger ugliness; The solar yellow meridian reaches 300 °; The festival is handed in on January 20-21 of the Gregorian calendar every year. Like the slight cold, the severe cold is also a solar term indicating the cold degree of the weather. The severe cold means the extreme cold of the weather. According to China's long-term meteorological records, there is no small cold in the severe cold solar terms in the north; But for most parts of the south, the coldest is in the cold solar term.
The great cold ends at the end of the year. Winter goes and spring comes. Once the great cold has passed, it begins a new reincarnation. In some parts of China, there are many important folk customs during the period from the cold to the beginning of spring, such as eliminating the old and putting on new clothes, making preserved meat, offering sacrifices to stoves and tail teeth, etc. Tail tooth sacrifice, also known as "making teeth" and "making tooth sacrifice", has a folk custom of "eating tail teeth" with the whole family after the tooth sacrifice.
Da Han Wiki：
|Chinese name||Da Han|
|Representative moral||The weather is very cold, and the coldest period is coming|
|Climatic characteristics||Mild cold and severe cold are the periods with the least rain in a year|
|time||January 19 or 20 or 21 of each year|
|Sun position||The sun reaches 300 ° of the Yellow meridian|
|Custom activities||Tail tooth sacrifice|
|Custom food||Congee with Nuts and Dried Fruits|
|Agricultural activities||Strengthen cold and freezing prevention of livestock and overwintering crops|
|health preservation||Keep your mind deep inside to avoid impatience and anger|
|Sanhou||Chicken milk; Severe illness of birds; Watery belly|
Chinese PinYin : Da Han
Great cold is the last of the twenty-four solar terms. It is called "great cold" when the sun reaches 300 ° of the Yellow Meridian on January 20-21 of the Gregorian calendar every year. "General examination of timing · Tianshi" quoted "three rites and righteousness sect" to explain: "the cold is the middle, which is shaped in the small cold, so it is called great... The reverse pole of the cold, so it is called great cold." It is extremely cold. This integrity is in the period of March 9th and April 9th. At this time, the cold wave moves south frequently, which is the coldest period of the year. As the folk saying goes, "a little cold is a great cold, and a cold without wind." Severe cold means that the weather is extremely cold. Although the winter solstice solar term is the time when the sun height in the northern hemisphere is the lowest, the coldest time of the year is the minor cold and severe cold solar terms after the winter solstice solar term, especially the severe cold solar term; This is because after the winter solstice, the direct point of sunlight will gradually move northward, but for a period of time thereafter, the direct point of sunlight will always be in the southern hemisphere, the heat in the northern hemisphere is always lost, and the heat absorbed during the day is still less than that released at night. Therefore, after the winter solstice, the temperature in the northern hemisphere continues to decrease, The temperature drops to the lowest during the cold solar term, which is the coldest solar term in a year. Due to China's vast territory and large span between the north and the south, there are great differences in climate between the north and the south. According to China's long-term meteorological records, there is no small cold in the severe cold solar terms in the north; But for most parts of the south, the coldest is in the cold solar term. Replace with "during the severe cold season, the average temperature in most parts of southern China is mostly 6 ℃ to 8 ℃, nearly 1 ℃ higher than the slight cold." the proverb "slight cold and severe cold, cold into a ball" shows that the severe cold solar term is also a cold period of the year.
During the cold solar term, the atmospheric circulation is relatively stable, and the circulation adjustment cycle is about 20 days. During such circulation adjustment, there are often large-scale rain and snow weather and strong wind cooling. When there is a long wave ridge in the west of 80 degrees east longitude and a large coastal trough in East Asia, China will experience continuous low temperature under the control of northwest wind flow and the influence of continuously replenishing cold air. Like the minor cold, the severe cold is also a solar term indicating the cold degree of the weather. According to the statistics of China's perennial climate data, the coldest time of the year in northern China is in the middle of January of the Gregorian calendar (11-20). The annual mild cold solar term starts from January 5-7, with a solar term of about 15 days, and the middle part is just within the mild cold solar term; Therefore, for most parts of the north, the slight cold is indeed colder than the severe cold. But for most parts of the south, it is the coldest during the cold solar term; The severe cold solar term in the South generally starts from January 20, and late January is the coldest time of the year in the south.
In the severe cold season, we should master the change law of cold and warm in agricultural production. According to different years, different geographical locations and topographic conditions, we should pay attention to the prediction and forecast of meteorological departments at any time, plant crops reasonably and avoid unnecessary losses. Especially when introducing cash crops on a large scale, it can not be ignored; When planting on a small scale, we should also pay attention to the surrounding topographic environment. For example, around a large reservoir, the freezing damage is often light or not due to the temperature regulation of water. Some cash crops and flowers that are vulnerable to freezing can be placed or planted around the reservoir before the cold winter. The temperature and humidity of the greenhouse crops shall be controlled according to the weather changes. The two ends of the greenhouse shall be opened around noon for ventilation, but it must be closed before 4 pm to maintain the temperature in the greenhouse.
During the cold solar term, the weather is cold and the humidity is low, and the plants have stopped growing and are relatively dry. Special attention should be paid to the safety of using fire for burning wasteland in the field or heating and baking at home to prevent fire.
Welcome the new year with great cold
The great cold is the last of the 24 solar terms. After the great cold, spring begins again, that is, ushering in the solar term cycle of the new year. The Spring Festival is just around the beginning of spring, and the taste of the new year is getting stronger and stronger as the cold comes. In recent years, the great cold solar term is full of joy and joy. It is a cheerful and relaxed solar term. During this solar term, people began to be busy removing the old and decorating the new, pickled Chinese New Year dishes and preparing new year goods, because the most important festival of the Chinese people - the Spring Festival is coming. As the last solar term at the end of the year, the great cold is the slack season, but every family is "busy" - busy for the new year, which is the custom of "welcoming the new year with great cold". The so-called "welcoming the new year in the great cold" means that during the period from the great cold to the lunar new year, there will be a series of activities among the people, which can be summarized into at least ten customs, namely: "eating glutinous food", "drinking", "making teeth", "sweeping dust", "pasting windows", "cured meat", "getting married", "taking advantage of the ruins", "bathing", "sticking New Year's red", etc.
"Eating glutinous rice" means that on the day of the great cold solar term, the ancients were popular to eat food made of glutinous rice.
"Binge drinking" refers to letting go of banquets and indulging in drinking. Cai Yong of the Eastern Han Dynasty said in his dogmatism that "those who wax have a great sacrifice at the end of the year, and even officials and people have a feast".
"Making teeth", also known as "making teeth sacrifice", was originally a ceremony to sacrifice the land father-in-law. The commonly known good meal is "beating teeth sacrifice", which comes from this. There are "head teeth" and "tail teeth". The head teeth are on February 2 of the lunar calendar and the tail teeth are on the 16th of the twelfth lunar month. The whole family sits together to "eat the tail teeth". However, for employees, the tail teeth are not easy to eat, because employers often decide the fate of employees in the coming year at the dinner table. Therefore, there is a saying that "eating the head teeth sticks to the mouth, eating the tail teeth is worried". The tail tooth meal is very rich. A chicken is indispensable for hard dishes. In the past, it was not easy to say the dismissal, so they used the chicken head to indicate who was fired. Because of this "hidden rule", in order to let employees who have worked hard for a year finish the year-end meal, some kind-hearted employers will turn the chicken head towards themselves or directly remove the chicken head. The popular "annual meeting" in modern enterprises is the relic of the tail tooth Festival.
"Dust removal", also known as "removing the old" and "dusting", is a general cleaning: "every family brushes the wall and sweeps away the bad luck", so as to eliminate the poor luck; On the contrary, "the twelfth lunar month does not remove dust, so it will attract the God of plague in the coming year." Dust removal is generally carried out on the 23rd and 24th of the twelfth lunar month, that is, the day of "offering sacrifices to the stove". During dust removal, avoid words and pay attention to "making money with a dull voice".
"Pasting windows" means pasting windows with new paper, "pasting windows for good luck." In order to be beautiful, some people will cut some auspicious patterns and paste them on the windows, so it is also called "pasting window flowers", which is generally carried out on the 25th day of the twelfth lunar month.
"Steamed offering" refers to the offerings prepared for sacrifice. In the past, pastries, pastries and steamed bread were steamed with flour, so it is called.
"Rush to get married". At the end of the twelfth lunar month, the gods went to heaven to "report the work of the year". At this time, there are no taboos in the world. At this time, there is no need to choose a day for marriage. It is also a slack season, so the old folk scene was "busy marriage in Suiyan village".
"Go to the market", that is, the traditional Chinese New Year's fair, where people buy Wax offerings and buy new year's goods.
"Bathing" has the same intention as "dust removal". It is to improve personal hygiene and means to wash away the troubles and bad luck of a year. Therefore, no matter how busy you are at the end of the year, you have to have a haircut and take a bath, that is, as the old saying goes, "if you have money, take a bath for the new year".
There are many customs of "welcoming the new year in the cold", which are different from place to place, but the theme is basically centered on "sacrifice", and some of them still exist today. As for "La", there are records of "Roufu" and "cured meat" as early as in Zhouyi, Zhouli and other works. "Dried meat" is the original meaning of "dried meat". There are many names for December at the end of the year, among which the most familiar is the nickname "December". This month's weather is most suitable for air drying and making cured meat, so it is called "December moon". The sacrifice held this month is called "wax sacrifice". At the end of the year, December is a month with more sacrifices because it is in the transition period between the old and the new.
Steamed glutinous rice
Lingnan folk proverb goes: "a little cold, a big cold, cold without wind." On a very cold day in the traditional solar terms, the custom of eating glutinous rice was formed among the people in Guangdong. Now in Guangdong, it is common to see that before the great cold, every family cooks a pot of delicious glutinous rice and mixes it with preserved meat, shrimp, dried squid and winter mushrooms to meet the coldest day in the traditional solar terms. Glutinous rice is sweet in taste and warm in nature. Eating it has the effect of preventing cold and nourishing. Anhui Anqing has the custom of frying spring rolls in the cold.
Tail tooth sacrifice
Tail tooth sacrifice: it is a custom in some places in southern China. There are many important folk customs and festivals from the cold to the beginning of spring, such as tail tooth sacrifice. The tail teeth originated from the custom of worshiping the land to make "teeth". The land contains all things, and produces all things, and grows grain to raise the people. This is the reason why people worship the land close to the land. The title of land God is numerous, and its origin is related to the God of society and Ji in the "heaven, earth, society and Ji" sacrificed by China's ancient agricultural society. In ancient times, the land God and the place where the land God was worshipped were called "society". According to the folk custom, people should set up a society to worship and pray for or reward the land God every sowing or harvest season. The so-called second of February (in ancient times, on the fifth day after the beginning of spring) is the first tooth. In the future, we have to make "teeth" every second and sixteenth day of the lunar new year. At the end of the year, December 16th is exactly the last tooth. "Making teeth", also known as "making teeth sacrifice", was originally a ceremony to sacrifice the land father-in-law. The commonly known good meal is "beating teeth sacrifice", which comes from this. There is a folk custom of "eating tail teeth" for the whole family. The popular "annual meeting" in modern enterprises is the relic custom of tail tooth sacrifice.
Eat Laba porridge
Laba Festival is an important festival popular in northern China. The festival custom is to eat Laba porridge. Laba porridge, also known as "seven treasures and five flavors porridge", "Buddha porridge" and "everyone's rice", is a kind of porridge made of various ingredients. The sixth volume of Mengliang Lu written by song Wu Zimu: "on the eighth day, the temple is called 'Laba'. There are five kinds of porridge in Dasha temple, which is called 'Laba porridge'. The origin of the custom of drinking Laba porridge on Laba day is related to the Buddha's becoming a Buddha. Li Fu, a scholar in Suzhou in the Qing Dynasty, said:" the porridge on the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month is passed down from the Brahma kingdom. It is mixed with seven treasures and five kinds of fragrant grits. In the north of China, there are "Don't be greedy, children. It's the new year after Laba", which means the prelude to the new year. North China Ballad: "don't be greedy, wife. It's the year of Laba."
Folk have "little cold and great cold, cold without wind". The proverb "little cold, great cold, cold into a ball" shows that the solar term of great cold is also the cold period of the year. The great cold solar term coincides with the severe cold of "March 9", and "counting nine" is one of the customs widely spread among Chinese people, that is, from the date of the winter solstice (it is also said that from the winter solstice), one "Nine" is counted every nine days, and so on. The so-called "hot in three volts, cold in four or nine", the coldest period of the year is "three or four or nine days". Count nine until the eighty-one day of "Nine Nine", when the peach blossoms bloom. At this time, the cold is exhausted and the weather is warm.
There is no snow in light cold and great cold, and the field is cracked in light heat and great heat.
Small cold, big cold, cold into ice mass.
A little cold is not cold, Qingming mire.
The weather will be warm next spring.
A little cold is not a great cold.
It's a little cold and hot, but don't say it's a big cold.
Little cold and great cold make drops of water ice.
Great cold and small cold, cold without wind.
It's not cold in the cold, and it's not warm at the spring equinox.
Mild cold and severe cold are mostly southerly, and there will be a typhoon early next June.
The slight cold is not too cold, and the severe cold lasts three or nine days.
It's very cold, even if there's no wind.
Cold or not, people and horses are uneasy.
In the cold, the pig farm is wet, and the grain buds are rotten in March.
The winter solstice is at the beginning of the month, and it is cold.
The winter solstice is in the middle of the month, and it is cold and frost free.
The winter solstice is at the end of the month, and the cold is February.
Little cold, big cold, kill pigs for the new year.
After the cold, another year.
Whether it's cold or not is not a year.
It's extremely cold and it's getting warmer in the future.
A little cold is not as cold as a big cold. After a big cold, the sky is getting warmer.
Su Shi, Song Dynasty
The spring rain is like dark dust, and the spring wind blows down people. There are several houses on the east slope. Who is the nest next to.
The empty bed gathers the rotten catkins and breaks the stove to make a living. It's sad to know that I'm poor.
I have a ladle of wine and drink it alone. Failed to touch my cheek and talk to my son's lips.
My old friend has a thousand clocks of salary, and the officials are drunk and spit out Yin. That knows me and my son, sitting and groaning.
Try not to complain. We are all people. Look at the flowers and willows, and share the boundless spring.
"Great cold" (Song Dynasty) Lu You
The cold and snow have not disappeared, and the door cannot be closed. Poor cut cloud crown, this knee room.
My car is hanging, I drive for a long time and scold. Brush the dust and take a series, which is relatively easy all day.
The dead sheep should avoid many differences and learn the way to one. Believe that you can live in the que, and Baishi can be deposed.
Don't rest for Shantang and meet Gao Gu. Although the decadent age has been forced, the child has a beautiful quality.
"Out of the west gate of Jiangling in the cold" (Song Dynasty) Lu You
The horse goes out of the west gate in pingming, and the light sun is cold and the clouds are spitting and swallowing for a long time. It's easy to wake up when the wind blows on the drunk face. The heavy fur hides the hand and takes a slight temperature.
One after another, the fox and rabbit cast deep Mang, and the cattle and sheep scattered far away from the village. Without much emotion for the mountains and rivers, the old poor wanderer lost his soul.
"Ode to the great cold" (Song Dynasty) Shao Yong
The old snow has not yet disappeared, and the new snow has embraced households. Frozen silver bed in front of the steps, ice bell milk on the eaves.
The clear sun has no light, and the strong wind is angry. Every man has his tongue, and words cannot be vomited.
Zhang Taibo in the cold (Song Dynasty) Zheng Yu
The cold wind and anger flourished, and the households came into my room. The sand is gray, the sky is dark, and the day is red and yellow.
Holding clothes and sitting on your shoulders, your heart and spleen are cold and trembling. In a moment, the weather changed and it was as dark as paint.
The rain and hail fly in the air, and the pearls come out in four directions. Several sons sighed and surprised, blaming heaven and justice.
Sir, come with your books. Angyi's stick flies. He called two or three sons to sit at the table with him.
Call Tong Ling to take wine and dish mixed pears and chestnuts. In addition to the cold of wine, the spring sun grows on the four walls.
Mr. Li said that he was interested in the great cause. Insight into people's spirit, two ears fly thunderbolt.
As the old saying goes, nine cows cannot be bent on root day. Yao Mei and Shun mu, if Myanmar had known each other.
As in the dark of the night, the light shines and sees the red sun. Retreat from the sages' cause, accumulate in the tick.
Weipi painted mountain dragons, pieces of mud and rubble. Man's inherent knowledge and wisdom is not like the plant of things.
Instead of working hard, day and night are like knives and rulers. A man should work hard when he is young and healthy.
Today, too many civilians have not been rested. Who can arch his hands and see the achievements of man and tree.
Cold is the last solar term in the lunar year, and it is also recognized as a good time for tonic. The great cold is a transitional period from winter to spring, and the daily life of food and drink should be "transformed". Healthy diet should reduce saltiness and increase bitterness to nourish the mind and Qi, and should eat hot food to prevent damage to the Yang Qi of the spleen and stomach, but do not eat more dry and hot things.
Calm down and nourish your nature, refresh your mind and gather Qi
Only when the mind is vigorous, the Qi is unobstructed, the blood is smooth, and the whole body can be warm, can it resist the invasion of severe winter. Therefore, in the cold season, we should calm down and nourish our nature, refresh our mind and collect Qi, maintain a happy mood and a peaceful state of mind, make the Qi and blood in the body harmonious and smooth, and do not disturb the Yang Qi closed in the body, so as to "keep the positive Qi in the body, and do not do evil".
Keep warm from the cold
Due to the cold weather, older people generally have muscle atrophy and slow movement. Therefore, it is very important to choose loose and soft winter clothes that are convenient to wear and take off. In the selection of underwear, pure cotton knitted fabrics with good moisture absorption, strong air permeability, light and soft, easy to wash and comfortable to wear are suitable.
Go to bed early and get up late
In the cold season, we should still comply with the characteristics of closed storage in winter. In order to avoid the invasion of cold wind, we should go to bed early and get up late, combine work and rest, and add warm clothes according to our own conditions when going out. If you often turn on heating or air conditioning indoors, in addition to opening windows for ventilation, it is best to improve the humidity in the air by using air humidifiers and other methods.
Eat more bitterness to help heart Yang
Winter is when the kidney meridian is vigorous, while the kidney is salty and the heart is bitter. According to the five elements theory of medicine, salt is better than bitterness, and kidney water can overcome heart fire. If you eat too much salty taste, it will make the already hyperactive kidney water more hyperactive, so as to weaken the power of heart Yang. Therefore, you should eat more bitter food to help heart Yang. Therefore, the dietary principle in winter is to reduce salt and increase bitterness, resist kidney water and nourish heart qi, so as to ensure the intersection of heart and kidney and the balance of yin and Yang.
Make up to the end
"Just one year after the cold." At this time, the natural Yang Qi is in the transition from closed storage in winter to rising in spring, and people's diet should also adapt to this change. Winter tonic needs to be finished at this time. In order to gradually adapt to the seasonal characteristics of comfortable, rising hair and reaching in spring, you can eat some sweet vegetables such as cabbage, rape, carrot and cauliflower.
The beginning of spring. Li Chun
The Waking of Insects. Jing Zhe
Qingming. Qing Ming
grain rain. Gu Yu
Mangrove seed. Mang Zhong
Little heat. Xiao Shu
Heat treatment. Chu Shu
Cold dew. Han Lu
First Frost. Shuang Jiang
Light snow is the 20th of the 24 solar terms and the second solar term in winter. It is on November 22 or 23 of the Gregorian calendar, that is, when the sun reaches 240 ° of the Yellow meridian. Light snow is a solar term reflecting precipitation and tem. Xiao Xue
Heavy snow is the 21st of the 24 solar terms and the third in winter. Douzhigui, the sun reaches 255 degrees of the Yellow meridian, and the festival time is December 6-8 of the Gregorian calendar every year. The heavy snow solar term is the beginning of . Da Xue
The winter solstice, also known as the South solstice, winter festival and Asian year old, has both natural and humanistic connotations. It is not only an important solar term in the 24 solar terms, but also a traditional ancestor worship festival among C. Dong Zhi