The winter solstice, also known as the South solstice, winter festival and Asian year old, has both natural and humanistic connotations. It is not only an important solar term in the 24 solar terms, but also a traditional ancestor worship festival among Chinese people. The winter solstice is one of the four seasons and eight festivals. It is regarded as a major festival in winter. There is a saying "the winter solstice is as big as a year" among the ancient people. The winter solstice custom has different contents or details due to different regions. In southern China, there is the custom of offering sacrifices to ancestors and feasting on the winter solstice. In northern China, there is a custom of eating dumplings on the winter solstice every year.
The winter solstice is the 22nd solar term of the "24 solar terms", with douzhizi and 270 ° sun yellow meridian, which is handed over on December 21-23 of the Gregorian calendar every year. The winter solstice is the extreme of the southward travel of the direct point of the sun. On the day of the winter solstice, the sun shines directly on the Tropic of cancer. The sun's light is the most inclined to the northern hemisphere and the sun's altitude angle is the smallest. It is the shortest day and the longest night in the northern hemisphere. The winter solstice is also the turning point of the northward return of the direct solar point. After this day, it will go back. The direct solar point begins to move northward from the Tropic of cancer (23 ° 26 ′ s), and the days in the northern hemisphere (China is located in the northern hemisphere) will increase day by day.
On the day of winter solstice, although the sun is low and the day is short, the temperature of winter solstice is not the lowest in meteorology. In fact, due to the "accumulated heat" on the surface, it is usually not very cold before the winter solstice, and the real severe cold is after the winter solstice. Due to the great difference in climate across China, the winter of this climate significance is obviously late for most parts of China. The winter solstice marks the beginning of the cold season, and the people begin to "count nine" to calculate the cold days (as the folk saying goes: "three gengs fall in the summer solstice and nine in the winter solstice).
Dong Zhi Wiki:
|Chinese name||Winter solstice|
|alias||Winter festival, short days, sub year old|
|Representative moral||The cold winter is coming.|
|Gregorian time||December 21 to 23 of the Gregorian calendar every year|
|Ecliptic position||The sun reaches 270 ° of the Yellow meridian|
|Climatic characteristics||cold and frozen|
|Phenological phenomenon||Wait for earthworm knot; Second, waiting for elk angle solution; Wait for the spring to move.|
|Agricultural activities||Building water conservancy|
|traditional custom||Eat dumplings and glutinous rice balls|
|Living and health preservation||Add clothes in time and exercise properly|
Chinese PinYin : Dong Zhi
The so-called Big Dipper refers to the time when the stars in the world move to the East and the stars in the West. The so-called "Big Dipper" refers to the time when the stars in the world move to the north, which means that the seasons in the world are different; the so-called Big Dipper refers to the time when the stars in the world move to the East and the stars in the West. "Twenty four solar terms" is the product of ancient agricultural civilization. It is related to the time of the main branches and eight trigrams, and has a long historical source. During the period of Emperor Wu of the Western Han Dynasty, the "24 solar terms" were absorbed into the "Taichu calendar" as a supplement to the calendar guiding the farming in the Central Plains of the north, and the "24 solar terms" were measured in the Yellow River Basin by using the tugui solar shadow method. The current "24 solar terms" are determined according to the position of the sun on the return ecliptic, that is, on a 360 degree circle of the "ecliptic" (the apparent path of the sun on the celestial sphere in a year), starting from the vernal equinox as 0 degrees, and every 15 degrees of the sun on the ecliptic is a "gas saving". In the inheritance and development, the 24 solar terms are included in the lunar calendar and become an important part of the lunar calendar.
The winter solstice, known as the "solar solstice", is a solar term reflecting the direct movement of sunlight. On the day of the winter solstice, the sun goes southward to the extreme, and the sun's light shines directly on the Tropic of cancer. From the day of the winter solstice, the direct point of the sun returns to the north. The winter solstice is the turning point of "the sun goes southward and returns to the north". Since then, the height of the sun rises and the days in all parts of the northern hemisphere increase day by day. The winter solstice marks the rebirth of the sun and the round-trip movement of the sun into a new cycle. The winter solstice is an auspicious day. For example, it is said in the book of Han Dynasty: "the Yang Qi of the winter solstice rises, and you have a long way to celebrate." After the winter solstice, the days are getting longer and longer day by day. The rise of the sun is the beginning of a round-trip cycle of direct sunlight, which should be celebrated.
As an important node of China's 24 solar terms, the winter solstice is the shortest day and the longest night in the region north of the earth's equator. The winter solstice is the extreme of the sun's southward travel. On this day, the height of the sun in the northern hemisphere is the smallest. On the winter solstice, the sun shines directly on the Tropic of cancer, and the sun is most inclined to the northern hemisphere. The winter solstice is the turning point of the sun's southward travel. After this day, it will go back. The direct solar point begins to move northward from the Tropic of cancer (23 ° 26 ′ s), and the days in the northern hemisphere (China is located in the northern hemisphere) will increase day by day. Since the earth is located near the perihelion around the winter solstice and runs slightly faster, the time when the sun shines directly on the southern hemisphere in a year is about 8 days shorter than that in the northern hemisphere. Therefore, the winter in the northern hemisphere is slightly shorter than that in summer.
After the winter solstice, although the solar altitude angle gradually rises, it is a slow recovery process. The heat lost every day is still greater than the heat received, showing a situation of "making ends meet". In the "March 9th and April 9th days", the accumulated heat is the least and the temperature is the lowest, and the weather is getting colder and colder. China has a vast territory with great differences in climate and landscape. Although the days on the winter solstice are short, the temperature on the winter solstice is not the lowest; It will not be very cold before the winter solstice, because there is still "accumulated heat" on the surface. The real cold winter is after the winter solstice. Due to the great differences in climate across China, this astronomical climate feature is obviously late for most parts of China. After the winter solstice, the climate in all parts of China will enter the coldest stage, which is often referred to as "entering nine" and "counting nine cold days". The so-called "counting nine" means counting one "Nine" every nine days from the date of the winter solstice (also known as the winter solstice), and so on; Count nine until the eighty-one day of "Nine Nine", when the peach blossoms bloom, the cold is over. Nine days is a unit, which is called "Nine". After nine "Nine", it happens to be 81 days, which is "nine out" or "nine out". From "19" to "99", winter cold becomes spring warm.
Some ancient Chinese literary works divide the winter solstice into three periods: "one is earthworm knot; two is moose horn solution; three is water spring movement." It means that the earthworm in the soil is still curled up, and the elk feels that the Yin Qi gradually recedes and dissolves its horn. After the winter solstice, the direct point of the sun returns to the north, and the round-trip movement of the sun enters a new cycle. Since then, the height of the sun rises and the day grows day by day, so the spring in the mountains can flow and warm at this time.
The winter solstice in 2020 is December 21, and the winter solstice in 2021 is also December 21. The date of the winter solstice for two consecutive years is December 21. This calendar phenomenon is very rare. According to statistics, this strange calendar phenomenon last appeared in 1896 and 1897, 124 years ago. The main reason for this calendar phenomenon is that the length of the current Gregorian calendar is inconsistent with the length of the return year. According to statistics, the winter solstice date is December 21 for three consecutive years (2056-2058) from 2056. What's more strange is that the winter solstice date is December 21 for 12 consecutive years (2088-2099) from 2088. No one in the world has experienced the above-mentioned calendar phenomenon.
Before and after the winter solstice is a good time to build water conservancy, vigorously carry out farmland capital construction and accumulate fertilizer to make fertilizer. At the same time, we should apply wax fertilizer and do a good job in antifreeze. The management of winter crops should be strengthened in the south of the Yangtze River in China, such as clearing ditches and draining water, cultivating soil and blocking roots. The hardening of winter soil that has not been ploughed should be ploughed quickly, so as to loosen the soil, enhance the ability of water storage and water retention, and eliminate overwintering pests. In the southern coastal areas where spring planting has begun, it is necessary to seriously do a good job in the cold prevention of rice seedlings.
"The winter solstice is as big as a year"
The winter solstice has both natural and humanistic connotations. It is not only an important solar term in the 24 solar terms, but also a traditional Chinese folk festival. It is known as "the winter solstice is as big as a year". The winter solstice is the starting point of the return of the sun. From the winter solstice, the height of the sun rises and the day grows day by day. The winter solstice marks the rebirth of the sun and the round-trip movement of the sun enters a new cycle. Therefore, the ancients regarded the winter solstice as a "auspicious day". Among the eight seasons, the importance of the winter solstice is no less than the beginning of spring. In southern China, there is the custom of offering sacrifices to ancestors and feasting on the winter solstice. In northern China, there is a custom of eating dumplings on the winter solstice every year.
People have always attached great importance to the winter solstice festival. During the pre-Qin period, the customs and cultures of the north and the South were different, and the customs of various places had not been integrated and popularized. Many festivals had history and were lack of records. Many ancient festivals and customs are rarely recorded in works.
According to existing works, the people of Zhou Dynasty (Shaanxi area) take winter November as the first month and winter November 1 as the beginning of the year. The first day of November of the Zhou People's winter festival is in November of the same lunar calendar as the winter solstice of the current "24 solar terms". Therefore, it is said that the Zhou people have offered sacrifices in the winter solstice (November) since the Zhou period.
Yi said: the first king and even the day closed, business travel is not good.
"Etiquette in the later Han Dynasty": "before and after the winter solstice, gentlemen settle down and calm down, and all officials do nothing." We should also select "capable people", play drums, harps and Sheng, and play "the law of yellow bells" to celebrate. Both the winter solstice and the song solstice. "The winter solstice in November is the most important festival in the capital. Although the poor accumulate fake loans within a year, it is easier for them to wear new clothes, prepare food and enjoy the worship of their ancestors. Officials release customs and celebrate exchanges, just like the new year's festival."
"The winter solstice is as big as a year." (Qing Jialu). Jiaxing attaches importance to the winter solstice. As the saying goes, "the winter solstice is as big as a year", it retains the ancient style. According to the records of Jiaxing Prefecture annals (Volume 34. Customs): "worship the first in the winter solstice and celebrate with the crown, such as the new year's Day ceremony". Folk advocate tonic in the winter solstice.
The winter solstice is as big as a year
The so-called painting nine is actually a diagram for calculating the date of spring warming after the winter solstice. According to a brief introduction to the scenery of the imperial capital in the Ming Dynasty: "on the winter solstice, a plain plum is painted with one of 80 petals. When one petal is dyed on the day, the petals are exhausted and come out in September, the spring is deep, which is called the picture of eliminating the cold in September". There are three types of "nine nine cold elimination map", namely text, circle and plum blossom.
Brewing rice wine
The traditional Suzhou family will drink winter wine on the night of the winter solstice. The winter wine is brewed with glutinous rice or yellow rice and sweet scented osmanthus.
"Winter solstice circle"
"Winter solstice circle"
Eating glutinous rice balls is a traditional custom in the winter solstice, especially in Jiangnan. "Tangyuan" is a necessary food for the winter solstice. "Yuan" means "Reunion" and "perfection". Eating Tangyuan at the winter solstice is also called "winter solstice circle". There is a folk saying that eating Tangyuan is one year older.
Eat roast wax and ginger rice
Some places in the South eat roast wax on the winter solstice. On the winter solstice, the baked roast wax has become an indispensable delicacy on the tables of Guangdong and Guangxi, which means adding vegetables to add new year. On the winter solstice, Wuchuan people always have the custom of "eating ginger rice" during the winter solstice.
Eat sweet potato soup fruit
In the traditional customs of Ningbo, sweet potato soup and fruit are one of the necessary delicacies for the winter solstice. "Fan" and "fan" are homonymous. In the understanding of Ningbo people, eating sweet potatoes in the winter solstice is to "turn" all the bad luck of the past year. Tangguo is similar to tangtuan, but it is much smaller and there is no stuffing in it. Tangguo is also called Yuanzi, which means "Reunion" and "consummation". Old Ningbo also has the saying that "one year older after eating Tangguo". Ningbo people are used to adding wine when making sweet potato soup and fruit. In Ningbo Dialect, wine is also called "pulp board", and "pulp" is the same as "rise" in Ningbo Dialect, taking the good color of "rising wealth" and "rising happiness".
In many areas of northern China, there is a custom of eating dumplings on the winter solstice every year. In northern China, dumplings are eaten on this day, because they have the meaning of "eliminating cold". Up to now, there is still a folk proverb that "the winter solstice is not proper, the dumpling bowl is frozen off, and no one cares".
Mazar kalajun day
Karajan day is called nartugan day in Kazakhstan（ Нартуған）， It is called the winter solstice in China. Karajonge is considered to be one of the oldest Eurasian cultural customs. The day is the shortest and the shadow is the longest. After the karajune day, the day begins to lengthen and the shadow shortens. This period will last until the nauruz festival in March. Therefore, on this day, ancient Turks would gather together and light a huge bonfire to celebrate the end of the long cold night. Another cultural symbolic meaning of lighting a campfire is to overcome the cold night through the warmth of the flame. Today, Mazar people still continue the tradition of celebrating this festival. According to the ancient Turkic language, they call this festival "karaqiong". According to the festival tradition, huge bonfires are lit and grand parties are held all over Hungary.
Drink mutton soup
On the winter solstice every year, the Chengjian fast track connecting Chengdu, Sichuan to Jianyang ushers in a busy time of the year. People drive into Jianyang City, located in the east of Longquan mountains, just to find a bowl of steaming mutton soup.
Winter solstice Tang Du Fu
From year to year, I have been a guest for a long time. Sometimes I feel poor and mud kills people.
The river described me as old alone, and the custom of dating in the horizon.
After the snow, the Chenopodium stick faces the Dan Valley, and the jade morning comes to disperse the purple Chen.
At this time, there is no inch of heart break. Where can I see Sanqin.
Xiao Zhi Tang Du Fu
The time of day and the personnel day urge each other, the winter solstice is sunny, and spring comes again.
Embroidered five patterns add weak lines, blowing jialiuguan floating ash.
The shore is waiting for the wax to release the willows, and the mountain is flushed with cold and wants to release plum.
Clouds and things are not different from each other, and villages and countries are different. Teach children and cover the cup in the palm.
"Homesickness in Handan on winter solstice night" Tang · Bai Juyi
Every winter solstice in Handan post, the shadow in front of the knee lamp accompanies the body.
If you want to sit at home late at night, you should also talk about people who travel far away.
"Sending the younger brothers of the capital and huaicui Dushui on the winter solstice night" Tang Wei Yingwu
Li county has no different politics, and the worry is vegetarian food.
The apprentice ordered to go to the state of Beijing and stay in the cold of the year.
Ziyuesheng Qi, Yang Jing extreme south end.
Already pregnant with a sense of season, but also embrace parting acid.
Private Yan Xi cloud, but also Zhai night Fanglan.
The dark curtain sinks into the sky, and the solitary lamp shines on the sheets.
We should read together in the evening, rather forget the old joy.
The journey of Sichuan seems long and clear, and the tears are dry.
Winter solstice expensive millet
The sunshine lasts for nine days in the winter solstice, and the frost is clear and the wind is high.
It is another balance day, and the sub line returns from south to north.
Winter solstice northwest wind, dry spring next year. (Jin Dynasty)
Refreshing winter solstice slovenly year, slovenly winter solstice refreshing year. (Jiangxi)
The winter solstice is sunny and the first month is rainy; It rains in the winter solstice and sunny in the first month. (Zhejiang)
The winter solstice is fine, the new year is rainy, the Mid Autumn Festival is rainy, and the winter solstice is fine. (black)
Winter solstice sunny, new year rain; Winter solstice rain, new year sunny. (Lu, Xiang)
The winter solstice is cold and the Spring Festival is warm; The Spring Festival is cold and the winter solstice is warm. (Hunan, Guangdong)
The winter solstice is not cold and the summer solstice is not hot. (Hunan)
The winter solstice is warm and cold to mid March; The winter solstice is cold and the next spring is warm early. (Guangxi)
The winter solstice is warm and the fire is full. (Guangxi)
As for the "count nine", a popular folk song says, "if you don't do it in 19 and 29, walk on the ice in 39 and 49, look at the willows along the river in 59 and 69, the river opens in 79, the swallow comes in 89, and the cattle go everywhere in 99 and 19."
The winter solstice, also known as "day short solstice" and "day South solstice", is a solar term reflecting the direct movement of sunlight. There is a saying that "the winter solstice is born in the sun" (described in the manuscript of abiding by the Constitution and other works). In fact, strictly speaking, "Yang" has the concept of yin and Yang and the Yang of the sun. The concept of "rising of yin and Yang after winter", rather than "rising of Yang after winter". The winter solstice solar term reflects the offset law of the direct point of sunlight on the earth's surface. The arrival of the winter solstice solar term indicates that the sun is the lowest and the day is the shortest in the northern hemisphere. It is not the day with the most Yin and Yang in the concept of yin and Yang. "Yin Yang and five elements" belong to the category of "trunk and branch". The growth and decline of "Yin Yang" is based on "trunk and branch". The winter solstice is also the starting point of the return of the sun. From the winter solstice, the height of the sun rises, and the days in all parts of the northern hemisphere increase day by day. The "Yang" reflected in the winter solstice is the Yang of the sun, not the Yang of the concept of "Yin and Yang".
After the winter solstice, the climate in all parts of China has entered the coldest stage. People should add clothes in time according to the weather conditions and pay attention to keeping warm; Indoor ventilation should be provided to reduce and inhibit the reproduction of bacteria and viruses; Eat more nourishing foods, such as lotus seeds, Euryale ferox, job's tears, red beans, jujube, tremella and so on; Keep open and optimistic and exercise appropriately.
In the "three or nine days" after the winter solstice, the weather is cold, and the Yang Qi in the body is just growing, which is relatively weak. For health preservation, we should adjust the internal balance and conform to nature. Therefore, we should pay attention to avoid the cold, exercise properly, have a lot of rest, be in a stable mood, and maintain the weak Yang Qi just growing in ourselves, so as to make it conducive to future growth and prosperity.
As the saying goes, after the winter solstice meal, one day is a long line. After the winter solstice, the time of the day is longer and longer. At this time, the Yang Qi in the human body is vigorous, which is most easy to absorb foreign nutrients and give play to its nourishing effect. In other words, before and after the winter solstice is the best time to tonic. However, random tonic can not achieve the effect. Tonic in winter also needs some methods.
Avoid eating dog meat blindly. Some people who are weak and suffering from arthritis and other diseases, it is good to eat more dog meat in the severe winter season. However, it is not suitable to eat dog meat blindly to avoid eating rabies meat and contracting rabies. Don't drink tea after eating dog meat, because the tannic acid in tea combines with the protein in dog meat to produce a substance. This substance has a certain astringent effect, which can weaken intestinal peristalsis and reduce the water in stool. Therefore, the toxic substances and carcinogens in the stool will be easily absorbed by the human body because they stay in the intestine for a long time.
Second, avoid regardless of deficiency and reality. The treatment principle of traditional Chinese medicine is to "fill the deficiency". Deficiency is tonic, not deficiency is normal diet. At the same time, we should distinguish the performance and scope of application of tonic and whether it is suitable for ourselves. Experts believe that the main function of tonic is "tonifying deficiency and benefiting loss", and deficiency is divided into four types: Qi deficiency, blood deficiency, yin deficiency and yang deficiency, with different tonic methods.
Three taboos: admire fame and tonic. Not everyone can drink chicken soup. Chicken soup (including stewed chicken soup and chicken soup boiled with medicinal materials) is rich in nutrition. The nutrients contained in chicken soup are a small amount of water-soluble small molecules dissolved from chicken oil, chicken skin, chicken and chicken bone. Its protein is only about 7% of that of chicken, and most of the chicken oil in the soup belongs to saturated fatty acids.
Four taboos: tonic without disease. Disease free tonic can not only increase expenses, but also harm the body. For example, taking too much cod liver oil can cause poisoning, and taking glucose for a long time will cause obesity. In addition, tonics can't be more and better. Any overdose of tonics is harmful.
The beginning of spring. Li Chun
The Waking of Insects. Jing Zhe
Vernal equinox. Chun Fen
Qingming. Qing Ming
grain rain. Gu Yu
Lixia. Li Xia
the summer solstice. Xia Zhi
Little heat. Xiao Shu
Great heat. Da Shu
Heat treatment. Chu Shu
White Dew. Bai Lu
Light snow is the 20th of the 24 solar terms and the second solar term in winter. It is on November 22 or 23 of the Gregorian calendar, that is, when the sun reaches 240 ° of the Yellow meridian. Light snow is a solar term reflecting precipitation and tem. Xiao Xue