Shannan Shannan is a prefecture level city under the jurisdiction of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the people's Republic of China. It is located in the middle and lower reaches of the mainstream of the Yarlung Zangbo River from the Gangdise mountains to the south of Nyainqentanglha mountains. It is adjacent to Lhasa, the capital of Tibet in the North, Xigaze in the west, Nyingchi in the East, India and bhutan in the south. It is located between 90 ° 14 "to 94 ° 22" E and 27 ° 08 "to 29 ° 47" n. It is an ancient civilization of Tibet It's one of the birthplaces of. Shannan has a border line of more than 600 kilometers, which has a very important strategic position and is the southwest border of China. The total area is 79253.53 square kilometers, of which 47923.94 square kilometers are actually controlled and 31329.59 square kilometers are occupied by India.
In February 2016, the State Council approved the cancellation of Shannan Prefecture and NAIDONG COUNTY in Tibet Autonomous Region and the establishment of prefecture level Shannan City, with the government located in the eastern district. As of February 2016, Shannan city has jurisdiction over 1 municipal district and 11 counties.
In 2019, the GDP will reach 18.777 billion yuan, with a year-on-year growth of 8.3%, and the per capita GDP will reach 49556 yuan. On October 9, 2020, it was awarded the title of the fourth batch of national ecological civilization construction demonstration cities and counties by the Ministry of ecological environment.
Shannan is one of the birthplaces of ancient Tibetan civilization. It is said that the combination of monkey and Luocha girl gave birth to Tibetan people. It has a long history and splendid culture. About 40000 to 50000 years ago, there were Tibetan ancestors living in Yalong area. The ancestors lived in the Yalong River valley where birds, animals and fruit trees swarmed. After a long time, he gradually learned how to make bows, arrows, stone tools, raise yaks and other animals, and grow highland barley and other crops. Suodang, a piece of land in sare village near Zedang Town, is the first farmland in Tibet.
In the early 2nd century BC, the people living in Yalong gradually formed tribes. The first generation of zanpniechi, the leader of xibuye tribe, unified yak tribe, established alliance power, and established the hereditary Zanpu system.
From the eighth generation of Zanpu Bude gongbujie to the fourteenth generation of Zanpu yixiaolie, six palaces including Dazi, Guizi, Yangzi, chizi, Zimu qiongjie and chize bengdu were successively built in Qingyu of Yalong River Basin, and qiongjie was regarded as the base camp of Yalong tribe. The eighth generation of Zanpu Bude gongbujie organized people to build canals in Yalong area, leading mountains and rivers to the flat land, reclaiming pieces of farmland, and making wooden plows to cultivate land. In the 11th generation, zanpruli formulated the unit of cultivated land area based on the land cultivated by two cattle and one day, and the unit of measurement for calculating the number of livestock based on "Tui" (Tibetan pronunciation). During the Zan period of the 27th generation, Buddhism was introduced into the Yalong River Valley. Zan Pu called the Scriptures and tools brought by the "Tianzhu" monks "nimbusangwa" and worshipped them in yongbulakan.
Around the 6th century, the Yalong area entered a slave society, and the residents were able to smelt iron, copper and silver to make metal weapons. During the thirty first generation of zanpnangri Songzan period, the territory was constantly expanded, making the Yalong tribe the most powerful tribe in Tibet. In the middle of the 7th century, the 32nd generation of Zanpu Songzanganbu conquered Supi, Yangtong and other small tribes, unified the Tibetan Plateau, established the Tibetan regime, and gradually transferred the political, economic and cultural center from qiongjie to Lhasa.
In the Tang Dynasty, in the early period of Tubo, the whole territory was divided into five Ru (later six Ru, adding Xiangxiong Ru), namely weiru, Yueru, Yeru, laru and supiru. Today, Shannan city is under the jurisdiction of yoru. Changzhu township of NAIDONG COUNTY is the ruling center of yoru, with principal and deputy jurben in charge of yoru affairs. Zanpu people often hold important activities in Yalong. At the beginning of the 8th century, Sangye, now Shannan, was one of the places where Zanpu yamen was located. Zanpu chisongdezan was born here. Chisongdezan has been in power for more than 40 years, and the Tubo power once flourished. At the same time, chisongdezan also built Sangye temple, Tibet's first temple with three treasures of Buddha, Dharma and monk, at the foot of habri mountain. Seven Tibetans were shaved as monks (namely "qijueshi"). Chisongdezan invited a large number of eminent monks from India and the Tang Dynasty to translate Buddhist scriptures, interpret doctrines and promote Buddhism in Sangye temple, which laid the foundation for the spread of Buddhism in Tibet.
Behind the prosperity of Tubo, the slaves and civilians suffered a lot. In 869, the civil uprising broke out. The areas of Naidong, qiongjie and Zhanang in the south of the mountain are the main targets of the rebel army. After the slave civilian uprising, 11 local forces were formed in Tibet. The separatist forces fought against each other for a long time, and the people were caught in the constant alternation of war and famine. Shannan city formed a local power separated by juewo king system. In the 11th century, some eminent monks, such as malba and Milarepa, founded the Kaju sect in Shannan. In 1156, pamuzhuba (abbreviated as pamuzhuba) established a school of its own among the Kaju school.
In the Southern Song Dynasty, the fourth year of Jiaxi (1240), Prince Kuo Duan of Mongolia sent troops to Tibet. Later, through the alliance of Liangzhou, Tibet was under the effective jurisdiction of the central government of the Yuan Dynasty, ending the 400 year old separatist situation in Tibet. In 1268, the central government of the Yuan Dynasty carried out the third household inventory in Tibet, which divided Tibet into 130000 households. Shannan is the territory of Pashu, Yasang, Yangzhuo, tangbuche and qiayu. There are 2438 households in the area of today's Zedang Town, 3000 households in the area of today's dongyadui, 750 households in the area of today's Langka County, 2950 households in the area of today's Longzi County, and 3000 households in the area of today's dongyadui in the area of Yasang, 750 households in the area of today's Langka County in the area of today's Yangzhuo, 2950 households in the area of today's Longzi County in the area of today's Qiangjie County in the area of today's tangbuqie. In the same year, Pazhu was granted the title of ten thousand households by the Yuan Dynasty. By the fifth king of France, Zaba Renqing began to hold the post of politics and religion on his own, and officially became the ruling entity of the unity of politics and religion.
In the Yuan Dynasty, in the second year of Yingzong's reign (1322), Qu jianzan was appointed head of pazhuwan. He made great efforts to build water conservancy, fertilize the whole field, develop agriculture and animal husbandry, and renovate roads and houses, making the Yalong River Valley prosperous. In 1354, Qu jianzan was sent to overthrow the local government of Sakya. He sent people to pay tribute to the imperial court and ask for a reward. In the Yuan Dynasty, he was granted the title of datu in charge of Tibet and took over the affairs of the local government in Tibet. After dasitujiangqu jianzan came to power, he abolished the system of ten thousand households, carried out the feudal serf manor system, set up 13 clans in Naidong, Gongga and other places, appointed each clan, and gave his subordinates large and small Sika. At the same time, the palaces of the local government of Pazhu were expanded in Naidong. The Pazhu regime lasted for 12 generations. It ruled Tibet for 262 years, and was replaced by the tixizang Ba regime.
In 1642, with the support of gushihan, the leader of Heshuote tribe of Mongolia, the fifth Dalai Lama overthrew the regime of Tishi zangba and established the local regime of "gandanpozhang". The fifth Dalai Lama, who was born in qiongjie, visited most of the mountain temples in Shannan. During the fifth Dalai Lama's reign, many famous monasteries in Shannan had been greatly renovated and expanded. During this period, the fifth Dalai Lama granted the legalist king of lagari the hereditary right to rule the place of lagari, which made lagari become semi independent from the relative independence in the period of Sakya and Pazhu regimes, and accepted the restriction of the Gelug Sect.
During the reign of the seventh Dalai gesangjiacuo, gaxia was established in 1751 according to the decree of Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty. Gaxia has two levels of organizations: Jiqiao and Zong. Shannanjiqiao governs more than 10 sects, among which Naidong, qiongjie and Gongga are under the direct supervision of the ministers in Tibet.
In the first year of the Republic of China (1912), the local government of Tibet set up Jiqiao, also known as Luoji, in Shannan. It was stationed in Zedang and governed 13 sects. After that, the administrative region of Shannan was adjusted several times. According to the size of Shannan Jiqiao school, it can be divided into three classes.
In 1951, shannanji had jurisdiction over Wenzong, duozong, SANGRI Zong, Longzi Zong, Woka Zong, jiayuxika, lagari, juelaxika, Naidong Zong, Cuona Zong, Sangye Zong, Zedang Zong, Gongga Zong, pozhangxika, duixika, qiongjiezong, yaduizong Zong, mendawang, zhaqixika, Langka Zong, zanang, lingxika, zheguxika, Baidi Zong, damaxika and xialuoxika There are 30 schools in total, namely, Lacan school, Majiang school, Shengge school and jiedexiu school. Later, jiachazong, lasuixi, gurulangjiezong, langzong, jindongxi and so on, which were assigned to Shannan Jiacha county and Lang County, belonged to ta Gong Jiqiao at that time. On May 23, 1951, Tibet was peacefully liberated. At the end of December 1951, the Finance Committee of the Tibet Working Committee of the Communist Party of China stationed Shannan purchasing station.
In 1952, the CPC Jiangzi sub working committee was established, and Shannan was under the jurisdiction of the CPC Jiangzi sub working committee.
On August 291956, Shannan Jiqiao office was established. By November, it had the offices of jiachazong, Longzi, Naidong, Gongga, lagari, duozong, qiongjie, zanao and Wenzong. In 1957, all religious offices were abolished. In April 1959, the Shannan regional military control committee was set up, which has jurisdiction over Jiacha, Longzi, Naidong, Gongga, lagari, duozong, qiongjie, zanang, Zhegu, luore, SANGRI and langzong.
On April 6, 1959, Shannan military control committee was set up to exercise military control over Shannan area, lead the anti rebel reform work in Shannan, and announce the dissolution of Shannan Jiqiao office and all Zongxi governments. In May, with the approval of the CPC Tibet Working Committee, Shannan was divided into 12 counties, 62 districts and 293 townships. On December 22, Shannan Commissioner's office was established.
In 1964, Dalong County, which is under the jurisdiction of Gyangze Prefecture, was incorporated into Langka, and Langka county was established. It was assigned to Shannan Prefecture, which has jurisdiction over 13 counties.
In 1967, the work of running social organizations in Shannan area was carried out in an all-round way. In March 1969, the Shannan Revolutionary Committee was established to replace the Communist Party of China
Chinese PinYin : Xi Cang Zi Zhi Qu Shan Nan Shi
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