Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture is one of the eight autonomous prefectures in Yunnan Province, and its capital is Jinghong City. Xishuangbanna is located at 21 ° 10 ′ - 22 ° 40 ′ n, 99 ° 55 ′ - 101 ° 50 ′ e, and at the northern edge of tropical zone south of Tropic of cancer. With an area of 19124.5 square kilometers, it borders on Pu'er City in the northeast and northwest, Laos in the southeast and Myanmar in the southwest, with a border of 966.3 kilometers. The highest point is huazhuliangzi in Mengsong Township, Menghai County, with an altitude of 2429 meters. The lowest point is the junction of Lancang River and Nanla River, with an altitude of 477 meters.
Xishuangbanna is located in the northern edge of the tropics and has a tropical monsoon climate. Xishuangbanna governs one county-level city and two counties. In 2017, Xishuangbanna has a permanent population of 1.18 million, including 778700 ethnic minorities. Dai is the main ethnic group, and there are 13 ethnic groups. In 2017, the GDP of Xishuangbanna was 39.38437 billion yuan, the per capita disposable income of urban permanent residents was 27201 yuan, and the per capita disposable income of rural permanent residents was 12043 yuan.
Xishuangbanna is the only tropical rain forest nature reserve in China. It is a national ecological demonstration area, a national scenic spot and a member of the United Nations biodiversity protection circle. The plant species account for 1 / 6 of the country, the animal species account for 1 / 4 of the country, and the forest coverage rate is 80.8%. It is the second largest natural rubber production base in China, the native place of big leaf tea and the hometown of Pu'er tea Xishuangbanna is one of the most popular tourist cities in China, which is famous for its tropical rain forest and ethnic customs.
Place name source
"Xishuangbanna" is Dai language, "Xishuang" is twelve, "Banna" means an administrative unit providing feudal taxes (literally translated as "12000 paddy fields"), actually refers to twelve administrative regions.
History of construction
Xishuangbanna was called Mengji in ancient times. The ancestors of Mengji were a branch of the ancient Yue people. It was under the jurisdiction of Yongchang County in the Three Kingdoms, the two Jin Dynasties and before. During the northern and Southern Dynasties, the 12 Dai tribes in Xishuangbanna, known as mengshe state, were all in Jingde, and were honored as the "king of heaven" in the heavenly Dynasty. From the 8th century to the 10th century, Mengji government was under the jurisdiction of Yinsheng Festival, the local government of Tang Dynasty.
In the thirtieth year of Shaoxing in the Southern Song Dynasty (1160), the Dai leader payazhen unified Menghe and established "Jinglong Jindian kingdom" in Jinghong, which was under the jurisdiction of Dali, the local government of the Southern Song Dynasty. Payazhen was granted the title of "co Lord" by the heavenly Dynasty and was granted the title of "king of the nine dragon river (Lancang River)" by the heavenly Dynasty.
After the Yuan Dynasty destroyed the Song Dynasty, Yunnan Province was set up, which was divided into 37 roads and 5 prefectures, and Mengji area was called "Cheli road". Since then, the chieftain system began to be implemented in Mengji area. In the second year of Yuanzhen (1296), the "Cheli road military and civilian general office" was set up in Cheli to govern Mengji area. In the fourth year of TAIDING (1327), the "Department of military and civilian propaganda and consolation in Cheli" was set up, and kanmeng was appointed as a propaganda and consolation envoy.
In 1570, the fourth year of emperor Mu Zong's reign in the Ming Dynasty, Zhao yingmeng, a Xuanwei envoy, divided the area under his jurisdiction into 12 "congratulatory circles", namely "Xishuangbanna", which is the origin of the name of Xishuangbanna.
In 1908, a war broke out between mengzha, Liushun and Dingzhen chieftains, Menghai, Menghun chieftains and Jinghong Xuanwei envoys in Xishuangbanna.
In the first year of the Republic of China (1912), on the basis of the Tusi system, the "Pusi border administration bureau" was established. Xishuangbanna was divided into eight administrative regions. Ke Shuxun served as the general director, which successively belonged to South Yunnan Road and Puer road.
In 1927, seven counties including Cheli, Fohai, Wufu (Nanqiao), Xiangming, Puwen, Lushan (Liushun), Zhenyue and Linjiang administrative region were set up, belonging to Pu'er road.
In 1948, it was the office of the seventh district administrative inspector (in Pu'er).
On February 17, 1950, the whole territory of Xishuangbanna was liberated. Cheli, Fohai, Nanqiao and Zhenyue counties successively established County People's governments, subordinate to the Pu'er special area.
On January 23, 1953, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Region was officially established. The capital of the autonomous region is located in Jinghong. The autonomous region is under the leadership of Pu'er Commissioner's Office (renamed Simao Commissioner's office after 1955) entrusted by Yunnan Provincial People's government. On May 6, the second (enlarged) meeting of the people's Government of the autonomous region abolished the establishment of Cheli, Fohai, Nanqiao and Zhenyue counties according to the central and provincial approval documents. According to the traditional customs, the area was divided into 12 Banna, two ethnic autonomous regions, one district and one production and cultural station, that is, Jinghong, Mengyang, Menglong, mengwang, Menghai, Menghun, menga, mengzha and Xixi There are 12 Banna governments in Ding, Mengla, mengbang and Yiwu, and 12 Banna governments in Gelang and Hani Autonomous Region (under the leadership of Menghai in Banna), Yiwu Yao Autonomous Region (under the leadership of Yiwu in Banna), Bulang mountain area (under the leadership of Menghun in Banna) and jinuoluo production and Culture Station (under the leadership of Mengyang in Banna).
In June 1955, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Region was changed into Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture. On July 12, 1957, the State Council approved the merger of the twelve banners into county-level Banna Jinghong, Banna Menghai, Banna mengzha, Banna Yiwu and Banna Mengla.
On July 30, 1959, the Banna system was abolished, and the Banna system of five counties was changed into Jinghong County, Menghai county and Mengla County.
In August 1973, with the approval of the State Council, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture was directly led by the Yunnan Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Yunnan Provincial Revolutionary Committee. Since then, Xishuangbanna Prefecture and Simao Prefecture were set up separately to exercise the functions and powers of the Autonomous Prefecture.
On December 22, 1993, with the approval of the State Council, Jinghong county was abolished and Jinghong City was established (on February 12, 1994, the Municipal People's government was established).
Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture governs three county-level administrative regions, including one county-level city and two counties, namely Jinghong City, Menghai county and Mengla County. In addition, there are Xishuangbanna tourist resort, Mengla (Mohan) key development and Opening Experimental Zone (Mohan boting Economic Cooperation Zone, Laos, China) and Jinghong Industrial Park. The people's Government of Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture is located at 69 Xuanwei Avenue, Jinghong City.
Xishuangbanna is located at 21 ° 10 ′ - 22 ° 40 ′ n, 99 ° 55 ′ - 101 ° 50 ′ e, and at the northern edge of tropical zone south of Tropic of cancer. With an area of 19124.5 square kilometers, it borders on Pu'er City in the northeast and northwest, Laos in the southeast and Myanmar in the southwest, with a border of 966.3 kilometers. The highest point is huazhuliangzi in Mengsong Township, Menghai County, with an altitude of 2429 meters. The lowest point is the junction of Lancang River and Nanla River, with an altitude of 477 meters.
Xishuangbanna spans two fold systems, Tanggula Changdu Lanping Simao and Gongshan Tengchong, with Lancangjiang fault as the boundary. The former is Banpo anticline and Dehua syncline, and the latter occupies the southeast end of Lincang Menghai fold system.
Banpo anticline is mainly composed of Mesozoic flysch like formation, intermediate acid and basic volcanic formation, accompanied by molasse formation. Red formation is sporadically exposed, and Cenozoic molasse formation is unconformity. In Dehua synclinorium, the Mesozoic red formation is widely distributed, with molasse formation, carbonate formation and coal bearing clastic formation locally. The Proterozoic Lancang group and Damenglong metamorphic rocks are exposed in the southeast end of Lincang Menghai fold. The Variscan Indosinian Menghai granitic batholith occupies a large space.
Xishuangbanna is located in the southern extension of Hengduan Mountains and the end of the Nujiang, Lancang and Jinshajiang fold systems. About 95% of the area is hilly, and about 5% is Intermountain basin (Bazi) and river valley bottom. It is high around the prefecture, low in the middle, high in the northwest and low in the southeast. Taking Lancang River as the boundary, it is divided into three geomorphic regions: Central, Western and Eastern. Wuliang Mountains in the east run through the northeast of Jinghong City and Mengla County, with an altitude of 1000-1500 meters. In the west, the Nujiang mountains are distributed throughout Menghai county. Except for a few basins and low mountains with pearly facies, most of them are cut mountains, with altitude of 1500-2000 meters. The middle part of the basin is eroded by the lower reaches of Lancang River and its tributaries and cut into many open low Gorges and wide valley basins surrounded by mountains, which are concentrated in the West and south of Jinghong City and the south of Mengla County. The terrain is relatively flat, with an altitude of 500-1000 meters.
Xishuangbanna belongs to the original mountain landform with highly cut terrain. The highest point is huazhuliangzi in the northeast of Menghai, with an altitude of 2429.5 meters, and the lowest point is Lancang River Valley in the southwest of lianggejiao, Mengla County, with an altitude of 470 meters.
The rivers in Xishuangbanna belong to Lancang River system. There are 2761 large and small rivers, with a total river network of 12177 km and a river network density of 0.633 km2. The region is rich in water resources, with a total of 14.5 billion cubic meters.
Lancang River originates from Zhaqu of gangguori peak in Tanggula mountains, Qinghai Province, China. It has been called Lancang River since Changdu. It has a total length of 2354 kilometers and a drainage area of 165000 square kilometers, of which 2198 kilometers are in China. It is the longest north-south river in China. The main stream of Lancang River in Jinghong City has a total length of 174 kilometers, a drainage area of 7093 square kilometers, and an annual runoff of 5.789 billion cubic meters. The maximum flow is 12800 m3 / s in September, the minimum flow is 359 m3 / s in April, and the annual average flow is 1845 m3 / s
Chinese PinYin : Yun Nan Sheng Xi Shuang Ban Na Dai Zu Zi Zhi Zhou
Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province
Hulunbuir City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Nei Meng Gu Zi Zhi Qu Hu Lun Bei Er Shi
Dandong City, Liaoning Province. Liao Ning Sheng Dan Dong Shi
Chaoyang City, Liaoning Province. Liao Ning Sheng Chao Yang Shi
Lianyungang City, Jiangsu Province. Jiang Su Sheng Lian Yun Gang Shi
Huangshi City, Hubei Province. Hu Bei Sheng Huang Shi Shi
Nanchong City, Sichuan Province. Si Chuan Sheng Nan Chong Shi
Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province. Yun Nan Sheng De Hong Dai Zu Jing Po Zu Zi Zhi Zhou
Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province. Yun Nan Sheng Di Qing Cang Zu Zi Zhi Zhou
Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province. Qing Hai Sheng Yu Shu Cang Zu Zi Zhi Zhou
Wuzhong City, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Ning Xia Hui Zu Zi Zhi Qu Wu Zhong Shi
Tacheng District, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Xin Jiang Wei Wu Er Zi Zhi Qu Ta Cheng Di Qu
County level administrative divisions of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Xin Jiang Wei Wu Er Zi Zhi Qu Zi Zhi Qu Zhi Xia Xian Ji Hang Zheng Qu Hua