Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, with its capital in Enshi, is one of the 13 prefecture level administrative regions in Hubei Province. It is located in the southwest of Hubei Province, at the intersection of Hubei, Hunan and Chongqing provinces (cities), 108 ° 23 ′ 12 ″ - 110 ° 38 ′ 08 ″ E and 29 ° 07 ′ 10 ″ - 31 ° 24 ′ 13 ″ n. It is adjacent to Qianjiang District of Chongqing in the west, Wanzhou District of Chongqing in the north, Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Xiangxi in Hunan Province in the south, and Shennongjia forest region and Yichang City in the East. Enshi Prefecture, founded on August 19, 1983, is the only autonomous prefecture of minority nationalities in Hubei Province, with 29 nationalities including Tujia, Miao, Dong, Han, Hui, Mongolian, Yi, Naxi and Zhuang. At the same time, it is one of the three prefecture level administrative regions that enjoy relevant policies.
The forest coverage rate of Enshi Prefecture is nearly 70%, and Enshi Prefecture enjoys the titles of "forest sea in Western Hubei", "Chinese medicine storehouse", "tobacco kingdom" and "selenium capital of the world". The theoretical reserve of hydropower resources in Quanzhou is 6 million kilowatts, the exploitable reserve is 5 million kilowatts, and the reserve of wind power resources is 3 million kilowatts. It is an important clean energy base in Central China. The western Hubei iron mine in Enshi Prefecture is one of the four major iron mines in China, with proven reserves of 1.3 billion tons and predicted reserves of 4 billion tons. The proven reserves of natural gas are 150 billion cubic meters, and the predicted resources are 1.5 trillion cubic meters. Enshi also has the largest independent Selenium Deposit in the world.
Enshi Prefecture belongs to subtropical monsoon mountain humid climate. It has four distinct seasons with less winter and no severe heat in summer, abundant rainfall, large altitude difference, obvious microclimate characteristics, and prominent vertical difference. The average annual temperature in Enshi Prefecture is 16.2 ℃, and the average annual precipitation is 1600 mm. Located between Wuhan and Chongqing, it is one of the most suitable areas for human beings to live in.
In the spring and Autumn period, it belonged to Bazi; in the Warring States period, it belonged to Chu; in Qin Dynasty, it belonged to Qianzhong County; in Han Dynasty, it belonged to Nanjun county and Wuling County; in the Three Kingdoms, it belonged to Shu first and then to wujianping county and Wuling County; in the Jin Dynasty and the northern and Southern Dynasties, it belonged to Jianping County, Tianmen County, Wuling County, Xinling County, Zigui County, Yezhou juntun county and Qingjiang County; in Sui Dynasty, it belonged to Badong County, Qingjiang County, Qingjiang County, Kaiyi county and Jianshi County; in Tang Dynasty, it belonged to Qianzhong county It belongs to Badong County of Guizhou, Qingjiang County of Shizhou and Jianshi County of Shizhou; it was occupied by the former and later Shu in the Five Dynasties; it belongs to Badong County of Guizhou in Song Dynasty, Qingjiang county and Jianshi County of Shizhou, and many small Jimi prefectures such as Chenzhou, Fuzhou, Gaozhou and Dingzhou; it belongs to Badong County of Guizhou and Jianshi County of Shizhou in Yuan Dynasty, and Tusi system was implemented in southern minority areas, including Sanmao Tusi, Tangya Tusi, Jindong Tusi and Longtan Tusi In the late Yuan Dynasty, Yuzhen was under the control of Shu; in the Ming Dynasty, it belonged to Jianshi County, Guizhou Badong County, Shizhou Wei military and civil command department; in the southern region, the chieftain system was still implemented, with Rongmei Xuanwei department, Shinan, Sanmao, Zhongjian three Xuanfu department, nine appeasement department, 13 officer department, and five barbarian officer department.
In the early Qing Dynasty, the system of Ming Dynasty was followed. In 1728, the prefecture of Enshi county was set up. In the 13th year of Yongzheng, the prefecture of Enshi county was changed. In 1736, the first year of Qianlong, Jianshi County of Kuizhou belonged to Shizhou, and Badong County and Hefeng Prefecture belonged to Yichang Prefecture.
In 1912, Daocun county was set up. In the fourth year of the Republic of China, Enshi county was set up. Enshi County, Jianshi County, Xuanen County, Laifeng County, Xianfeng County and Lichuan County were governed. In the 15th year of the Republic of China, Jingnan road was changed to Shihe road. Hefeng Prefecture was changed into Shihe road. In the 17th year of the Republic of China, Western Hubei administrative region was set up. In the 21st year of the Republic of China, Badong County was changed into the tenth administrative supervision region It is governed by 8 counties. In the 25th year of the Republic of China, it was changed into the seventh administrative supervision district, and its jurisdiction remained unchanged.
After the founding of the people's Republic of China, Enshi county was liberated on November 6, 1949, and Enshi administrative region of Hubei Province was established. The Commissioner's office was set up, which still governs the original eight counties. On May 12, 1955, it was renamed Enshi Commissioner's office of Hubei Province. In the cultural revolution, the rebels seized power on January 30, 1967, and the special office was paralyzed. On March 2, with the approval of the Party committee of the military region of Hubei Province, Enshi military division established the office of grasping revolution and promoting production, and on May 13, it was changed into the headquarters of grasping revolution and promoting production. In 1968, Enshi regional Revolutionary Committee of Hubei Province was established, and in 1978, Enshi regional administrative office was established.
On August 19, 1983, the State Council approved the cancellation of Enshi regional administrative office and established the Tujia Miao Autonomous Prefecture in Western Hubei. On December 1, it was officially established, with seven counties and one city under the jurisdiction of Enshi City, Badong, Jianshi, Lichuan, Laifeng, Xianfeng, Xuanen and Hefeng. On November 14, 1986, Lichuan withdrew its county and established a city.
On April 4, 1993, the State Council approved to change the name of Tujia Miao Autonomous Prefecture in Western Hubei Province to Enshi Tujia Miao Autonomous Prefecture.
Since 2005, the state day is August 19.
According to the information released by the government network of Enshi Autonomous Prefecture in March 2019, Enshi Prefecture governs Enshi and Lichuan, and Jianshi, Badong, Xuanen, Xianfeng, Laifeng and Hefeng. There are 88 Township, town and sub district offices in the prefecture, including 46 townships, 37 towns and 5 offices; 2627 village and residents' committees, including 2543 villagers' committees; 23510 village and residents' groups, including 22662 villagers' groups.
Enshi Prefecture is located in the southwest of Hubei Province, at the intersection of Hunan, Hubei and Chongqing provinces (cities), 108 ° 23 ′ 12 ″ - 110 ° 38 ′ 08 ″ E and 29 ° 07 ′ 10 ″ - 31 ° 24 ′ 13 ″ n. It is adjacent to Qianjiang District of Chongqing in the west, Wanzhou District of Chongqing in the north, Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Xiangxi in Hunan in the south, Shennongjia forest region in the northeast and Yichang City in the East. The distance between the East and the west is about 220 kilometers, and the distance between the north and the south is about 260 kilometers.
It is composed of Wushan mountain, the southern branch of Daba Mountain in the north, Wuling Mountain, the branch of Miaoling mountain in the southeast and middle, and Qiyue mountain, the northern extension of daluoshan mountain in the West. The terrain of Quanzhou is a state of three mountains, high in the north, northwest and Southeast, gradually inclined to the middle and South and relatively low. The basic features of the landform are: the development of stepped landform. Affected by the intermittent activity of neotectonic movement, a large area uplifted into mountains, partially faulted, and deposited to form multi-level planation and Intermountain Valley faulted basin. In addition to a small area of mountain land with an altitude of more than 3000 meters in the northeast, there are five planation surfaces with different areas, such as 2000-1700 meters, 1500-1300 meters, 1200-1000 meters, 900-800 meters, 700-500 meters, and one to two river valley terraces. There are obvious layered landforms. Karst landform is developed, and valleys are scattered among mountains. The area of carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite) accounts for 54.4% of the total area in Quanzhou. The exposed carbonate rocks are affected by the warm and rainy climate of Quanzhou. Karst landform development, stone bud, karst cave, funnel, valley cultivation and undercurrent are everywhere.
Enshi belongs to subtropical monsoon and monsoon humid climate, characterized by less severe cold in winter, no severe heat in summer, more or less fog, humid all year round, abundant precipitation and hot rain in the same period. However, due to the complexity of the terrain and the great disparity between the high and low terrain, there are extremely obvious vertical regional differences in climate.
The annual average temperature is 16.3 ℃ in the low mountains, 13.4 ℃ in the two high mountains and 7.8 ℃ in the high mountains; the annual precipitation is 1100-1300 mm in the southeast, 1000-1900 mm in the northwest and 1400-1600 mm in the middle; the annual average sunshine is 1300 hours in the low mountains, 1200-1350 hours in the two high mountains and 1000-1350 hours in the high mountains; the frost free period is 238-348 days in the low mountains and 237-1350 days in the two high mountains The relative humidity was 82% in low mountain, 85% in second mountain and 82% in high mountain.
There are 45 rivers with a drainage area of more than 100 square kilometers in Quanzhou, including Qingjiang River, Youshui River, Yandu River, loushui River, Tangyan River, Yujiang River, Zhongjian River (also known as Gongshui River), Mashui River and Yesanhe river with a total length of 1154 kilometers and a total drainage area of 21801 square kilometers. The total amount of water resources in the prefecture is 29.98 billion cubic meters. According to the measured data for many years and the annual runoff data of 12 runoff stations (divided by 8 districts), the average annual runoff of the whole Prefecture is 23.363 billion cubic meters. The karst development in this prefecture is strong, there are many underground rivers, and the groundwater reserves are rich. The type is fissure karst water, and the reserves are 6.4 billion cubic meters, accounting for 21.4% of the total water resources in this prefecture. The theoretical reserve of hydropower resources in the prefecture is 5.09 million kilowatts, and the exploitable capacity is 3.491 million kilowatts.
Famous water control projects: Shuibuya water control project and Dalongtan water control project.
In 2010, the total land area of the Prefecture was 2406026.47 hectares, which was consistent with the data at the end of 2009, including 453213.37 hectares of cultivated land, an annual increase of 107.33 hectares; 55954.39 hectares of garden land, an annual decrease of 178.18 hectares; 1662848.71 hectares of forest land, an annual decrease of 668.91 hectares; and 4 hectares of grassland
Chinese PinYin : Hu Bei Sheng En Shi Tu Jia Zu Miao Zu Zi Zhi Zhou
Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Hubei Province
Baoding City, Hebei Province. He Bei Sheng Bao Ding Shi
Taiyuan City, Shanxi Province. Shan Xi Sheng Tai Yuan Shi
Taizhou City, Jiangsu Province. Jiang Su Sheng Tai Zhou Shi
Tongling City, Anhui Province. An Hui Sheng Tong Ling Shi
Chizhou Anhui . An Hui Sheng Chi Zhou Shi
Xiamen City, Fujian Province. Fu Jian Sheng Sha Men Shi
Dezhou City, Shandong Province. Shan Dong Sheng De Zhou Shi
Heze City, Shandong Province. Shan Dong Sheng He Ze Shi
Xinyang City, Henan Province. He Nan Sheng Xin Yang Shi
Ezhou City, Hubei Province. Hu Bei Sheng E Zhou Shi
Mianyang City, Sichuan Province. Si Chuan Sheng Mian Yang Shi
Haidong City, Qinghai Province. Qing Hai Sheng Hai Dong Shi