Zhoushan, a prefecture level city in Zhejiang Province, is one of the 27 cities in the central area of the Yangtze River Delta. It is located in the northeast of Zhejiang Province, adjacent to the East China Sea in the East, Hangzhou Bay in the West and Shanghai in the north. The terrain inclines from southwest to northeast. The southern island is large, with high altitude and dense arrangement. The northern island is small, with low terrain and sparse distribution. Surrounded by the sea, it has a subtropical monsoon climate, warm in winter and cool in summer, mild and humid, and sufficient light. Zhoushan has jurisdiction over two districts and two counties, 182 kilometers long from east to west and 169 kilometers wide from north to south, with a total area of 22200 square kilometers, of which the sea area is 20800 square kilometers. Zhoushan Island is the largest island in Zhoushan Archipelago and the fourth largest island in China.
Zhoushan, backed by Shanghai, Hangzhou, Ningbo and other large and medium-sized cities and the vast hinterland of the Yangtze River Delta, faces the Pacific Ocean and has strong geographical advantages. It is located at the junction of China's north-south coastal routes and the Yangtze River waterway. It is a maritime gateway and channel for the opening up of the Yangtze River Basin and the Yangtze River Delta. It radiates in a fan-shaped manner with the emerging port cities in the Asia Pacific region and has a number of ports approved by the State Council Established bulk commodity trading management and supervision center.
In 2019, the annual GDP will be 137.16 billion yuan, an increase of 9.2% over the previous year. According to the resident population, the per capita GDP is 117000 yuan, which is converted to 17000 US dollars according to the annual average exchange rate, higher than the national and provincial average level. According to the city's 5 ‰ population sampling survey in 2019, the city's permanent resident population at the end of the year was 1.176 million, about 3000 more than that at the end of the previous year, and the urbanization rate was 68.6%.
In the spring and Autumn period, it belonged to Yue and was called "Yongdong".
In the Warring States period, Chu destroyed Yue, so it belonged to Chu.
In the 25th year of the reign of the king of Qin (222 BC), Yongdong was in the east of Huixian County, Kuaiji county.
Han Dynasty, Three Kingdoms (Wu), Jin Dynasty, Song Dynasty (Southern Dynasty), Qi Dynasty, Liang Dynasty and Chen Dynasty.
In 589, kuiji county was abolished, and Yin, Wei and Yuyao counties were merged into jurzhang county. Yongdong county was merged into jurzhang County along with Wei county.
In the fourth year of Wude (621) of Tang Dynasty, Yinzhou was established in jurzhang, Yinzhou, and Yongdong was returned to Yinzhou. In the eighth year, Yinzhou was abolished and set up as a county in Yongdong. In the 26th year of Kaiyuan (738), Qi Shu, an interview envoy of Jiangnan's host country, invited him to analyze the county area of Yue State, and set up four counties: Shu, Cixi, Fenghua and wengshan (now Dinghai). Wengshan county was established in the east of ancient Ningbo, with three townships of Fudu, ANQI and Penglai under its jurisdiction. Wang Shutong, the magistrate of Wei County, was also the first magistrate of wengshan county. In the first year of Baoying (762), wengshan set up a rich capital supervisor, who was subordinate to the salt and iron envoys of the imperial court. Yuan Chao led the uprising army to occupy wengshan. Wengshan county was abandoned in the sixth year of Dali (771), belonging to the county of Wei. In 909, Mingzhou was promoted to Wanghai and Xian County was changed to Yin county. Fuwengshan county was separated from the original wengshan region, which was subordinate to the Wanghai Navy.
In 978, wengshan was abandoned and entered Yinxian county. End arch two years (989) set inspection department. In July of the sixth year of Xining (1073), Wang Anshi, the former magistrate of Yin County, analyzed the three townships of Fudu, ANQI and Penglai in Yin County, and established the county government, which was named Changguo county.
In 1278, the county was upgraded to a prefecture because of its "dangerous sea lanes" and "double registered permanent residence".
In 1369, changguozhou was changed into a county. Hongwu 12 years (1379), set up the state of Chang Shouyu thousand households. In the 17th year, it set up changguowei. Hongwu 20 years (1387) in June, the abolition of Changguo County, home Changguo township. He moved to the South Tianmen Mountain in Xiangshan County. In 1392, Zhoushan was transformed into Haiwei.
In 1684, the imperial court issued the "Sea Exhibition order" to open the sea ban. Zhoushan began to recover and fishery and agriculture gradually flourished. The chief of Dinghai town was transferred to Zhoushan and Zhoushan town was built. In May of the 26th year of Kangxi, Emperor Kangxi changed "Zhoushan" to "dinghaishan" and inscribed "dinghaishan" with a plaque. In 1688, the 27th year of Kangxi reign, Dinghai county was established. In 1840, the Opium War broke out and Dinghai fell. In February 1841, the British army retreated from Dinghai. Ge Yunfei, commander in chief of Dinghai Town, Wang Xipeng, commander in chief of Shouchun Town, and Zheng Guohong, commander in chief of Chuzhou Town, led 3000 troops to rebuild Dinghai defense. In April, Dinghai county was upgraded to Zhili hall.
After the revolution of 1911, Dinghai county was newly established.
In July 1949, the CPC Dinghai County Committee and the people's Government of Dinghai county were established in ZhuangQiao, Ningbo.
On May 17, 1950, after the liberation of Dinghai, the people's Government of Dinghai County moved to Chengguan.
On June 10, 1953, with the approval of the State Council, Dinghai county was divided into Dinghai County, Putuo county and Daishan County, which was divided into Shengsi county and Zhoushan special area was established.
In March 1976, Zhoushan area was renamed Zhoushan area.
In September 1978, Zhoushan district administrative office was established.
In January 1987, Zhoushan Prefecture was abolished and Zhoushan City was established, with jurisdiction over Dinghai and Putuo districts and Daishan and Shengsi counties.
As of 2016, Zhoushan has two municipal districts (Dinghai District and Putuo District) and two counties (Daishan County and Shengsi county). Zhoushan Municipal government is located in Lincheng New Area.
Zhoushan City is located in the East China Sea area of the Yangtze River Estuary and the outer edge of Hangzhou Bay. Zhoushan archipelago is composed of Shengsi archipelago, Ma'an archipelago, rugged archipelago, Chuanhu archipelago, zhongjieshan archipelago, Langgangshan archipelago, qizhibamei archipelago, volcanic archipelago and Meishan archipelago. The geographical coordinates are between 121 ° 30 ′ - 123 ° 25 ′ E and 29 ° 32 ′ - 31 ° 04 ′ n. It is adjacent to the Pacific Ocean in the East, Xiangshan County in the south, Hangzhou Bay in the West and Shanghai City in the north. The territory is 182 kilometers long from east to west and 169 kilometers wide from north to south, with a total area of 22200 square kilometers, of which the sea area is 20800 square kilometers. There are 4696 islands and reefs, with a total land area of 1440.2 square kilometers and 1390 islands.
Zhoushan Island is the largest island in Zhoushan Archipelago and the fourth largest island in China. According to the unified map of the Qing Dynasty, the largest island in China is Sakhalin Island in the northeast, which is bigger than Taiwan Island, Hainan Island and Chongming Island combined. In 1860, tsarist Russia forced the Qing government to cede the island through the Sino Russian Beijing treaty. Since then, China's largest island in history has become Russia's largest island, China's largest island has changed from Sakhalin Island to Taiwan Island, China's fourth largest island has changed from Chongming Island to Zhoushan Island, and Zhoushan Island, formerly China's fifth largest island, has become China's fourth largest island.
The geological structure of Zhoushan City is complex. Most of the strata are covered by Mesozoic Jurassic and Cretaceous volcanic sedimentary rocks, with occasional outcrops of Upper Paleozoic metamorphic rock series and Cenozoic quaternary distributed on the edge of each island. Mesozoic volcanic rocks are widely distributed in the area, including volcanic eruptions, intrusive rocks and metamorphic rocks. The archipelago is arranged from southwest to northeast, the terrain inclines from southwest to northeast, the southern island is large, the altitude is high, and the arrangement is dense; the northern island is small, the terrain is low, and the distribution is sparse. On the island, the hills are undulating, with 9% of high hills, 61% of low hills and 30% of plain, forming different soil types and agricultural utilization patterns. Taohua island is the highest peak, 544 meters above sea level. Most of the island peaks are below 200 meters above sea level, and the South half is 400 meters below sea level. The total length of coastline is 2444 km, including 1855 km of Bedrock Coast, 530 km of artificial coast (seawall), 50 km of gravel coast and 13 km of muddy coast (mudflat). The water depth is more than 15 meters, the coastline is 200.7 kilometers, and the water depth is more than 20 meters, the coastline is 103.7 kilometers.
Surrounded by the sea, Zhoushan archipelago has a subtropical monsoon climate, warm in winter and cool in summer, mild and humid, and abundant light. The annual average temperature is about 16 ℃. The average temperature is 25.8-28.0 ℃ in the hottest August and 5.2-5.9 ℃ in the coldest January. The annual precipitation is 927-1620 mm. The annual average sunshine is 1941-2257 hours, the total solar radiation is 4126 × 10 ⁶ J ~ 4598 × 10 ⁶ J / m2, and the frost free period is 251-303 days. It is suitable for the reproduction and growth of various biological communities and provides quite favorable conditions for fishery and agricultural production. The natural purification ability of air is strong, and the change of temperature difference is small. Due to the influence of monsoon instability, it is easy to be attacked by tropical storms (typhoons) in summer and autumn. It is windy in winter and dry in July and August. It is a common disastrous weather in Zhoushan.
Zhoushan City has complex hydrological conditions, undeveloped surface water system, mostly from the hinterland of hills, meandering radially into the sea. Affected by the scale of the island, the water system has short flow and small catchment area. Affected by the rainstorm, the water level rises and falls sharply, which is easy to cause mountain torrents and other natural disasters.
The coastal tide is an irregular semidiurnal tide. The tidal current is characterized by back flow in the past. The upwelling tide is westward and the downwelling tide is eastward. The velocity of the upwelling tide is greater than that of the downwelling tide. The tides and typhoon waves have a great influence on the island coast, especially in the intertidal zone.
Zhoushan belongs to Zhoushan District in the southeast coastal area of South China stratigraphic area. The exposed strata are mainly upper Jurassic and Quaternary. The upper Jurassic is mainly composed of intermediate acid acid pyroclastic rocks with a small amount of acid lava and volcanic sedimentary rocks, belonging to calc alkaline series or weak alkaline rock series. Quaternary loose sediments are distributed in marine and alluvial plain areas and piedmont gullies, and their thickness varies greatly.
Zhoushan is located in the northeast of Lishui Ningbo uplift Xinchang Dinghai fault uplift in southeast Zhejiang fold belt of South China fold system. It is also the northern part of Yanshanian volcanic activity belt along Zhejiang Fujian coast. The NNE trending Wenzhou Zhenhai fault zone passes through the Western sea area of the mapping area. The EW trending Changhua Putuo fault zone is located in the south of the mapping area, Longquan
Chinese PinYin : Zhe Jiang Sheng Zhou Shan Shi
Zhoushan City, Zhejiang Province
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