Zhangye, known as Ganzhou in ancient times, is a prefecture level city under the jurisdiction of Gansu Province, a tourism center city and an important trade and circulation hub in Hexi region approved by Gansu Provincial People's government, and one of the agricultural and sideline products processing and energy bases in Gansu Province. By the end of 2019, it has jurisdiction over one district and five counties, covering a total area of 38600 square kilometers, with a permanent resident population of 1237600 and an urban population of 600800. There are 38 ethnic groups, including Han, Yugu, Tibetan, Mongolian and Hui. Among them, the Yugu ethnic group in Qilian Mountains is the unique ethnic minority in China.
Zhangye is located in the northwest of China, the northwest of Gansu Province, and the middle of Hexi corridor. It is an important ecological security barrier in the west of China, a national modern agricultural demonstration area, the largest corn seed production area in China, and an important production base of grain, vegetables, melons and fruits, oil, cattle and sheep in China.
Zhangye has been an important business town and throat of the Silk Road since ancient times. Zhangye is named after "Zhangguo banye, connecting the western regions". Ganzhou is the origin of the word "Gan" in Gansu Province. Zhangye is known as "Jiangnan on the Great Wall" and "golden Zhangye". It has both the natural beauty of "half city reed" and the historical style of "half city tower shadow". It has two national nature reserves and has been rated as a national famous historical and cultural city, an excellent tourist city in China and a pilot city of national ecological civilization demonstration project. Zhangye National Geopark has been rated as one of the top ten wonders of the world by National Geographic magazine.
There are many places of interest in the city, such as Dafo temple, Muta temple, TUTA temple, Xilai temple, MATI temple, Zhenyuan building, Shanxi guild hall, Minqin guild hall, Heishui state site and so on.
In 1954, archaeologist an Zhimin discovered the sibatan site, about 4000 years ago, 6 kilometers south of Shandan County, Zhangye City. It belongs to the Majiayao culture at the end of Neolithic age. At the same time, he discovered the bronze statue of the ancestors who founded Zhangye nearly a thousand years ago. On its back, there can be a seal character: Yangyang Zhangye. ；
In 1984 and 1987, stone axes and painted pottery of the Neolithic age were discovered at the Heishui state site in Zhangye;
In July 1987, the Gansu Provincial Cultural Relics team excavated a large number of archaeological materials, such as ground stone tools, pottery, carbonized grain grains, and tooth bones of pigs, cattle, sheep, and deer, at the donghuishan site, 3 kilometers northeast of Liuba Township, Minle County, Zhangye City. It is proved that the ancestors of Zhangye had been engaged in primitive agricultural production and animal husbandry in the Neolithic age more than 5000 years ago Stone spinning wheels spin, make clothes, make colored pottery, and begin to use bronze.
In the first year of Emperor Yu of Xia Dynasty, Zhangye belonged to the territory of Yongzhou in Yugong and the ruins of Xirong. Yu granted his son to Xirong and became the leader from generation to generation.
In the 13th year of King Mu of Zhou Dynasty, Jigong led his division to the West with King Mu, and Xirong surrendered.
Before the Han Dynasty (206-220 BC), the Yueshi kingdom was dominated by the Qilian Mountains in Dunhuang, and Zhangye was its territory.
During the Western Zhou Dynasty, Rong and Di people lived here.
During the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, Wusun and Yueshi lived together in Hexi. After that, Yueshi lived alone.
During the Qin and Han Dynasties, the Xiongnu in the North became strong, defeated and drove away the Yues, and Hexi became the territory of Youxian king of Xiongnu. The East and west of Heihe River were respectively led by King XiuTu and King hunxie.
In the Western Han Dynasty, in the second year of Yuanshou (121 BC), Huo Qubing, a general of Hushi, marched into Hexi and defeated Xiongnu. Hunxie and XiuTu led the people to return to the Han Dynasty. In the sixth year of the reign of emperor Ding of the Han Dynasty (111 BC), Zhangye county was established with the meaning of "Zhangguo arm ye, in order to reach the western regions".
In the first year of the founding of the people's Republic of China (9 years), Wang Mang abolished the Han Dynasty and established a new one, which changed the names of counties and counties. Zhangye county was renamed as Pingjun County, and Chen county was renamed as an official.
In the 27th year of Jianwu, Emperor Guangwu Liu Xiu ordered the counties to restore their old names. Zhangye county and its counties were restored to their original names.
In the first year of Jiankang (144), there were 180 earthquakes in Zhangye, Wuwei, Longxi, Hanyang, Beidi and Wudu since last September. The valley cracked, the temple was destroyed, the people were killed and injured, and the air situation was heavy. Emperor Shun issued an imperial edict and sent doctor Guanglu to visit Zhangye to comfort the people.
Xiandi Xingping first year (194) in June, divided into Zhangye County rile, Shandan home West County.
During the period of Jin Dynasty and southern and Northern Dynasties, Juqu Mengxun established Beiliang state in Zhangye, with capital Jiankang (today's camel city in Gaotai County). He took measures such as developing agriculture, promoting Confucianism, expanding cultural exchanges with western regions, inheriting and carrying forward Han culture, promoting Buddhism, translating Buddhist scriptures, digging grottoes, and combining local music, song and dance with kuci music to create a new music "Qin and Han Ji" Zhangye culture presented an unprecedented prosperity and became the center of Buddhism in northern China. At the same time, Zhangye became the intermediary of communication and trade between Mainland China and western regions. In the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-535), qinhanji was introduced into the Central Plains, known as Xiliang music, and became the "national skill" of the northern court; Zhangye's Buddhist music was introduced into the Central Plains, known as Xiliang Zhoubei, and became the music of Buddhist temples in the Northern Dynasty. In 554, Zhangye was changed to Ganzhou because of Ganquan.
During the Tang Dynasty, agricultural production was vigorously developed, "opening up farmland, making the best use of land and water, achieving a good harvest of rice, and accumulating military grain for decades.". The international trade status of Hexi has reached an unprecedented peak, and Zhangye has become an important place for China's foreign trade. Economic prosperity promotes cultural prosperity. Xuanzang, a famous monk, went to India (Tianzhu) to learn Buddhist Scriptures through Zhangye. Chen Zi'ang, a poet, visited Zhangye and wrote "Shangjian wuhoushu". Wang Wei, Gao Shi, cen Shen and Ma yunqi all left famous poems in Ganzhou. After the introduction of Ganzhou music "bolomen Buddhist music" into the court, Tang Xuanzong changed it into "Ni Shang Yu Yi dance music". After entering the Central Plains, Ganzhou frontier songs became Jiaofang Daqu. The cipai and Qupai named after ganzhoupo, ganzhouzi, basheng Ganzhou and ganzhouqu spread widely. At the end of the Tang Dynasty, Zhangye had a close relationship with the Central Plains and the western regions, developed trade through mutual market, and the Buddhist culture was further exchanged with monks.
In the Five Dynasties, in the first year of Qianhua in the Later Liang Dynasty (911), Ganzhou Uighur attacked Shazhou, and Zhang Chengfeng made an alliance under the city and took Uighur Khan as his father. In June of the second year of Tongguang (924) of Zhuangzong in the later Tang Dynasty, the Uighur envoys in Ganzhou sent tribute to the later Tang Dynasty, and conferred the title of Wang Renmei as Yingyi Khan. In the third year of emperor Tiancheng (928), the Uighur king Renyu (the younger brother of Renmei) of Ganzhou sent an envoy to pay tribute and was granted the title of Fenghua Khan.
In the Northern Song Dynasty, in the sixth year of Tiansheng (1028), Li Yuanhao, the leader of Dangxiang nationality, defeated the Uighurs in Ganzhou and established Xixia. Inherit the tradition of Han culture, continue to build water conservancy, develop agriculture, set up education, respect Buddhism and Taoism.
In the Yuan Dynasty, Gansu Province was set up and Zhangye was the provincial capital. Kublai Khan, the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, personally ordered Dong Wen, a doctor, to use the land of Ganzhou as paddy field and plant rice in the way of Ningxia. Zhahun granary, the largest granary in Gansu Province, was built in the city to supply all kinds of military grain.
In the Ming Dynasty, Zhangye was the capital of Shaanxi Province and the seat of Gansu town.
In the Qing Dynasty, Zhangye was the headquarters of Ganzhou Prefecture, the Governor General of Gansu Province and the commander in chief of Liangzhou, Suzhou, Xining and Ningxia. Ganzhou was taken as the military transfer center and logistics base in all the military operations of the Qing Dynasty in the West.
In 1927, Zhangye county was established.
In May 1985, Zhangye county was abolished and county-level Zhangye City was established, with the former administrative region of Zhangye County as the administrative region of Zhangye City. On March 1, 2002, the State Council approved the cancellation of Zhangye Prefecture Level and county level Zhangye City and the establishment of prefecture level Zhangye City. The Municipal People's government is stationed in the newly established South Ring Road of Ganzhou district. Ganzhou district was established in Zhangye City, and the former county-level Zhangye City was changed into Ganzhou district. Prefecture Level Zhangye City governs Linze County, Gaotai County, Shandan County, Minle County, Sunan Yugur Autonomous County and the newly established Ganzhou district.
Jurisdiction: Ganzhou District, 1 District, Linze County, Gaotai County, Shandan County, Minle County, Sunan Yugur Autonomous County, 5 counties.
Residence of Municipal People's Government: South Ring Road, Nanjie street, Ganzhou District
Zhangye City is located in the west of Gansu Province, in the middle of Hexi Corridor, 97 ° 20 ′～ 102 ° 12 ′ e, 37 ° 28 ′～ 39 ° 57 ′ n. It is adjacent to Wuwei and Jinchang in the East, Jiayuguan and Jiuquan in the west, Qinghai Province in the South and Inner Mongolia in the north. It spans 4 ° 52 'from east to west, 210-465 km in length, 2 ° 29' from north to south, and 30-148 km in width. The total area is 39436.53 square kilometers, accounting for 8.67% of the total area of Gansu Province.
Zhangye city belongs to cold temperate arid and Qilian Alpine semi-arid and semi humid climate types. It is characterized by short and hot summer, long and cold winter, drought and less rain, uneven distribution of precipitation, large temperature difference between day and night, and abundant wind and solar energy resources. The annual average temperature is 4.1 ~ 8.3 ℃, with an average of 6.6 ℃. It is the hottest in July, 20.4 ℃, and the coldest in January, 9.1 ℃. The annual temperature range is 26-32 ℃. The average maximum temperature is 14.3 ℃, and the extreme maximum temperature is 40.0 ℃ (Gaotai, July 27, 2010); the average minimum temperature is 0.3 ℃, and the extreme minimum temperature is - 33.3 ℃ (Shandan, January 8, 1955).
The annual average precipitation is 112.3-354.0 mm, with an average of 197.2 mm. The precipitation of Minle is 354.0 mm at most, and that of Gaotai is 112.3 mm at least. The average annual precipitation days are 67.1 days. The maximum daily precipitation is 65.5mm, which occurred in Gaotai on July 30, 1974. The annual average relative humidity is 16% - 54%. The annual average evaporation is 1672.1-2358.4mm, Minle is the smallest and Shandan is the largest. The annual sunshine hours are 2789-3103 hours, with an average of 2975 hours, and the average wind speed is 1
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