Zhangjiakou, also known as "Zhangyuan" and "Wucheng", is a prefecture level city under the jurisdiction of Hebei Province. It is located in the northwest of Hebei Province, at the junction of Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia. It is the intersection of Beijing Tianjin Hebei (Bohai Rim) economic circle and Hebei Shanxi Inner Mongolia (outer Great Wall) economic circle. It is the central city in the northwest of Hebei Province and the transportation hub connecting Beijing and Tianjin and Shanxi and Inner Mongolia. It is between 113 ° 50 ′ - 116 ° 30 ′ E and 39 ° 30 ′ - 42 ° 10 ′ n. The city is 289.2 kilometers long from north to South and 216.2 kilometers wide from east to west, with a total area of 36800 square kilometers. By 2019, Zhangjiakou has a permanent resident population of 4.4233 million, with jurisdiction over 6 districts and 10 counties.
In 1529, garrison Zhang Zhen opened a small gate on the north wall of the city, which was called "the small North Gate". Because the gate was as small as a mouth, it was opened and built by Zhang Zhen, so it was called "Zhangjiakou". During the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, Xiongnu and Donghu lived in the north, while Yan and Dai lived in the south. In November 1983, Zhangjiakou was changed into a city under the jurisdiction of Hebei Province. Two million years ago, ancient human beings flourished here; 5000 years ago, the ancestors of the Chinese nation, Huangdi, Yandi and Chiyou "lived in Zhuolu", which opened the beginning of Chinese civilization.
Zhangjiakou City is the largest area of the Great Wall, known as the "Great Wall Museum". Chongli and Chicheng are the largest natural ski resorts in North China, known as the Oriental Davos. On July 31, 2015, President of the International Olympic Committee Bach announced that Beijing and Zhangjiakou, Hebei Province, have won the right to host the 2022 Winter Olympic Games. In December 2017, he was elected as "China's top 10 ice and snow tourism cities".
In 2019, the GDP of Zhangjiakou will reach 155.106 billion yuan, of which the added value of the primary industry will reach 24.378 billion yuan, a decrease of 1.3%; the added value of the secondary industry will reach 44.541 billion yuan, an increase of 6.3%; and the added value of the tertiary industry will reach 86.187 billion yuan, an increase of 9.7%. The per capita GDP reached 35025 yuan, an increase of 7.0% over the previous year.
In ancient times, Huangdi, Yandi and Chiyou "lived in Zhuolu, which was in line with Busan.".
During the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, Zhangjiakou was the residence of Xiongnu and Donghu in the north, and the state of Yan and Dai in the south.
In Qin Dynasty, the South was changed to Daijun and the north to Shanggu.
In the Han Dynasty, most of them belonged to Youzhou, while a small part belonged to Wuhuan, Xiongnu and Xianbei.
In Sui Dynasty, Zhuo county was in the East and Yanmen County in the West.
In Tang Dynasty, it belonged to Tujue area in the north, Sanggan Prefecture, Guizhou and Xinzhou in Hebei Province in the south, and Weizhou in Hedong County in the south.
After five dynasties, it belonged to Xijing road of Liao Dynasty.
Jinshi belongs to Xijing road.
In the Yuan Dynasty, Zhangjiakou city belonged to Zhongshu province.
In the Ming Dynasty, Zhangjiakou belonged to the capital (governing shuntianfu, Beijing) except Yuxian, which belonged to Datong Prefecture of Shanxi Province.
In the Qing Dynasty, the North belonged to the three halls of Koubei (duolunnuoer hall, dushikou hall, Zhangjiakou Hall), and the South belonged to Xuanhua prefecture (Zhijin Xuanhua).
In the second year of the Republic of China (1913), it belonged to Xinghe road and Koubei road in Chahar special district of Zhili Province.
In 1928, Chahar province was established and Zhangjiakou was the capital of the province. During the Anti Japanese War, anti Japanese democratic governments were established in many counties of Zhangjiakou City. After the victory of the Anti Japanese War, the organizational system of Chahar province was reestablished.
In November 1952, the organizational system of Chahar province was abolished. After the merger of Chanan district and Chabei District, it was called Zhangjiakou District, which was under the jurisdiction of Hebei Province. Zhangjiakou City was the center of the District, and Zhangjiakou City and Xuanhua city were under the jurisdiction of Hebei Province.
In May 1958, Zhangjiakou City was changed into Zhangjiakou district.
In May 1959, Zhangjiakou district was abolished, and the counties under its jurisdiction were assigned to Zhangjiakou City.
In May 1961, Zhangjiakou district was reestablished, under the jurisdiction of Zhangjiakou City and its counties.
In December 1967, Zhangjiakou district was renamed Zhangjiakou area, which governs Zhangjiakou City, and the county level remains unchanged.
In November 1983, Zhangjiakou was changed into a city under the jurisdiction of Hebei Province.
In December 1989, Chafang district and pangjiabao district were abolished in Zhangjiakou City.
In 1992, with the approval of Hebei provincial government, Zhangjiakou city established a high-tech Industrial Development Zone (hereinafter referred to as "high tech Zone"), and on July 1, 1993, Zhangjiakou City was merged into the prefecture and city, which was called Zhangjiakou City, and the system of city governing county was implemented.
In March 2003, Chabei ranch and Guyuan ranch were assigned to Zhangjiakou City by Hebei Agricultural Reclamation Bureau, and changed into Chabei management area and Saibei management area.
In April 2004, the municipal Party committee and the municipal government merged the high tech Zone and Nanxin District into the high tech Zone.
On March 22, 2010, with the approval of the municipal Party committee and the municipal government, Zhangjiakou industrial agglomeration zone was established.
In July 2015, the State Council approved the establishment of Zhangjiakou renewable energy demonstration zone in Hebei Province.
By the end of 2016, Zhangjiakou City had jurisdiction over 6 districts (Qiaodong District, Qiaoxi District, Xuanhua District, Xiahuayuan District, Wanquan district and Chongli District), 10 counties (Zhangbei County, Kangbao County, Guyuan County, Shangyi County, Yu County, Yangyuan County, Huai'an County, Huailai County, Zhuolu county and Chicheng County), 2 management districts (Chabei Management District and Saibei Management District) and Zhangjiakou economic and Technological Development Zone It has a total population of 4.8692 million, a total area of 36357 square kilometers, 23 sub district offices, 296 neighborhood committees, 1 District Office, 110 townships (including 2 ethnic townships), 99 towns and 4175 village committees.
By the end of 2016, Zhangjiakou had jurisdiction over 6 districts, 10 counties, 2 administrative districts (Chabei and Saibei) and 1 Economic Development Zone, 23 streets, 280 communities, 113 townships (including 2 ethnic townships), 96 towns and 4175 villages. The Municipal People's government is stationed at No. 10, Great Wall West Street, Qiaodong district.
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Zhangjiakou is located at 113 ° 50 ′ - 116 ° 30 ′ E and 39 ° 30 ′ - 42 ° 10 ′ n. It is adjacent to Chengde City in Hebei Province in the East, Beijing City in the southeast, Baoding City in Hebei Province in the south, Shanxi Province in the West and southwest, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the north and northwest. Zhangjiakou City is 289.2 km long from north to South and 216.2 km wide from east to West, with a total area of 36800 square kilometers.
Zhangjiakou is high in the northwest and low in the southeast. Yinshan Mountains run through the middle of the city. Zhangjiakou is divided into two parts: Bashang and bashiao. Yanghe River and Sanggan River cross the East and west of Zhangjiakou City and flow into Guanting reservoir. Zhangjiakou belongs to the Inner Mongolia Daxinganling fold system and the Sino Korean paraplatform. The Inner Mongolia Daxinganling fold system is a geosynclinal area developed from Proterozoic to the end of Paleozoic. It is only distributed in the north of Kangbao, with a very small range and sporadic outcrops. The tectonic development process of Sino Korean paraplatform can be divided into three stages, which reflects the evolution law of active stable active crust. There are two deep faults and seven large faults in Zhangjiakou. Magmatic rocks are relatively developed, with large distribution area and complete rock types. There are nine cycles in magmatic rocks, each cycle begins with extrusive rocks and ends with middle deep intrusive rocks. There are ultrabasic, basic, neutral, alkaline and acidic rocks, and various occurrences of batholith, dyke, rock stock, dyke and quilt are complete.
Except for the lack of Lower Paleozoic Upper Ordovician, Upper Paleozoic Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Upper Permian, Mesozoic Triassic and Upper Cretaceous, the strata from Archean to Cenozoic are exposed, with a total thickness of 35978-51866m. The strata exposed in Zhangjiakou City include a complete range of rocks, including not only Archean metamorphic rocks, Proterozoic, Paleozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, but also contact metamorphic rocks around the intrusion, local dynamic metamorphic rocks, and migmatites formed by ultrametamorphism. The magmatic rocks are mainly Mesozoic and Cenozoic extrusive rocks, Luliang, Hercynian and Yanshanian granites and dikes with different lithology.
Zhangjiakou has a temperate continental monsoon climate. Its climate is characterized by four distinct seasons, cold and long winter, dry and windy spring, hot and short summer, concentrated precipitation, sunny and moderate cold and warm autumn. Bashang area is rich in light resources, big temperature difference between day and night, rainy and hot season, cool climate in growing season, high temperature and high humidity, less hot weather. The annual precipitation is 330-400mm.
Zhangjiakou is one of the cities rich in mineral resources in Hebei Province. By the end of 2012, 97 kinds of minerals have been found in Zhangjiakou City. There are 33 kinds of mineral resources with proven reserves, including 1 kind of energy mineral, 2 kinds of ferrous metal mineral, 4 kinds of non-ferrous metal mineral, 2 kinds of precious metal mineral, 1 kind of rare metal mineral, 5 kinds of metallurgical auxiliary mineral, 3 kinds of chemical raw material mineral, 1 kind of special non-metallic mineral, 14 kinds of building raw materials and other non-metallic mineral. There are 158 proven mineral areas, including 23 large, 34 medium and 101 small ones.
Zhangjiakou's energy resources mainly include coal, wind energy and solar energy. Coal resources are mainly concentrated in Weizhou coalfield, xuanxia coalfield and the coalfield north of Zhangjiakou, with a total coal reserves of 2.934 billion tons. The wind resource reserve is more than 20 million kilowatts, and the exploitable capacity is more than 11.7 million kilowatts, of which the wind resource reserve in Bashang area is more than 17 million kilowatts, the exploitable capacity is more than 10.3 million kilowatts, and the wind resource reserve in Baxia area is more than 3 million kilowatts, and the exploitable capacity is more than 1.4 million kilowatts. Zhangjiakou is rich in solar energy resources. The sunshine hours are 2756-3062 hours, and the annual total solar radiation is 1500-1700 kwh per square meter, which belongs to solar radiation class II area.
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