Changde, known as "Wuling" and "Langzhou" in ancient times, is a prefecture level city under the jurisdiction of Hunan Province. Located in the north of Hunan, the west of Dongting Lake in the south of the Yangtze River, and at the foot of Wuling Mountain, it is historically known as "the throat of Sichuan and Guizhou, the gateway of Yunnan and Guizhou". It is an important city in the Yangtze River economic belt, the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and the ecological economic circle around Dongting Lake.
The name of Changde City originates from Laozi, which says "Changde is the stream of the world". The romantic complex of historical stories such as "Liu Hai chopping firewood", "Meng Jiangnu crying the Great Wall" and Tao Yuanming's "Peach Blossom Garden" runs through the history of Changde City for more than 2000 years, creating a unique "good virtue culture" of Changde.
Changde has successively won the titles of national civilized city, China's excellent tourism city, National Health City, National Garden City, China's first charming city, international wetland City, International Garden City, national traffic management model city, national environmental protection model city, Chinese poetry City, etc.
Changde's comprehensive strength is firmly in the forefront of Hunan Province. In 2019, the city's GDP will reach 362.42 billion yuan, an increase of 7.9% over the previous year. In 2017, Changde City confirmed that it would continue to retain the honorary title of national civilized city. In 2018, the national health city (District) was reconfirmed.
Three hundred thousand years ago, there were primitive people living and living in the plain mountains and rivers of the yuan and Li river basins in Changde. There are more than 40 Paleolithic relics in Linan township of Lixian County, zhanggongmiao Town, Yaopo township of Jinshi City, the lower reaches of Shimen River and guanxi town of Dingcheng District. The excavated stone tools include stone flakes, stone hammers, stone balls, pointed utensils, choppers, etc. Primitive people used these primitive tools to collect fruits and hunt wild animals.
The excavation of Chengtoushan site in Lixian County proves that Changde began to enter the Neolithic Age 9000 years ago. The primitive people in this period had mastered the techniques of stone grinding and pottery making. More than 7000 years ago, Shimen Zaoshi lower culture is one of the representatives of early Neolithic culture in China. In this period, the tools of production include axe, chisel and fish net pendant, which are made of river pebbles. We have mastered the original pottery technology to produce simple eating utensils.
Tangjiagang site in Anxiang, 6500 years ago, reflects the prosperous life of matriarchal clan society in Changde at that time. More than 5000 years ago, the ruins of kuaichenggang in Anxiang proved that Changde entered the patriarchal clan society. During this period, the production tools were greatly improved, the drilling, cutting and polishing techniques of stone tools were relatively mature, and the slow wheel dressing was generally used for pottery.
In 277 B.C. (the 30th year of emperor Zhaoxiang of Qin Dynasty), Zhang Ruo, the governor of Shu Dynasty, "conquered Wujun and Jiangnan". He built a city in the east of Wuling district and established Qianzhong County, which has a history of more than 2200 years.
In the Qin Dynasty, Changde belonged to Qianzhong County, and Linyuan county was set up as the county yamen.
In the Western Han Dynasty, Gaozu changed Qianzhong County into Wuling County, which belonged to the Department of Cishi in Jingzhou.
In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Emperor Guangwu restored Wuling county. In the 26th year of Jianwu (AD 50), the county government moved from Yiling (now Xupu County) to Linyuan county. Shundi Yangjia 3 years (AD 134), Jingzhou Cishi Department moved to suoxian county (now Dingcheng Han Gongdu Town Village).
During the period of the Three Kingdoms, it was under the jurisdiction of the state of Wu, still named Wuling County, and belonged to Jingzhou.
In the Western Jin Dynasty, Changde belonged to Wuling County, Tianmen county and Nanping County.
In the Sui Dynasty, in the 16th year of kaihuang (596), Songzhou was changed to Langzhou, where Wuling (now Changde City) was ruled. The great cause of emperor Yang of Sui Dynasty (Yang Guang) was restored to Wuling county. Jurisdiction Wuling, Longyang (now Hanshou) two counties. Jurisdiction is equivalent to today's Wuling District, Dingcheng District, Taoyuan County, Hanshou County.
Tang Dynasty, Wude four years (621) Ping Xiao mill, set Sui Wuling County for Lang state. Tianbao first year (742), changed to Wuling county. In the first year of Qianyuan (758), it was restored to Langzhou. So in Tang Dynasty, it was used to be called "Langzhou Wuling county", or just "Langzhou". In the Tang Dynasty, Wuling and Lizhou were subordinate to the Jiangnan West Road. They had jurisdiction over the Yuanjiang River basin to the east of today's Taoyuan, and were close to Dongting Lake. At that time, Yongtai canal, Beita weir and other water conservancy projects were built, and many fields were irrigated.
In the early years of the Northern Song Dynasty, Changde was still called "Langzhou" in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. In 1012, Changde changed Langzhou into Dingzhou and Lizhou into Liyang Junzhou, both of which are subordinate to Jinghu North Road. It is located in Wuling (now Changde City), and has jurisdiction over Wuling, Taoyuan and Longyang (now Hanshou) counties. It has jurisdiction over Wuling District, Dingcheng District, Hanshou County, Yuanjiang City and Taoyuan County.
Changde's name began in the Northern Song Dynasty. In 1117, Dingzhou set up the Changde army;
In the Southern Song Dynasty, in the first year of Qiandao (1165), Dingzhou was promoted to Changde Prefecture; it was governed by Wuling (now Changde City), and governed Wuling, Taoyuan, Longyang (now Hanshou) and Yuanjiang counties.
In the Yuan Dynasty, Changde mansion and Liyang Junzhou were changed into Changde Road and Liyang road respectively, which were subordinate to the North Road of Jiangnan in Huguang xingzhongshu province.
In the early Ming Dynasty, Changde mansion was restored and Liyang road was changed into Liyang mansion. Hongwu 9 years (AD 1376), Liyang house will be reduced to Lizhou.
In the Qing Dynasty, in 1729 ad, Lizhou was upgraded to Zhili. In the Qing Dynasty, Changde Prefecture and Lizhou were affiliated to yuechanglidao. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, Changde Prefecture had jurisdiction over Wuling, Taoyuan, Longyang and Yuanjiang counties; Zhili Prefecture had jurisdiction over Shimen, Cili, Anxiang, Anfu (now linli County) and Yongding counties.
In 1914, the Hunan provincial government abolished Fu, Ting and Zhou, and retained "Dao". Yuechangli Dao was changed to Wuling Dao. The counties of Changde Fu and Zhili Lizhou were directly under the jurisdiction of Wuling Dao, which governed Changde.
In 1922, the system of "Dao" was abolished in Hunan Province, and only two levels of province and county were left under the jurisdiction of Changde.
In 1935, the national government set up the Xiangxi appeasement office in Yuanling County, which divided the 19 counties into five administrative supervision districts, and set up the Commissioner of administrative supervision, who also served as the head of the county.
In 1936, the national government officially established the office of the Commissioner. Shimen, linli and Lixian were divided into the second district.
In 1937, Hunan Province generally set up an administrative supervision district. The second district governs 11 counties, including Changde, Huarong, Nanxian, Anxiang, Yuanjiang, Hanshou, Lixian, Linli, Shimen, Cili and Taoyuan. The office of the Commissioner moved from Cili County to Changde county.
In November 1938, the Fourth District moved from Changde to Lixian County, and the Fourth District Commissioner Office of administrative supervision was also called Changli District Commissioner Office.
In 1940, the administrative division of Hunan Province was adjusted, and the second administrative supervision area was changed into the fourth.
In November 1943, the Japanese army gathered about 100000 people from seven divisions to attack Changde. Wang Yaowu led the 74 army to participate in the battle. He led his main force to fight fiercely with the enemy in the northeast of Changde. Changde was attacked by the superior firepower of the Japanese army, air force and tanks for 16 days, and the whole city was razed to the ground. The 57th division of the 74th army held Changde for 18 days, with only a few hundred remaining in the division. Wang Yaowu led the 51st division to fight back. With the cooperation of friendly forces, after six days of fierce fighting, he finally recovered Changde City. The bloody battle of Changde was widely praised for a time. This is the famous "battle of Changde".
From the middle of July to the beginning of August 1949, the counties of the fourth administrative supervision district were liberated one after another. On August 4, the Changli district administrative Commissioner's office and its staff arrived in Changde City. Changli special office is an agency of Hunan Provincial People's government, which has jurisdiction over Changde, Huarong, Nanxian, Anxiang, Lixian, Linli, Cili and Taoyuan. In the middle of August, people's governments were set up in each county one after another, and Changde City and Jinshi city were set up on August 5 and 15 respectively. On August 28, Changli district was renamed "Changde district administrative Commissioner Office of Hunan Provincial People's government" (Changde special office for short).
On February 16, 1955, according to the notice that the provincial people's government had been changed into the provincial people's Committee, the Changde District Office of Hunan Provincial People's government was changed into the Changde District Office of Hunan Province. Subsequently, the people's governments of all counties and cities were changed into people's committees.
On December 30, 1962, the State Council document No. 424 approved the restoration of Yiyang special district, and Yiyang City and six counties including Yiyang, Taojiang, Nanxian, Yuanjiang, Huarong and Anhua were under the jurisdiction of Yiyang special office.
In March 1966, the production leading group of Changde district was established to exercise its functions and powers on behalf of Changde special administration. On April 10, the production leading group of the special zone was abolished and the Changde special zone headquarters for revolution and production promotion was established. In November, its name was changed to Changde leading group of grasping revolution and promoting production.
On February 28, 1968, the Changde regional Revolutionary Committee was established to exercise the functions and powers of the original special office. From March to September, revolutionary committees were set up in various counties (cities) to replace the people's committees.
On March 24, 1979, the Changde regional Revolutionary Committee was abolished and the Changde regional administrative office was established. From November 1979 to December 1980, the revolutionary committees were abolished and the people's governments of counties (cities) were restored.
In January 1988, the State Council approved by Document No. 18 of the state letter to abolish Changde Prefecture, establish a provincial Changde City, and implement the system of city leading county. On April 18, the people's Government of Hunan Province, by notice of xiangzhenghan No. 22, abolished Changde Prefecture and Changde County, and established two districts. The former Changde City was changed into Wuling District, and the former Changde county was changed into Dingcheng District. The administrative regions of the two districts remained unchanged. Tianjin city was a county-level city under the jurisdiction of the province, and the provincial government entrusted Changde City to manage on its behalf. From June 20 to 24, the first people's Congress of Changde City was held, the people's Government of Changde City was formally established, and the mayors and vice mayors were elected.
By the end of 2019, there are 42 streets, 127 townships (towns), 1523 villages and 739 community committees in Changde, including 46 ethnic groups, including Han, Tujia, Miao, Hui, Wei, Zhuang, Buyi, Korean, Manchu, Dong, Yao and Bai.
The origin of the name
Huizongzhenghe seventh year of the Northern Song Dynasty (1)
Chinese PinYin : Hu Nan Sheng Chang De Shi
Changde City, Hunan Province
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