Mongolian costumes, also known as Mongolian robes, mainly include robes, belts, boots, jewelry, etc. However, there are differences in styles due to different regions. Mongolian clothing has a strong grassland style, mainly robes, easy to saddle horse riding. Because the Mongolian people have lived in the Saibei grassland for a long time, both men and women like to wear robes. Most of the winter clothes in pastoral areas are light leather clothes, but there are also silk and cotton clothes. Summer clothes are mostly cloth. The robe has a large body and long sleeves, mostly red, yellow and dark blue. There is no slit at the hem of robes for men and women. The belt is made of red and green satin.
In November 2014, "Mongolian costume" was approved by the State Council and listed in the fourth batch of national intangible cultural heritage representative projects. In November 2019, the list of national intangible cultural heritage representative project protection units was announced, and the intangible cultural heritage protection center of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Zhenglanqi cultural center, Subei Mongolian Autonomous County Cultural Center and Bohu County Intangible Cultural Heritage Protection Center won the qualification of "Mongolian costume" project protection unit.
The origin of Mongolian costume can be traced back to the prehistoric period. As far back as the Paleolithic age, human beings began to decorate themselves with the leaves of plants. Later, they used hunting animal skins to make clothes. In the northern nomadic rock paintings, it has been seen that the ancient people of the Mongolian Plateau were surrounded by a short skirt of animal skin, with long feathers on their heads, and some of them had tails on their hips. Moreover, there are a large number of crude stone rings, bone ornaments and other items, which shows that the northern nomads had aesthetic intention and pursuit long ago.
According to archaeological data, the Mongolian costumes and the costumes of ancient northern nomads in China are in the same strain. According to the biography of Xiongnu in Hanshu, the headdress of Xiongnu women who ate livestock and wore fur was very similar to the headdress of Chahar women. The dress culture of Xiongnu was passed on to the northern nomads such as Xianbei, Rouran and Turks, and also to the Mongols. One of the common characteristics of these ethnic costumes is to adapt to the plateau climate.
Mongolian clothing has its own aesthetic characteristics. Mongolian people especially prefer bright and bright colors, which make people feel bright and happy. Mongolian people also advocate some pure and bright colors such as white and sky blue. Blue sky and white clouds, green grass and red clothes, a natural harmony. In addition, judging from the style of Mongolian costumes, commendation and broad clothing can reflect not only the curvilinear beauty of human body, but also the generous, rough and magnanimous character of Mongolian herdsmen.
Mongolian people live in the Mongolian Plateau, the climate is cold, and they are mainly nomadic. Therefore, their clothing must have a strong role in preventing cold, and it is easy to ride. Robes, shawls, leather hats and boots naturally become their preferred clothing. "Black tartar synopsis" records: "the right lapel of the clothing, Dao clothing collar, a small number of square collar, made of felt, leather, silk, clothing hypertrophy, long mop, winter clothing two fur, a fur inward, a fur outward, men and women are similar in style.". After a little reform, this kind of clothing was used by both men and women in pastoral areas. It can be divided into three kinds: clip, cotton and leather. In winter, sheep fur is used as the lining, and silk, satin and cloth are used as the surface. In summer, cloth, silk, satin and silk are used. Generally use red, yellow, purple, dark blue. The sleeve length is narrow, and the hem is not split. Flannelette is often used to edge the skirt and hem. The width of the hem is about 6-9cm. When wearing it, lift it up a little, and tie it tightly around the waist with red and purple silk ribbons. The two ends float around the waist.
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