The Dragon Boat Festival, also known as the Dragon Boat Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival, the Double Ninth Festival and the mid day festival, is a folk festival integrating worship of gods and ancestors, praying for blessings and ward off evil spirits, celebration, entertainment and diet. The Dragon Boat Festival originated from the worship of natural phenomena and evolved from the sacrifice of dragons in ancient times. On the midsummer Dragon Boat Festival, the green dragon seven nights soared in the center of the due south, which is the most "Zhongzheng" position in the whole year, just as "the flying dragon is in the sky" in the fifth chapter of the book of changes qiangua. The Dragon Boat Festival is an auspicious day of "flying dragon in the sky". The dragon and dragon boat culture has always run through the inheritance history of the Dragon Boat Festival.
The Dragon Boat Festival is a traditional cultural festival popular in China and other countries in the Chinese character cultural circle. It is said that Qu Yuan, a poet of the state of Chu in the Warring States period, jumped into the Miluo River and committed suicide on May 5. Later generations also took the Dragon Boat Festival as a Festival to commemorate Qu Yuan; There are also statements in memory of Wu Zixu, Cao E and Jie Zitui. The origin of the Dragon Boat Festival covers the ancient astrological culture, humanistic philosophy and other aspects, contains profound and rich cultural connotation, and integrates a variety of folk customs in the inheritance and development. Due to different regional cultures, there are differences in the content or details of customs.
The Dragon Boat Festival, the Spring Festival, the Qingming Festival and the Mid Autumn Festival are known as the four traditional festivals in China. The Dragon Boat Festival culture has a wide influence in the world. Some countries and regions in the world also have activities to celebrate the Dragon Boat Festival. In May 2006, the State Council listed it in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list; Since 2008, it has been listed as a national legal holiday. In September 2009, UNESCO officially approved its inclusion in the list of representative works of human intangible cultural heritage, and the Dragon Boat Festival became the first festival selected by China as a world intangible cultural heritage.
On October 25, 2021, the notice of the general office of the State Council on the arrangement of some holidays in 2022 was issued. The Dragon Boat Festival in 2022: three days from June 3 to 5.
|Chinese name||DuanWu Jie|
|Foreign name||Dragon Boat Festival|
|alias||Dragon Boat Festival, Dragon Festival, Zhengyang Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, Tianzhong Festival, etc|
|Holiday time||the 5th day of the fifth lunar month|
|Festival type||One of the four traditional festivals in China|
|Epidemic area||China and other countries in the Chinese character cultural circle|
|Festival origin||Celestial phenomena worship, dragon totem sacrifice|
|Festival activities||Pick dragon boats, put paper kites, hang wormwood and calamus, etc|
|Holiday diet||Zongzi, Wuhuang, salted duck egg, mung bean cake, etc|
|Holiday significance||Inheriting and carrying forward intangible culture|
|Origin period||Ancient times|
|Memorial figures||Qu Yuan, Wu Zixu, Cao E, Jie Zitui, etc|
|National Cultural Heritage||It was listed in the first batch of lists on May 20, 2006|
|World Cultural Heritage||It was selected into the world list on September 30, 2009|
The original meaning of "Duan" in "Dragon Boat Festival" is "Zheng" and "Wu" is "Zhong". "Dragon Boat Festival" and "Zhongzheng" are also, and the noon of this day is the middle of the middle. The ancients took the heavenly stems and earthly branches as the carrier. The heavenly stems and Earthly Branches carried the way of heaven and earth. The heavenly stems and earthly branches were set up to facilitate the transportation of heaven, earth and personnel, and the heavenly stems and earthly branches were used in the era. The dragon is flying in the sky on the afternoon of the mid summer moon. At this time, the Dragon Star is in the due south midheaven, which is the most "Zhongzheng" position in the operation of the whole year. It is both "Zhongzhong" and "Zhengzheng", which is an auspicious sign. The ancients have always advocated the way of "Zhongzheng" and "Zhongzheng". The way of "Zhongzheng" is expressed incisively and vividly here. In addition, the end also means "beginning". Therefore, the first afternoon of the afternoon (may) month is also called the Dragon Boat Festival.
According to statistics, the name of the Dragon Boat Festival is the most popular among all traditional festivals in China, with more than 20 names, such as Dragon Boat Festival, Double Ninth Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, Duanwu Festival, Double Fifth Festival, dangwuxun Festival, Tianzhong Festival, summer festival, AI Festival, Shangri Festival, may Festival, Acorus calamus Festival, Tianyi Festival, herbal medicine Festival, Yulan Festival, noon Festival, Dila Festival, Zhengyang Festival, dragon day festival, zongzi Festival, Wuhuang Festival Poet's day, hiding afternoon, Rice Dumpling Festival, Duan etiquette, the fifth day of May, the noon of May, etc. The names of Dragon Boat Festival come from:
● Duanyang Festival
According to the calendar of the heavenly stems and earthly branches, the fifth month is the "afternoon moon", and the afternoon is also called "Yangchen", so the Dragon Boat Festival is also called "Dragon Boat Festival".
● mid day festival
In the midsummer Dragon Boat Festival, Canglong Qisu is located in the middle of the south, and the position is the most "right" and "middle". In addition, due to the Dragon Boat Festival, the position of the sun in the sky is the most in a year for the Tropic of cancer and the South.
● Double Ninth Festival
In ancient times, the era method of heavenly stems and earthly branches took the heavenly stems and earthly branches as the carrier, and the era used the heavenly stems and earthly branches. The Dragon Boat Festival was originally the noon day of the moon in the Ganzhi calendar. The first month is Jianyin, and the fifth month is the noon month. The noon day of the moon is called the double noon, and the noon day of the moon is also called "Zhongzheng". In the Han Dynasty, due to the unification of the north and the South and the change of the calendar, the Imperial Court changed the annual Dragon Boat Festival to the fifth day of may in the lunar calendar in order to facilitate the festival.
● Dragon Boat Festival
The ancient Baiyue people took the dragon as their totem. In order to show that they were "dragon sons", the two main activities of the Dragon Boat Festival, eating zongzi and racing, were related to the dragon. Zongzi are put into the river to offer sacrifices to the Dragon God, while dragon boats are used for the race. They not only have the custom of "breaking hair and tattooing" to "look like a dragon", but also hold a grand totem Festival on May 5 every year; One of the activities is to depict Jackie Chan's dragon shaped canoe in the sound of drums, play a race on the water, and draw a picture of TENGSHEN. This is the origin of the custom of dragon boat racing. Dragon Boat raking is an important activity of the Dragon Boat Festival, so it is also known as the Dragon Boat Festival.
● herbal Festival
The Dragon Boat Festival is the strongest day in a year for the medicinal properties of plants and trees. There are medicines everywhere on the Dragon Boat Festival. The herbs collected on this day are the most effective and effective in treating skin diseases and removing evil Qi, so it is named.
● Dragon Festival
Ancient Baiyue ancestors offered sacrifices to the Dragon at the Dragon Boat Festival, which was actually a "Dragon Festival" at that time. Midsummer Dragon Boat Festival "flying dragon in the sky", the main star of Canglong "fire" (Antares II) hangs high in the middle of the South sky, and the Dragon Qi (Yang Qi) is exuberant. Due to the transformation of yin and Yang in the book of changes, prosperity will decline, and the "Shangjiu" (the sixth part of the qiangua) is "hyperactive dragon with regret"; From the perspective of divinatory words, "Shangjiu" is the most Yang. There is no room for rise, and it is bound to decline. The "Ninth Five Year Plan" of the midsummer Dragon Boat Festival is "flying dragon in the sky". The Dragon Star is in the most "Zhongzheng" position of the whole year, which means that things are in their heyday and have great luck. The "dragon" in the Ci of the book of changes qiangua is essentially an analysis of the operation of the green dragon at four o'clock in a year.
● Yulan Festival
There is a folk custom of taking herbal medicine and boiling water for bathing at the Dragon Boat Festival, so it is also known as the bathing orchid festival. For example, in the great ceremony of the Han Dynasty, "bathing with orchid soup in the afternoon".
Dragon Boat Festival is called "Shangri" in some places, which means "God's Day". It also means good day and festival.
● calamus Festival and mugwort Festival
The ancients believed that Acorus calamus and wormwood could ward off evil spirits. The Yang of the Dragon Boat Festival was prosperous, and the growth of Acorus calamus and wormwood was prosperous. Every year, people had the custom of hanging Acorus calamus or wormwood on the door to ward off evil spirits. Therefore, the Dragon Boat Festival was also known as "Acorus calamus Festival" and "Ai Festival".
● during the fifth flood season
In some rural areas of Shanghai, the area near the North Bank of Hangzhou Bay, such as Fengxian, Nanhui and other areas, is customarily called "Duanwu Festival" as "when the five floods". Some areas are also called "may noon".
● hide the afternoon Festival
In ancient times, there were different customs between the north and the south. "May" was called "evil moon" in the northern Central Plains in ancient times. Therefore, in some places, on the day of the Dragon Boat Festival, parents sent children under the age of one year to their grandmother's house to hide to avoid evil. Therefore, it is known as the "hiding Festival".
● diwala Festival
Taoism divides the whole year into five waxes, the first day of the first month and the fifth day of May. According to the "jade book of the emperor's supreme purity" and "seven notes of Cloud Collection", on the day when the five emperors gather together in the fifth month of May, the five emperors will examine the ancestors of the students and see the good and evil deeds of the sons and grandchildren in the southern three energy and Dan days, so as to convict and bless the students and set them as officials and barons. Taoism believes that several lunar calendar days in a year are auspicious days, which are suitable for sacrificing ancestors and gods to obtain blessing.
The origin of ancient traditional festivals is related to ancient primitive beliefs, sacrificial culture, celestial phenomena, calendar and other humanistic and natural cultural contents. According to the research results of modern anthropology and archaeology, there are two most primitive beliefs of mankind: one is the belief in heaven and earth, and the other is the belief in ancestors. Most ancient festivals were formed in the activities of the ancients to sacrifice on auspicious days to thank the gods of heaven and earth and the kindness of their ancestors. The early festival culture reflects the humanistic spirit of the ancients, such as natural worship and thinking of the source; A series of sacrificial activities contain the profound cultural connotation of only respecting and feeling morality, etiquette and music civilization. The origin and development of festivals is a process of gradual formation, subtle improvement and popularization. In ancient times, the customs of the north and the South were different. The customs of the Dragon Boat Festival in the pre-Qin era were rarely recorded in the documents of the Central Plains, so it is impossible to directly study its origin in the existing documents. According to the relevant written records of the Dragon Boat Festival, the word "Dragon Boat Festival" first appeared in the records of Customs of the Jin Dynasty, but the customs of the Dragon Boat Festival have existed for a long time, such as the custom of dragon boat race and sacrifice.
The two symbolic customs of the Dragon Boat Festival are raking dragon boats and eating zongzi. Mr. Wen Yiduo believes that the Dragon Boat Festival is a festival for the ancient Baiyue people to hold dragon totem worship activities. He demonstrated his view in detail in two papers: the examination of the Dragon Boat Festival and the historical education of the Dragon Boat Festival (see the complete works of Wen Yiduo). At that time, the dragon was the totem of the Wu and Yue nationalities, and later evolved into the totem worship of the whole nation; It was in the ceremony of offering sacrifices to the dragon that the habit of rowing a dragon boat gradually came into being. The ancestors of Wu and Yue took the dragon as their totem, and held a grand totem festival every year on the Dragon Boat Festival; One of the activities is to depict Jackie Chan's dragon shaped canoe in the rush of drums, to race on the water to sacrifice the Dragon God, and also to make fun of their own games. This is the origin of the custom of dragon boat racing. The legend of the dragon is recorded in the history of the road and other works: "the emperor's head and body". "Yi Wei Tong Gua verification supplement": "before the emperor's family, he was in harmony with Qian Yao." In this statement, the emperor's ancestors combined with the sun, moon and five stars (seven Yao), that is, their status is extremely noble. "River map": "Five Dragons teach, the emperor is left behind." Rong's note said: "the five dragons govern in the five directions and are the five gods." "Spring and autumn Life Calendar preface": "(Five Dragons) father and son rule the five directions". In ancient times, the ancestors of Wu and Yue took the "dragon" as the totem. During the totem period, the four dragons of the four tribes ruled one side respectively, while the one dragon of the Tuan nationality was the Central Co owner. Therefore, there is a saying that the five dragons ruled five sides separately (Wen Yiduo's Dragon Boat Festival examination). The historical legends of these dragons actually originated from the worship and belief of the ancestors of Wu and Yue in ancient times. A large number of unearthed cultural relics and Archaeological Studies in modern times have confirmed that there is a kind of cultural relics characterized by geometric impression pottery in the Neolithic Age in the vast areas of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. According to experts, the clan of the remains is a tribe that worships the totem of the dragon, known as the Baiyue nationality in history. The decorative patterns and historical legends on the unearthed pottery show that they have the custom of cutting hair and tattoos. They live in a water town and compare themselves to the descendants of dragons. The Dragon Boat Festival is the festival they founded to worship their ancestors. In thousands of years of historical development, most Baiyue people have been integrated into the Han nationality, and the rest have evolved into many ethnic minorities in the south. Therefore, the Dragon Boat Festival has become a festival of the whole Chinese nation.
The dragon and dragon boat culture has always run through the inheritance history of the Dragon Boat Festival. According to textual research, the prerequisite for Dragon Boat Racing must be in areas where rice is produced and there are many river ports, which is the characteristic of the coastal areas of southern China. As a culture, Dragon Boat appeared much earlier than Qu Yuan. "Huainanzi · Qi folk motto" has the record that "Hu people are convenient for horses and Yue people are convenient for boats". In ancient China, people in the water network area of the south often used boats as a means of production and transportation. In the work of catching fish and shrimp, people compare the amount of catch, and when they are leisure, they meet to row and race, combining entertainment in labor, production and leisure. This is the prototype of race in ancient times. According to the prehistoric culture of Hemudu site and Tianluoshan site, canoes and wooden oars existed as early as 7000 years ago; The dragon boat was originally a dragon shaped canoe carved on a single wooden boat, and later developed into a dragon shaped boat made of wood. The relationship between racing and ancient Wuyue is particularly deep. Moreover, the people of Wuyue also have the custom of cutting hair and tattooing to "look like a dragon". The ancient folk custom of "colorful silk arms" was used on the fifth day of May, which should be the relic of the tattoo custom of "like a dragon". In the ancient books about the origin of dragon boats, it first appeared in the Eastern Han Dynasty. In fact, the Wu Yue area in southern China was not developed until the Eastern Han Dynasty. It can be inferred that the custom of the Dragon Boat Festival may only be popular among the Wu and Yue nationalities in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River at first. Later, the Wu and Yue culture gradually integrated with the culture of the Central Plains, and this custom spread to the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the North. The formation of Dragon Boat Festival customs can be said to be the product of the integration of North and South customs, and inject new content with the historical development. Generally speaking, the Dragon Boat Festival originated from the ancient Baiyue ancestors who chose the auspicious day of "flying dragon in the sky" to worship the Dragon ancestors, pray for evil spirits, and inject the fashion of "disease elimination and epidemic prevention" in the summer season; the Dragon Boat Festival as a "evil moon and evil day" originated from the Central Plains in the north, and attached to the commemoration of Qu Yuan and other historical figures.
The Dragon Boat Festival originated from the worship of celestial phenomena and evolved from the dragon totem sacrifice in ancient times. The Dragon Boat Festival ritual and customs are related to the primitive belief, sacrificial culture, Ganzhi calendar and the celestial phenomena of Canglong Qisu in nanzhong. Ancient Chinese astrological culture has a long history and is broad and profound. The ancients began to explore the mysteries of the universe very early, and thus deduced a complete and profound astrological culture. According to the preface of the spring and autumn Life Calendar: "heaven and earth are opened up, and all things are muddy and ignorant; Yin and yang are based on, and the celestial body begins in the field of the north pole... The sun and moon rotate in five latitudes; the emperor goes out... Determine the image of the sky, follow the instrument of the earth, and act as a trunk and branch to determine the degree of the sun and moon." In ancient times, people determined the image of the sky and the instrument of the earth. According to the running track and position of the sun, moon and stars, the area near the ecliptic and the equator was divided into 28 groups of stars, commonly known as "28 stars". According to the four directions of the southeast, northwest and northwest, they were divided into seven stars, namely "four elephants"; In the East, "Jiao, Kang, Di, Fang, Xin, Wei and Ji" form a complete dragon shaped astrology, that is, Canglong Qisu. The haunting cycle of Canglong Qisu is consistent with the four hour cycle of the year. It rises in the East in spring, rises in the south in summer, retreats in the West in autumn, and disappears under the northern horizon in winter. On the midsummer Dragon Boat Festival, the seven nights of the dark dragon hang high in the middle of the South sky, in the "middle" position, which means that things are in the most prosperous state, which is the heaven of great luck.
In traditional culture, location is associated with the time of the main branches and gossip. Heaven and earth determine the north and south of the congenital eight trigrams, and the order is from the south to the north of the earth. The upper heaven is dry, and the lower earth is Kun; Due south is the stem position of congenital Bagua, which is "heaven". On the afternoon of the moon in midsummer, the green dragon seven nights moves to the due south central (dry) direction, which is the day when the Dragon flies to the sky. The movement of the black dragon and the stars at four o'clock in a year and the law of events are explained in the words of the book of changes qiangua. In midsummer, the black dragon runs to the due south midheaven on the Dragon Boat Festival, which corresponds to the fifth "flying dragon in the sky" of the qiangua. In the book of changes, based on the eight trigrams, 64 double trigrams are formed by the coincidence of two; The heavy trigram stem is formed by the coincidence of the upper and lower trigrams. Its trigram shape is composed of six Yang axes; It is necessary to count from bottom to top, and Yang is also called "Nine", so the fifth from bottom is called "Ninth Five Year Plan"; The position of the Ninth Five Year Plan in the upper qiangua is called "Dezhong", and from the perspective of the general hexagram, it is in the position of odd number, and the position of Yang is in the odd position, which is called "Dezheng". Therefore, the ninth five year plan is both "Dezhong" and "Dezheng". From its position, it is the position of great auspicious. The "flying dragon in the sky" in the ninth five year plan is the most auspicious one in the qiangua in the book of changes.
Ancient festivals are the carrier of inheriting ancient culture. The origin of ancient festivals is closely related to ancient culture. On the afternoon of the moon in midsummer, the dark dragon rises in the middle sky due to the south. The book of changes calls it "flying dragon in the sky". The Dragon Star is in the position of "Zhongzheng", which is both "Zhongzhong" and "Zhengzheng", which is a heavenly phenomenon of great luck. "Dragon" is the primitive belief of ancient Baiyue ancestors, Midsummer Dragon Boat Festival is a "flying dragon in the sky" "On the auspicious day of the Dragon Boat Festival, our ancestors held some festive activities, especially the activities corresponding to the dragon, such as dragon totem sacrifice, Dragon Boat raking and other activities, or did some activities to pray for auspiciousness and suppress evil and bustle disasters on this auspicious day. Although the situation of ancient sacrificial ceremonies is remote and difficult to know, we can still find some ancient customs relics from later festivals. The Dragon Boat Festival culture is fully integrated It shows the natural view of "unity of heaven and man" of the Chinese nation. The Dragon Boat Festival is a cultural treasure left by the ancestors. It not only clearly records the rich and colorful social life and cultural content of the ancestors of the Chinese nation, but also accumulates broad and profound historical and cultural connotation.
The origin of ancient traditional festivals is mostly related to ancient primitive beliefs, sacrificial culture, celestial phenomena, calendar and other humanistic and natural cultural contents. The ancients' worship of dragon totem originated from the worship of celestial phenomena. The whole constellation of Canglong appears in the most prominent position in the sky during the midsummer Dragon Boat Festival. The most obvious sign is the main star "fire" of Canglong, which is located in the middle of the south. "Flying dragon in the sky" in the book of changes qiangua; In Yao Dian, "the sun is always full of sparks, and the midsummer is in full swing"; "Fainting in the fire at the beginning of May" in Xia Xiaozheng is all about the celestial phenomena at this time. The ancients set the day of "flying dragon in the sky" as the Dragon Festival, and the dragon and dragon boat culture has always run through the inheritance history of the Dragon Boat Festival. In his article "Dragon Boat Festival examination", Mr. Wen Yiduo advocated that the Dragon Boat Festival originated from the totem sacrifice of Baiyue ancestors. Wen Yiduo believed that it was the dragon totem, which later evolved into the totem worship of the whole nation; It was in the ceremony of offering sacrifices to the dragon that the habit of rowing a dragon boat gradually came into being. According to the prehistoric culture of Hemudu site and Tianluoshan site, canoes and wooden oars existed as early as 7000 years ago; The dragon boat was originally a dragon shaped canoe carved on a single wooden boat, and later developed into a dragon shaped boat made of wood. A large number of unearthed cultural relics and Archaeological Studies in modern times show that as early as ancient times, Baiyue ancestors created a bright and high civilization. Unearthed cultural relics and historical legends show that the Dragon Boat Festival is the festival they founded to worship their ancestors.
The widely spread view of "Commemoration of historical figures" is based on the mythological novel "xuqi harmonic record" by Wu Jun, a Liang man in the Southern Dynasty, and Zong purlin's "Jingchu age record", which holds that the Dragon Boat Festival originated in commemorating Qu Yuan. Others think it is to commemorate Wu Zixu, Cao E and Jie Zitui. In the historical development and evolution, most of the traditional festivals are attached to some legends as the "origin", but after practical investigation, these stories and legends are far later than the birth of the festival and are constructed by later generations. Due to the lack of historical research before modern times, there are many far fetched theories about the origin. Also because some historical figures happen to be related to that day, there is a "theory of commemoration", among which the theory of commemorating Qu Yuan has the most extensive influence. Modern historians have constantly pointed out the mistake of commemorating Qu Yuan, because the Dragon Boat Festival existed as early as before the age of Qu Yuan. A comprehensive survey of the documents of Han and Wei dynasties shows that the Han Dynasty has experienced more than 400 years of history, full of romance and passion, and maintained the Chu culture of the native place of Southern Chu. Qu Yuan, the famous successor of Chu culture, did not leave a word or phrase record of the Dragon Boat Festival activities in the pre Han and Wei dynasties. Therefore, many scholars believe that the Dragon Boat Festival has nothing to do with Qu Yuan. In folklore, in addition to the Dragon Boat Festival originated from Qu Yuan's theory, there are also statements in memory of Wu Zixu, Cao E, Jie Zitui, Chen Lin, an honest official, Gou Jian, king of Yue and so on.
Historical literature is a memento for those who write and write to leave their records of love and hate to future generations. The "literati of Han and Wei Dynasties", who valued reasoning and clearly loved and hated, hated the ungrateful and dominant overlord Gou Jian of Yue and Duke Wen of Jin, and devoted their compassion to Wu Zixu, who spoke frankly and dared to admonish, Jie Zitui, who did not seek reward for his work, and Chen Lin, the governor of Cangwu in the Eastern Han Dynasty, so they linked the festival with historical figures after the Han and Wei dynasties. There is a saying to commemorate Wu Zixu on May 5 (Cao E Monument), and there is also a saying to commemorate Jie Zitui in Jin (Qin Cao). When the long river of history flowed into the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Yu Yu, a scholar who had been baptized by the war, attached a memorial to Cao E on May 5 in his book of records of Kuaiji. The kind-hearted common people offered their sympathy to their filial daughter Cao E.
There are mainly four kinds of "historical figures Memorial theory" in the attached meeting of later generations:
Commemorating Qu Yuan
According to the records of "biographies of Qu Yuan and Jia Sheng" in the historical records, Qu Yuan (about 339 BC - about 278 BC), a man from Danyang (now Zigui, Yichang, Hubei Province) of the state of Chu at the end of the Warring States period, was a minister of King Huai of Chu in the spring and Autumn period. Qu Yuan's name is Ping and the word yuan, but in fact his surname is Mi, not Qu.
According to legend, Qu Yuan advocated to recruit talents and empower, enrich the country and strengthen the army, and strongly advocated to unite Qi against Qin Dynasty. He was strongly opposed by noble Zilan and others. Qu Yuan was slandered and removed from his post, expelled from the capital and exiled to the yuan and Xiang River Basins. In exile, he wrote poems such as Li Sao, Tian Wen and nine songs, which are concerned about the country and the people. In 278 BC, when the Qin army broke through the Kyoto of the state of Chu, Qu Yuan saw his motherland being invaded and felt like a knife, but he could not bear to give up his motherland. On May 5, after writing his final work Huai Sha, he threw himself into the Miluo River and wrote a magnificent patriotic movement with his own life. After Qu Yuan threw himself into the river, the local people immediately rowed for rescue But Qu Yuan's body was never recovered. In order to express their grief, people boated on the river, and then it gradually developed into a dragon boat race. The people were afraid that the fish in the river would eat his body, so they went home and put rice balls into the river to avoid fish and shrimp spoiling Qu Yuan's body. Later, it became a custom to eat zongzi.
According to the documentary records, Qu Yuan was first connected with the Dragon Boat Festival in the northern and Southern Dynasties by the mythological and strange novel "xuqi harmonic record" of Wu Jun in the southern Liang Dynasty. At this time, Qu Yuan had died for more than 750 years. It can be seen from the lost text of Ouyang Xun of the Tang Dynasty copying "Customs Tong" (written by Ying Shao at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty), perhaps Qu Yuan's shadow has been found in the Dragon Boat Festival folk custom during the Lingdi period of the Eastern Han Dynasty, But this is more than 400 years after Qu Yuan's death. Although many Dragon Boat Festival customs have nothing to do with Qu Yuan, for thousands of years, Qu Yuan's patriotism and touching poetry have been widely rooted in the hearts of the people, so people "cherish and mourn it, the world discusses its words, and pass it on from generation to generation". Therefore, the theory of commemorating Qu Yuan has the widest and deepest influence and occupies the mainstream position. In the field of folk culture, Chinese people associate the Dragon Boat Race and eating zongzi on the Dragon Boat Festival with the commemoration of Qu Yuan.
Commemorating Wu Zixu said
The second legend of the Dragon Boat Festival is to commemorate Wu Zixu in the spring and Autumn period (559-484 BC) on May 5.
Wu Zixu, a famous official, was born in the state of Chu. His father and brother were all killed by the king of Chu. Later, Zixu abandoned the secret and turned to the light, rushed to the state of Wu, helped Wu defeat Chu, and entered the capital of Chu in five wars. At that time, King Ping of Chu was dead. Zixu dug up the tomb and whipped the corpses for 300 to avenge the killing of his father and brother. After the death of King Helu of Wu, his son Fu Chai succeeded to the throne. The morale of the Wu army was high and victorious, and the state of Yue was defeated. Gou Jian, king of Yue, asked for peace, and Fu Chai Xu. Zixu suggested that the state of Yue should be completely eliminated. Fu Chai did not listen. The great ruler of the state of Wu was bribed by the state of Yue and slandered to frame Wu Zixu. Fu Chai believed it and gave Zixu a sword. Zi Xu died with it. Wu Zixu, who was loyal and good, regarded death as a return. Before he died, he said to his neighbors, "after I died, I dug out my eyes and hung them on the east gate of Wu capital to see the Yue army enter the city and destroy Wu". He cut himself to death. The husband was so angry that he ordered to take Zixu's body in leather and throw it into the river on May 5. Therefore, it is said that the Dragon Boat Festival is also the day to commemorate Wu Zixu.
Cao E said in memory of her filial daughter
The third legend of the Dragon Boat Festival is to commemorate Cao E, the filial daughter of the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 23-ad 220), who saved her father and threw herself into the river. Cao E was from Shangyu in the Eastern Han Dynasty. Her father drowned in the river and didn't see the body for days. At that time, her filial daughter Cao E was only 14 years old and cried along the river day and night. After 17 days, he threw himself into the river on May 5, and took out his father's body five days later. It was passed down as a eulogy for the disciples of Handan Prefecture, and then made a monument to praise him. Therefore, it is said that the Dragon Boat Festival is also a day to commemorate the filial daughter Cao E.
Commemorative meson deduction
Jie Zitui is the protagonist of the legend of the origin of the cold food festival and the Qingming Festival. However, some people think that the origin of the Dragon Boat Festival is related to Jie Zitui. According to the Qin Cao written by Cai Yong in the Eastern Han Dynasty, the dragon boat festival commemorates the sage Jie Zitui.
Academic circles question the "theory of commemorating historical figures":
There are many theories about the origin of the Dragon Boat Festival, such as "the theory of commemorating Qu Yuan, the theory of commemorating Wu Zixu, the theory of commemorating Cao E, the theory of commemorating Jie Zi, the theory of starting from the summer solstice of the three generations, the theory of driving away the evil moon and the evil day", and so on. In the northern and Southern Dynasties, the Chinese side recorded the commemoration of the Dragon Boat Festival in the records of harmony in Qi by Wu Jun, a Liang man of the Southern Dynasty. Qu Yuan said that Zong Yu of the Liang Dynasty also had similar records in the records of Jingchu age.
For the "theory of commemorating historical figures", most academic circles believe that it is far fetched and unbelievable. In particular, the suspicious "Qu Yuan", Wen Yiduo believed that the binding of Qu Yuan and the Dragon Boat Festival appeared only in the "xuqi harmonic record" of Liang Wujun of the Southern Dynasty, and the Dragon Boat Festival existed long ago. Due to various problems in the biographies of Qu Yuan, many scholars refer to it as unreliable. As Hu Shi said, "the historical records was not very reliable, but the biographies of Qu Yuan and Jia Sheng are particularly unreliable." Hu Shi always doubted whether there was such a person as Qu Yuan, because there was no record of Qu Yuan in historical books before Sima Qian's biographies of Qu Yuan. During the period of more than 100 years from before Sima Qian to the time when Qu Yuan was in the Warring States period, the records of Qu Yuan were blank. Qu Yuan appeared for the first time in Sima Qian's biographies of Qu Yuan. If there was such a famous figure as Qu Yuan, there should not be a vacancy in the history books. Binding Qu Yuan and the Dragon Boat Festival together was a document of the Southern Dynasty, which was more than 700 years away from Qu Yuan's suicide by jumping into the river.
Historical records · biographies of Qu Yuan Jia Sheng and Chu Ci do not specify the specific time of Qu Yuan's throwing into the river. The earliest record of Qu Yuan's throwing into the river on May 5 is the myth and strange novel "xuqi harmonic record" written by Liang Wujun of the Southern Dynasty. According to the examination, many of the Dragon Boat Festival Customs spread to this day have nothing to do with Qu Yuan. According to the archaeological research of experts and the records of more than 100 ancient books listed in the Dragon Boat Festival examination and the history education of the Dragon Boat Festival by the scholar Wen Yiduo, the origin of the Dragon Boat Festival was the festival of totem sacrifice in ancient southern China, which was earlier than Qu Yuan. Commemorating historical figures, whether it is Wu Zixu, Jie Zitui, or Cao E, Chen Lin, Qu Yuan, the academic circles mostly believe that it is a fabricated speech attached to the meeting in later generations.
Taboo theory of evil day
It is believed that the Dragon Boat Festival originated from the "evil moon and evil day" (see Zhang Xinqin's examination of the Dragon Boat Festival not due to Qu Yuan). The ancients in the north of the Han Dynasty believed that may 5 was "a bad month and a bad day", and there was the custom of "not mentioning children born in May", that is, babies born on May 5, whether male or female, could not be raised. Once raised, men would harm their father and women would harm their mother. There have even been statements such as "when officials arrive in May, they will not move", "building houses in May makes people bald" and so on. Wang Chong of the Eastern Han Dynasty explained in Lun Heng that "no children will be born on May 5": "the husband will be born in the first month of the year, the sun will rise in May, and the son will be born in (this month). He is passionate and tired of his parents. His parents are unbearable and will suffer from it." It is generally believed that this custom has been popular since the Warring States period. This custom is recorded in Lun Heng by Wang Chong of the Eastern Han Dynasty, customs Tong by Ying Shao and the book of the later Han Dynasty. It is believed that may 5 is the evil day of the evil moon, so there have been relevant cultural activities, forming distinctive customs such as "avoiding the five poisons" and "avoiding the Dragon Boat Festival".
Summer solstice theory
Huang Shi was the first speaker to advocate the summer solstice. In 1963, he proposed in the book "history of Dragon Boat Festival etiquette and customs". The Dragon Boat Festival originated in ancient times like a trickle of water. The three generations converged into rivers, expanded into rivers in the Qin and Han Dynasties, and formed lakes and seas in the Tang and Song dynasties. In 1983, Mr. Liu Deqian believed that the Dragon Boat Festival came from the summer solstice of the summer, Shang and Zhou dynasties in another theory of the origin of the Dragon Boat Festival. In another theory of the origin of the Dragon Boat Festival and anecdotes on Chinese traditional festivals, Liu Deqian put forward three main reasons:
The book "Jingchu suishiji" did not mention the festival custom of eating zongzi on the fifth day of May, but wrote eating zongzi in the summer solstice. As for the race, the jade candle treasure book written by Du Taiqing of the Sui Dynasty classified it as an entertainment activity on the summer solstice.
Some contents of the customs of the Dragon Boat Festival, such as "stepping on hundreds of herbs", "fighting hundreds of herbs" and "picking miscellaneous herbs", are actually irrelevant to Qu Yuan.
The first explanation of the Dragon Boat Festival in the novel "when things were beautiful and beautiful" is: "the sun is shining, and the middle of the time, that is, the Dragon Boat Festival, is in summer, so the Dragon Boat Festival can also be called the mid day festival. Therefore, it is considered that the earliest origin of the Dragon Boat Festival was the summer solstice.
It is also believed that the Dragon Boat Festival originated from the "summer solstice" of the ancient calendar. In fact, the Ganzhi calendar begins with the beginning of spring. In ancient times, the solar terms were determined by the direction of the top of the big dipper handle. The "return of the dipper handle to Yin" is the beginning of spring, which refers to the beginning of all things and the meaning of all regeneration. The 24 solar terms are the basic content of the Ganzhi calendar. The Ganzhi calendar divides one year old into "Twelve Chens" (built in December), "Jian" represents the direction of the top of the big dipper handle; The rotation of the bucket handle points to "Twelve Chens" in turn. The bucket handle starts from due east by North (Gen position) and rotates clockwise for one cycle, which is called "one year old". The time and location of the main branches and the eight trigrams are linked. Yin position is the "gen position" of the eight trigrams after the day after tomorrow. It is the position of the end of the year and the beginning of the year. It represents the end and the beginning. For example, in the biography of Yi Shuogua: "gen, the hexagram of the northeast, the end and the beginning of everything." Therefore, the beginning of spring is the beginning of the year. "Summer solstice at the beginning of the year" is inconsistent with Bagua and the beginning of monthly construction.
Zhulan bath theory
According to the book of rites compiled by Dai Shengsuo, a ritual scientist in the Western Han Dynasty, there was a custom of "storing orchids and bathing" in the Zhou Dynasty; The ancients picked orchids in May, and the custom of bathing and detoxifying with orchid soup prevailed. "The book of Rites: Xia Xiaozheng": "in May,... Boiling plum is the fruit of beans, and storing orchids is the bath." Qu Yuan's "Nine Songs · prince in the clouds": "Yulan soup is very fragrant, and Chinese clothes are as beautiful as English." "The fifth day of May is called the bathing orchid festival," said the book of the age of Jingchu, written by Emperor Zong of Liang in the Southern Dynasty This custom spread to the Tang and Song Dynasties, also known as the moon of Yulan on the Dragon Boat Festival.
Gou Jian trained the Navy
According to Gao Cheng's article in the Song Dynasty, the Dragon Boat Festival originated from Gou Jian, the king of Yue, in the spring and Autumn period, so he practiced the water army every day. "Things are primitive" quoted "Yue Di Zhuan" as saying: "the race began with Gou Jian, the king of Yue. Now the dragon boat is also."
The Dragon Boat Festival is a popular folk festival among Chinese people. It has been a traditional custom of the Chinese nation since ancient times. Due to the vast territory and many stories and legends, there are not only many different Festival names, but also different customs in different places. Midsummer Dragon Boat Festival is an auspicious day when dragons fly in the sky. Offering sacrifices to dragons in the form of dragon boats is an important ritual and custom theme of the Dragon Boat Festival. This custom is still popular in the coastal areas of southern China. In addition, a series of Dragon Boat Festival customs have been derived from the number of yin and Yang techniques and seasons. According to the number of yin and Yang techniques, noon is Yang and double noon is Zhiyang. The ancients regarded the noon and three noon of the Dragon Boat Festival as the time of extreme Yang, which can best ward off Yin and evil. The ancients also regarded the Dragon Boat Festival as an auspicious year, which coincided with the summer solstice. It was called "Dragon Flower Festival", which was said to be "once in a lifetime". Summer is a time when Yin and Yang compete. Yang moves upward and Yin is forced downward. The afternoon and moon are pure Yang and healthy qi, which are feared by Yin and evil. Summer is also a season to expel the plague. In midsummer, the Yang of the Dragon Boat Festival is strong, and everything is prosperous. It is the strongest day of herbal medicine in a year. The herbal medicine collected on the Dragon Boat Festival is the most effective and effective for disease elimination and epidemic prevention. Due to the gathering of pure Yang and healthy qi in the world on the Dragon Boat Festival, which is the most beneficial to ward off Yin and evil and the magical characteristics of herbal medicine on this day, many Dragon Boat Festival Customs inherited from ancient times have the contents of warding off Yin and evil and eliminating disease and epidemic prevention, such as hanging wormwood, noon water, soaking dragon boat water, tying five-color silk thread to ward off evil, washing herbal medicine, fumigating Atractylodes, eliminating disease and epidemic prevention and so on.
Chinese culture has a long history, broad and profound. Ancient festivals are an important carrier of traditional culture. The formation of ancient festivals contains profound and rich cultural connotation. Ancient festivals pay attention to the belief of ancestors and sacrificial activities. The belief of ancestors is the core of ancient traditional festivals. There are many Dragon Boat Festival customs, with various forms, rich and colorful contents, lively and festive. Midsummer Dragon Boat Festival, the flying dragon is in the sky, the Dragon Qi is vigorous, and all evils are avoided. The Dragon Boat Festival is a folk festival integrating blessing and evil spirits, celebration, entertainment and diet. The customs of the Dragon Boat Festival are rich and colorful. These festivals revolve around the forms of offering sacrifices to the dragon, praying for blessings and fighting disasters, and place people's wishes to welcome auspicious blessings, ward off evil spirits and eliminate disasters. The Dragon Boat Festival has been a festive day for eating zongzi and raking dragon boats since ancient times. The lively Dragon Boat performances and happy food banquets during the Dragon Boat Festival are the embodiment of celebrating the festival. "
The Dragon Boat Festival has mixed a variety of folk customs in the historical development and evolution. Due to different regional cultures, there are differences in the content or details of customs all over the country. Dragon Boat Festival customs mainly include picking dragon boats, offering sacrifices to dragons, collecting herbs, hanging wormwood and Acorus calamus, worshipping gods and ancestors, washing herbal medicine, playing afternoon water, soaking dragon boats, eating zongzi, putting paper kites, watching dragon boats, tying five-color silk threads, lavender Atractylodes, wearing sachets, etc. Dragon Boat raking is very popular in the coastal areas of southern China. After it was spread abroad, it was deeply loved by people all over the world and formed an international competition. The custom of eating zongzi on the Dragon Boat Festival has been popular all over China since ancient times. It has become one of the most influential and widely covered folk eating customs of the Chinese nation. During the Dragon Boat Festival, the performance of traditional folk activities can not only enrich the people's spiritual and cultural life, but also inherit and carry forward the traditional culture. The Dragon Boat Festival culture has a wide influence in the world. Some countries and regions in the world also have activities to celebrate the Dragon Boat Festival.
[various traditional folk activities]:
Raking Dragon Boat
The ancient Yue people took the dragon as their totem. In order to show their identity as "dragon species", they not only had the custom of haircut tattoo, but also held a grand totem Festival on the fifth day of the fifth day of the fifth lunar month every year. Among them, there is a race game similar to today's, which is the origin of the race custom. Dragon Boat raking is an important activity of the Dragon Boat Festival. It is the festival instrument of ancient dragon totem sacrifice. It is also a relic custom. According to the first phase excavation report of Hemudu site, as early as 7000 years ago, ancient ancestors had made canoes with canoes and rowed with wooden oars. The earliest figure of "Dragon Boat Race" in China was found in village a, Yunlong Town, Yinzhou District, Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province. Dragon boat was originally a dragon shaped canoe carved on a single wooden boat, and later developed into a dragon shaped boat made of wood. Before the spring and Autumn period, some tribes worshipping dragon totems in ancient Baiyue area (the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the South) held tribal totem sacrifices in the form of dragon boat races on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month, which was the initial appearance of the dragon boat race on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month.
Dragon Boat raking has a long history and is a collective rowing competition for many people. Dragon boat race is divided into several sections, such as inviting the dragon, offering sacrifices to the Dragon God, swimming the dragon and collecting the dragon. Before the dragon boat race, a grand sacrificial ceremony is usually held. First, the dragon and God should be invited. Before the Dragon Boat Festival, choose an auspicious day to go out from under the water. After sacrificing God, install the dragon head and dragon tail, and then prepare for the race. Fujian and Taiwan went to Mazu temple to worship. In the past, when people offered sacrifices to the Dragon God, the atmosphere was very serious. They prayed for blessings, good weather, going astray, bustling about disasters and good luck in everything. In Zigui, the hometown of Qu Yuan in Hubei Province, there is also a ceremony of rowing a dragon boat to worship Qu Yuan.
Wormwood and Acorus calamus
All kinds of flowers and plants that can dispel evil spirits and diseases are arranged on the Dragon Boat Festival, which has a long source. People regard the planting of wormwood and Acorus calamus as one of the important contents of the Dragon Boat Festival. Like hanging wormwood on the door, "Jing Chu's age record": "gathering wormwood is like a person, hanging on the door to poison gas." This is because wormwood is an important medicinal plant. It can also make wormwood to treat diseases, moxibustion points and expel insects. May AI contains the most AI oil (this is the peak growth period of Wen). Therefore, it has the best effect, and people are competing to collect AI. A few wormwood plants are often hung at the door of the house. Due to the special fragrance of wormwood, people use it to drive away diseases, prevent mosquitoes and ward off evil spirits.
"Ai", also known as AI and Artemisia argyi, its stems and leaves contain volatile aromatic oil, which can drive away mosquitoes, flies, insects and ants and purify the air. The leaves of Acorus calamus also contain volatile aromatic oil, which is a drug for refreshing and dredging orifices, strengthening bones and eliminating stagnation, killing insects and sterilization. The legend that wormwood can exorcise evil spirits has been circulating for a long time, mainly because it has the function of medicine. For example, Zong Zhe's "Jingchu Sui Shi Ji" said: "when the chicken is not crowing, the person who picks wormwood looks like a human shape, takes it and receives it with moxibustion, which is very effective. It is the day that wormwood is picked as a human shape and hung in the house, which can poison gas."
Dragon Boat Festival rice dumplings
The shape of zongzi (glutinous rice dumplings), or Ruo shaped dumplings, is commonly known as "sticky rice dumplings" and "Ruo shaped dumplings". Zongzi has a long history. It was originally used as a tribute to the ancestors and gods. After it was introduced into the north, millet (millet produced in the North) was used as zongzi, which was called "jiaoshu". Due to the different eating habits of different places, zongzi has formed a north-south flavor; In terms of taste, zongzi can be divided into salty zongzi and sweet zongzi. The custom of eating zongzi at the Dragon Boat Festival has been popular in China for thousands of years. It has become one of the most influential and widely covered folk eating customs of the Chinese nation, and has spread to North Korea, Japan and Southeast Asian countries.
Put a paper kite
The paper kite, which pastes paper or silk on bamboo strips and other skeletons, pulls the long line tied on it, and can be put into the sky while taking advantage of the wind. It belongs to an aircraft that only uses aerodynamic force. In southern China, the release of paper kites by children on the Dragon Boat Festival is called "disaster release".
Herbal medicine is the Mulan Decoction recorded in ancient books. Washing herbal medicine on the Dragon Boat Festival can cure skin diseases and remove evil Qi. The Dragon Boat Festival is the most medicinal day of the year. Medicine is everywhere on the Dragon Boat Festival. During the Dragon Boat Festival, many places in China have the custom of picking herbs, boiling herbal medicine and bathing, in which the medicinal properties of Dragon Boat Festival herbs have played a vital role. "Picking miscellaneous medicines" in Volume 22 of "Sui Shi Guang Ji" quoted the lost article in "Sui Shi Ji of Jingchu": "competing for miscellaneous medicines on May 5 can cure all diseases." The extant written records about the custom of washing herbs and potions were first seen in the book of rites at the end of the Western Han Dynasty, but the orchid in the text is not an orchid, but a Perrin or herbal medicine of the composite family. It has fragrance and can be boiled and bathed. This custom still exists today and is widely popular. In Guangdong, children use bitter grass and wheat medicine or AI, PU, Impatiens, Magnolia and other flowers and plants to boil and wash, while teenagers and adult men go to rivers and seaside to take a shower, which is called washing dragon boat water, washing away bad luck and bringing good luck. In Hunan, Guangxi and other places, they use cypress leaves, gale roots, wormwood, Acorus calamus, peach leaves and other boiled medicine to take a bath. No matter men, women, old and young, the whole family takes a bath.
Tie five color silk thread
Tie five color silk thread
Tie five color silk thread
In Chinese traditional culture, the five colors "green, red, white, black and yellow", which symbolize five aspects and five elements, are regarded as auspicious colors. The Dragon Boat Festival was once a very popular festival custom with five-color silk thread to tie the arms. After passing on to later generations, it has developed into many kinds of beautiful ornaments such as long-life wisps, long-life locks, sachets and so on. The production has become increasingly exquisite and has become a unique folk art product of the Dragon Boat Festival.
On the Dragon Boat Festival, children should tie five colored silk threads on their wrists and ankles to ward off evil spirits. As a traditional custom, red, green, yellow, white and black thick silk thread is twisted into a colored rope, which is tied to a child's arm or neck. It is tied from May 5 until the birthday of Qiniang mother on Tanabata and burned together with Jinchu. It is also said that on the first rainy day after the Dragon Boat Festival, cutting off the colorful thread and throwing it in the rain means that the river will wash away the plague and disease. It is said that it can go to evil and bustle about disasters, which will bring good luck for a year.
Fetch afternoon water
Noon water is the water pumped up in the well at noon on the Dragon Boat Festival. "Playing noon water" on the Dragon Boat Festival is a traditional custom popular in the coastal areas of South China. At noon on the double ninth day, Yang is added to Yang, so "noon water" includes "Jiyang water", "Longmu water" and "Zhengyang water" It's called. The ancients regarded the noon water as a great auspicious water. On this day, the Yang Qi is the most abundant at noon, and the Dragon Boat Festival is the best to dispel evil spirits at noon, which has the effect of dispelling evil spirits, purifying the body and removing obstacles. It is said that afternoon water is used to make tea and wine, which is especially mellow. Raw drinking even has the miraculous effect of treating diseases. There is a proverb: "wash your eyes in the afternoon, and you will be like a black babbler in the morning". It is also said that "drinking water in the afternoon is better to take tonic for three years".
The Lunheng written by Wang Chong of the Eastern Han Dynasty records the etiquette and custom of "casting yangsui" on the Dragon Boat Festival: "yangsui takes fire from the sky. At the middle of the fifth day of May, it melts the five stones, casts them as tools, rubs them to stimulate light, and looks up to the sun, then the fire comes, which is also the way of true fire". The ancients believed that there was a triple fire in the afternoon of the moon and the sun, which was the time when Yang was at its peak. At this time, fire conquered gold, which was the best time to melt gold and cast mirrors. The cast bronze mirrors had incredible magical power. The custom of using mirrors to ward off evil spirits is widely used and inherited in the coastal areas of the south. It is common to see young children wearing silver mirrors and other accessories. Such small silver mirrors are used for children to ward off evil spirits. Newly built temples and Taoist temples are often decorated with bronze mirrors in the middle of their ridges. Even above the doors and windows of new buildings in modern communities, mirrors hanging can often be found, which are used to ward off evil spirits. It can be seen that the cultural belief of the mirror to ward off evil spirits is deeply rooted among the people.
Immersion in dragon boat water
Dragon boat water occurs from Xiaoman to summer solstice. In China's traditional culture, rain and dragon are linked. The dragon is not only an auspicious thing, but also the master of weathering and rain. The Dragon flies in the sky and clouds cover the rain. In terms of natural phenomena, during midsummer, it was the time when the green dragon seven nights flew to the South midheaven. In the Ci of the book of changes qiangua, it said: "the flying dragon is in the sky". Around the midsummer Dragon Boat Festival, the warm and humid air flow in southern China is active. It meets the cold air from the north to the south in southern China, and there is often continuous and large-scale heavy precipitation. When the Dragon Boat Festival heavy rainfall came, the river water level rose rapidly, providing good site conditions for Dragon Boat raking. Soaking in dragon boat water is a traditional custom popular in South China, because the dragon boat water implies good luck. People think that the dragon boat water and the water that the dragon boat slides over are "great auspicious water". According to the traditional saying, soaking in dragon boat water means good luck and everything goes well.
In the old time, the headdress of women in Duanwu Festival was mostly seen in Jiangnan. Some areas are also called healthy people. One theory of this thing originates from the ancient step shaking, and the other is the different form of AI people. "Qing Jia Lu" quoted "Tang and Song Yi Ji" as saying: "who is the north and south of the river? The five-day hairpin headdress is extremely skillfully prepared... It is equipped with flags and treasure covers, hydrangeas and tassels, bell bells and hundreds of shapes, or strings. It is called douniang, which is invincible."
Paste noon sign
In the old times, some places in Guangdong had the custom of pasting "noon sign". After lunch, every family pastes "noon sign". The symbol is a yellow note about one inch wide and nearly one foot long. On it, the words "noon book on May 5, the official and non tongue diseases, snakes, insects, rats and ants will be eliminated" are written in vermilion. Hang Acorus calamus, phoenix tail and Wormwood Leaves on the gate, tie a bunch of garlic and apply cinnabar to ward off evil spirits. Some people also pasted a small couplet written on yellow paper on the door: "Ai flag welcomes hundreds of blessings, Pu sword cuts thousands of evils."
Worship gods and ancestors
Worshipping gods and ancestors is one of the important customs of the Dragon Boat Festival. "Heaven and earth are the foundation of life; ancestors are the foundation of class." Heaven and earth are the foundation of life, and ancestors are the foundation of mankind. Ancestor worship is a custom of inheriting filial piety. Through sacrifice, we pray for and repay their protection and blessing.
The custom of daubing Realgar on children's forehead during the Dragon Boat Festival can drive away poisonous insects. The typical method is to use realgar wine to draw the word "King" on children's forehead. First, realgar is used to expel poison, and second, the fierce tiger ("the king" looks like a tiger, and the tiger is the king of animals, because it replaces the tiger) is used to suppress evil. In addition to the forehead, nose and ear, it can also be applied elsewhere with the same intention. Shanxi "Hequ County annals" said: "on the Dragon Boat Festival, drink realgar wine, and paint children's forehead, hands, feet and heart,... It is said that the disease can prolong life."
Fumigation of Atractylodes rhizome is one of the traditional customs activities of the Dragon Boat Festival. In the folk, Atractylodes rhizome is used to disinfect the air, that is, the natural Atractylodes rhizome is bound together. The thin smoke generated after combustion will not only emit fragrance, but also drive away mosquitoes and insects, which makes people refreshing.
Pick the Dragon Boat Festival pole
As an old custom in Ningbo, the hairy son-in-law wants to pick a "Dragon Boat Festival pole" and send it to his wife's house on the Dragon Boat Festival. "Dragon Boat Festival pole", less four colors, more eight colors, yellow croaker in pairs.
Hide the Dragon Boat Festival
Hiding Dragon Boat Festival, abbreviated as "hiding Dragon Boat Festival", also known as "hiding end five", is a local folk custom, which was spread in the Central Plains of northern China in the past. In ancient times, the northern customs took may and may 5 as the evil month and evil day. There were many things to avoid, because there was the custom of picking up women and returning home to avoid the Dragon Boat Festival. "Jiajing Longqing annals" also records that "married women call back the festival". Also, "luanzhou Chronicle": "the newly married woman, so the moon welcomes her home, which is called 'hiding the Dragon Boat Festival'.".
Avoid five poisons
The Dragon Boat Festival was a poisonous and evil day in the eyes of ancient northerners. This thought has been passed down among the people, so there are all kinds of Customs to seek peace and avoid five poisons. In fact, this is because the northern summer weather is dry and hot, people are easy to get sick, and the plague is also easy to spread; In addition, snakes and insects breed and are easy to bite people, which forms this habit. People believe that may is the time when the five poisons (scorpion, snake, centipede, gecko and toad) appear and disappear. Various methods should be used to prevent the harm of the five poisons. Generally, five poisons are pasted in the house, five poisons are painted on red paper, and then five needles are put on the five poisons, that is, the poisons are stabbed to death and can no longer run wild. The folk embroidered five poisons on clothes and ornaments, and decorated five poisons on cakes, all of which have the meaning of expelling.
Picking medicine and making herbal tea
Picking herbs is one of the oldest customs of the Dragon Boat Festival. According to the folk custom, the strong Yang of the Dragon Boat Festival is the day with the strongest medicinal properties of plants and trees in a year. Medicine is everywhere during the Dragon Boat Festival. This custom was formed on this day because the stems and leaves of herbs were mature and had good medicinal properties before and after the Dragon Boat Festival. Collecting herbs and setting various kinds of flowers and plants that can dispel evil spirits in the Dragon Boat Festival have a long history. This custom has been widely influenced in the Han Dynasty, and later gradually affected East Asian countries. The book of rites Xia Xiaozheng at the end of the Western Han Dynasty contained: "store medicine today to eliminate poison gas." "Picking miscellaneous medicines" in Volume 22 of "Sui Shi Guang Ji" quoted the lost article in "Sui Shi Ji of Jingchu": "competing for miscellaneous medicines on May 5 can cure all diseases." Chinese folk still generally retain the belief that the medicine adopted during the Dragon Boat Festival is the most effective. The principle supporting this kind of popular belief is naturally based on a cosmological explanation: at the noon of the Dragon Boat Festival or that day, due to seasonal changes, Yang Qi is extremely prosperous, but at the same time, it is also the most prosperous time for the growth of various herbs. Therefore, the herbs collected on that day are the most effective and effective.
Drink Pu wine, realgar wine and cinnabar wine
Drink Pu wine, realgar and cinnabar wine, and sprinkle with wine. "Jing Chu Sui Shi Ji": "use calamus or carving or scraps, and use cold wine." Pu wine tastes fragrant and refreshing. Later, realgar and cinnabar were added to the wine. Feng Yingjing of the Ming Dynasty wrote in the broad sense of the moon order: "on the fifth day, use cinnabar wine to ward off evil spirits and detoxify, and dye the forehead, chest, hands, feet and hearts with wine, so as to avoid the harm of Cobra (a poisonous snake said in ancient books). In addition, sprinkle walls, doors and windows to avoid poisonous insects." This custom spreads widely.
The medicine materials include realgar, Zhu Lei, Baizi, peach kernel, Pu Pian, wormwood leaf, etc. after people immerse in wine, they dip Acorus aipeng into the corners of the wall, doors and windows, under the bed, etc., and then apply wine to children's ears, nose and navel to drive away poisonous insects. These activities, from a health point of view, still have scientific reasons. Realgar water and wine can be disinfected and sterilized indoors, and drinking Pu sprinkle is also quite beneficial.
Dragon Boat Festival rain
It rains on the Dragon Boat Festival. In the south, it is called dragon boat water and Dragon Boat Festival water. Washing dragon boat water can remove bad luck and bring good luck. In the north, no rain on the Dragon Boat Festival is considered to be a good year. It rains on the Dragon Boat Festival, and ghosts flourish and people suffer disasters; At the whistle on May 5, people were exposed to medicine, and there was no disaster at the age of 20; Rain makes ghosts expose medicine, and people are sick; Such popular beliefs existed long ago; Chen Yuanliang quoted the synopsis as saying: "on May 5, the whistle, people exposed medicine, age without disaster. Rain, ghosts exposed medicine, people are sick." In addition, Xu Yueqing's "second rhyme Shu people lishizhou Fu Dragon Boat Festival" self Annotated: "people in Linchuan say that the Dragon Boat Festival is rainy, ghosts are prosperous, and people are in disaster; Zhao Huaiyu's poetry self annotated in the Qing Dynasty also cited the proverb" no rain on the Dragon Boat Festival is a good year ".
Jump Zhong Kui
Dancing Zhong Kui: a folk dance, also known as "playing Zhong Kui". It is reported that jumping Zhong Kui, originated from the Northern Song Dynasty, is a traditional folk performance left over from ancient Huizhou. It has many contents, such as "going on a tour", "marrying a sister" and "eliminating five poisons", which reflects the people's admiration for Zhong Kui's integrity and good wishes for eliminating harm and blessing. Among the people, "Zhong Kui" is a symbol of avoiding evil and strengthening health. Jumping Zhong Kui on the Dragon Boat Festival means eliminating the five poisons, peace in four seasons and a long life. In the Qing Dynasty, most residents in Jiangsu and Zhejiang areas in the south of the Yangtze River hung the picture of Zhong Kui in the gate or hall in May of the lunar calendar for one month, in order to expel evil and harm, dispel evil and attract happiness.
Fighting grass is a folk game derived from the collection of herbs. Go out on the Dragon Boat Festival to find some strange flowers and plants to compete with each other, and win with the one with novelty or many varieties. It is generally believed that it is related to the emergence of traditional Chinese medicine. Before the Han Dynasty, there was no play of fighting grass. Fighting grass reports the names of flowers and grasses to each other in the form of confrontation. Many win. It has both plant knowledge and literary knowledge; Children are hooked with petioles, pinched and pulled. Those who break lose, and then fight with another leaf. According to Zong Jia, a Liang Dynasty man, in his book the age of Jingchu, it said: "on May 5, the four people stepped on grass together, and there was a play of fighting grass."
Polo is riding on a horse and playing with a stick. It was called bowing in ancient times. There is no custom of dragon boat race in northern China, but they shoot willows and play polo on the Dragon Boat Festival, which obviously comes from the competitive customs of nomadic nationalities in the north. Polo is riding on a horse and playing with a stick. It was called bowing in ancient times.
Zong Zhen: the Dragon Boat Festival Diet Zong is a traditional custom in China. There are many shapes and varieties of Zong, generally including regular triangle, regular quadrangle, sharp triangle, square, long and other shapes. Due to the different flavors in different parts of China, there are mainly sweet and salty.
Realgar wine: the custom of drinking realgar wine on the Dragon Boat Festival was very popular in the Yangtze River Basin. Baijiu or yellow wine made from grinding realgar powder. Realgar can be used as an antidote and insecticide. Therefore, the ancient people believed that realgar could restrain snakes, scorpions and other insects. "It is good to kill hundreds of poisons, ward off hundreds of evils and make poisonous insects. People admire it. When entering the mountains and forests, tigers and wolves fall in love, and when entering the Sichuan water, hundreds of poisons are avoided.".
Wuhuang: there is a custom of eating "Wuhuang" on the Dragon Boat Festival in Jiangsu and Zhejiang. Wuhuang refers to yellow croaker, cucumber, Monopterus albus, duck egg yolk and realgar wine (realgar wine is toxic and generally drinks ordinary rice wine instead of realgar wine). There are other claims that salted duck eggs can be replaced by soybeans. In May of the lunar calendar, Jiangnan is called the five yellow month.
Cake making: the Dragon Boat Festival is a grand festival for the Korean people in Yanbian, Jilin Province. The most representative food on this day is the fragrant cake. Rice cakes are rice cakes made of Artemisia and glutinous rice, which are placed in a large wooden slot chiseled by a single wood and beaten with a long handle wooden hammer. This festive atmosphere can be added with national characteristics.
Fried pile: in Jinjiang area, Fujian Province, every family has to eat "fried pile" on the Dragon Boat Festival, which is made by mixing flour, rice flour or sweet potato powder and other ingredients into a thick paste. It is said that in ancient times, there was a rainy season in Southern Fujian before the Dragon Boat Festival, with continuous overcast and rainy. The people said that the God wore a hole and wanted to "mend the sky". The rain stopped after eating the "fried pile" on the Dragon Boat Festival. People say the sky has been mended. This food custom comes from it.
[National Dragon Boat Festival cuisine]
Korea: wormwood cake + cherry tea + Minmin soup
In South Korea, the Dragon Boat Festival is used to offer sacrifices to ancestors, pray for good harvests and bless health. During the Dragon Boat Festival, Koreans like to eat wormwood cake and wormwood cake, taste cherry tea and drink Minmin soup.
Japan: zongzi / mistletoe cake + Acorus calamus wine
Zongzi was called "Mao roll" in ancient Japan, which was conical. At first, the japonica rice was steamed and mashed into an adult cake, wrapped with grass leaves, and then boiled in water. Later, it was wrapped with Acorus calamus leaves, bamboo leaves and reed leaves, and the production methods were gradually diversified.
Singapore: niangya zongzi
Every year on the Dragon Boat Festival, Singaporeans also have the custom of racing dragon boats and eating zongzi. Niangya zongzi is a unique Dragon Boat Festival cuisine in Singapore. The unique spice "coriander powder" is mixed with soy sauce, carefully pickled high-grade lean meat, then mixed with sweet and refreshing white gourd strips, and finally wrapped in white and glittering glutinous rice.
Vietnam: yellow ginger glutinous rice + square zongzi
During the Dragon Boat Festival, Vietnamese people will prepare yellow ginger and glutinous rice to thank their ancestors for their kindness, bring sufficient food and clothing to future generations, and pray for their ancestors to bless good weather and bumper grain. In addition, Vietnamese people believe that the yellow ginger in the yellow ginger rice has the effects of avoiding plague, detoxification and preventing sore.
In addition to rowing dragon boats, the Dragon Boat Festival custom in Jiangsu mainly includes zongzi, realgar wine and five yellow banquet. The festival decoration includes five poison map, Acorus calamus and Wormwood Leaves, hanging bell Kui image, color thread wrapped around arms, hanging silk thread zongzi, wearing five poison clothes, tiger head shoes, wearing sachets, etc. Wujin has a night dragon boat play. At night, small lights are hung on all sides of the dragon boat to compete, and there are flute and drum songs. Gaoyou's Dragon Boat Festival is special. There are customs such as tying baisuozi, pasting five poisons, pasting symbols, releasing yellow cigarettes and eating "twelve red". Children hang "duck egg complex", that is, pick good-looking duck eggs, put them in the complex formed by colored lines and hang them in front of their chest.
The Dragon Boat Festival is a special festival with a long history, rich content and diverse cultures and customs. In a general sense, ancestor worship, dragon boat racing, eating zongzi, dragon head worship, dragon eyes, red, hanging Acorus calamus Wormwood Leaves, tying five color silk, drinking realgar wine, eating five yellow, wearing sachets, picking herbs and so on are common customs, but there are differences in the content or details of customs.
It is forbidden to draw well water during the Dragon Boat Festival in Peiping. It is often pre drawn before the festival. It is said that it is to avoid well poison. Market vendors also sell cherry mulberries on the Dragon Boat Festival. It is said that they eat cherry mulberries on the Dragon Boat Festival, but they don't eat flies all year round. Each stove food shop sells "five poison cakes", that is, cakes decorated with five kinds of poisonous insect patterns.
On the Dragon Boat Festival in Zouping County, Shandong Province, each person needs to drink a glass of wine early. It is said that it can ward off evil spirits. Sunshine and Dragon Boat Festival wrap children with five-color lines. On the Dragon Boat Festival in Linqing County, boys under the age of seven wear amulets (necklaces made by Mai Jian) and girls wear pomegranate flowers. They also wear yellow cloth shoes made by their mother, and five kinds of poisonous insects are painted on the vamp with a brush. Jimo washes his face with dew on the morning of the Dragon Boat Festival.
Eating zongzi on the Dragon Boat Festival is a traditional custom of the urban and rural people in Shanxi Province; It is customary to make Zongzi on the first day of the Dragon Boat Festival. Traditional zongzi is filled with millet, supplemented with red dates, wrapped with reed leaves and mixed with sugar. Drinking realgar wine is also an important custom of Shanxi folk dragon boat festival. It is mainly used for disease prevention and detoxification.
During the Dragon Boat Festival in Xing'an Prefecture, Shaanxi Province, local officials led their subordinates to watch the race, which is called "stepping on a stone". On the Dragon Boat Festival in Xingping County, small corns are sewn with silk and silk, and a small doll is sewn below, which is called "playing Doll". Tongguan County Dragon Boat Festival to puai, paper cattle paste the door, known as "town disease".
In Jingning Prefecture, Gansu Province, roses are picked at the Dragon Boat Festival and pickled with honey. The Dragon Boat Festival in Zhenyuan County presents incense fans, Luo Qi, towel handkerchiefs and AI Hu to newlyweds. Shepherd boys worship mountain gods in Zhangxian county. Jixinqiu, commonly known as "burning high mountains", is burned before chickens crow.
In Sichuan, there are customs such as bathing with wormwood leaf water.
In the old days, there was the custom of "typing" in Western Sichuan during the Dragon Boat Festival. In some areas of Mianyang and Suining, there is a tradition of eating steamed noodles at the Dragon Boat Festival. The specific origin needs to be verified.
In the old time, Jianchang Prefecture in Jiangxi Province used herbal water to take a bath during the Dragon Boat Festival to prevent scabies. Xinchang County drank it in realgar and dansha wine, which is called "eye opening".
In Bahe Town, Huanggang City, Hubei Province, Nuo people were welcomed with corolla tattoos and gold crowns to chase the epidemic. The Dragon Boat Festival race in Zigui County, Yichang city is especially popular on May 13, 14 and 15. There are other activities to commemorate doctor Qu, such as sacrifice and soul summoning; On this day, there is also the custom of drying water to bathe children. May 15 is also known as the "Big Dragon Boat Festival", and May 25 is also known as the "end of the Dragon Boat Festival". Eating zongzi and drinking Pu wine are the same as the Dragon Boat Festival.
On the Dragon Boat Festival in Youxian County, Hunan Province, pregnant women, the rich eat with flowers and wine, the poor prepare chicken wine, and use bamboo paper money to pray for safe production in front of the dragon head of the dragon boat. Yuezhou government thought it was a disaster and a disease. It is also used as a grass boat to flood the water, which is called "sending plague".
In addition to rowing dragon boats and offering sacrifices to ancestors, the Dragon Boat Festival custom in Guangdong also has the "noon symbol" pasted by families after lunch. At noon, they worship their gods with fruits and zongzi, burn wormwood and smoke the corners of the house, which is called "expelling mosquitoes, insects and Demons". Mix cinnabar with realgar wine and dot a red dot on the child's forehead, chest and palm to avoid evil spirits; And the custom of soaking "dragon boat water", "new holding technology" and "sending disaster".
The Dragon Boat Festival Customs in Fujian mainly include boiling zongzi water to wash yourself, smoking yellow smoke, sending fish, instigating Luo dance, dragon boat racing, tying five-color silk thread, taking orchid water bath, picking herbs as afternoon tea, offering sacrifices to ancestors, catching ducks on water, eating peaches, zongzi, fried heaps, bowls of Taiping swallow, etc.
Every Dragon Boat Festival in Hainan, in addition to making and eating zongzi, there are also traditional customs such as washing dragon boat water, racing dragon boats, dispelling five poisons and sacrificing ancestors. It is recorded in the annals of Yazhou that "on the Dragon Boat Festival in May, there was a dragon boat race in Baoping. It was used to make dumplings for the horn, worship the ancestors and feed the legacy. It also collected reed flowers, herbs and Acorus calamus, soaked in water for the God and bathed the body. Or it was used to break the AI hanging door to prevent the epidemic.
Like the mainland, dragon boat rowing is the most exciting and exciting part of the Dragon Boat Festival in Taiwan. Major rivers across Taiwan hold grand dragon boat races on the day of the Dragon Boat Festival. Taiwan's Dragon Boat Festival has the custom of "bathing bitter grass", which uses bitter grass, Acorus calamus, wormwood and other boiled water to bathe children to get rid of all kinds of diseases; Some places take a bath with "afternoon water".
Japan has had the tradition of Chinese festival since ancient times. In Japan, the custom of Dragon Boat Festival was introduced into Japan from China after the Heian era. Since the Meiji era, all festivals have been changed to Gregorian calendar days. The Dragon Boat Festival in Japan is on May 5 of the Gregorian calendar. After the custom of Dragon Boat Festival spread to Japan, it was absorbed and transformed into Japanese traditional culture. The Japanese do not row dragon boats on this day, but they also eat zongzi and hang calamus grass in front of the door like the Chinese. In 1948, the Dragon Boat Festival was officially designated as a statutory children's day by the Japanese government and became one of the five major festivals in Japan.
The Dragon Boat Festival has become a traditional custom. The Japanese call it "Ai flag attracts hundreds of blessings and Pu sword cuts thousands of evils". The special diet of the festival includes Japanese zongzi and cypress cake.
People on the Korean Peninsula believe that the Dragon Boat Festival is a celebration and a time to worship heaven. Koreans call the Dragon Boat Festival "Shangri", which means "God's Day". In the period of agricultural society on the Korean Peninsula, people participated in traditional sacrificial activities to pray for a good harvest. During the sacrifice, activities with Korean local characteristics such as masked dance drama, Korean wrestling, swing and Taekwondo competition will be held. On this day, South Korea will worship mountain gods, wash their hair with Acorus water, eat wheel cakes, swing and wear traditional Korean clothes, but do not row dragon boats or eat zongzi.
On November 25, 2005, it was designated as the oral and intangible heritage of mankind by UNESCO. In the text of South Korea's declaration of "Dragon Boat Festival festival", the first sentence is "Dragon Boat Festival was originally a Chinese festival and has been spread to South Korea for more than 1500 years". It can be seen that it originally comes from China. Its original name "Jiangling Festival" has a history of more than 1000 years. It was not until 1926 that it was renamed "Jiangling Dragon Boat Festival" because it lasted from April 15 to May 7 of the lunar calendar, which was similar to China's Dragon Boat Festival.
Whenever the Dragon Boat Festival comes, Chinese in Singapore will never forget to eat zongzi and race dragon boats.
The Dragon Boat Festival in Vietnam is the fifth day of may in the Vietnamese calendar, also known as Zhengyang Festival. There is a custom of eating zongzi on the Dragon Boat Festival.
Since the 1980s, the dragon boat race has quietly penetrated into the sports habits of some Americans and has become one of the fastest-growing popular sports and entertainment in the United States.
Dragon Boat Racing in the Dragon Boat Festival culture has taken root in Germany for 20 years.
In the UK, the influence of the whole UK Chinese Dragon Boat Festival Dragon Boat race has expanded year by year, and has become the largest dragon boat race in the UK and even Europe.
Pre Qin Period
The Dragon Boat Festival was originally a festival for ancient tribes in Baiyue area (the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the South) to hold totem sacrifices. Before the spring and Autumn period, there was a custom of holding tribal totem sacrifices in the form of dragon boat races on the fifth day of may in the lunar calendar. According to the prehistoric culture of Hemudu site, canoes and wooden oars were used for racing as early as 7000 years or earlier. According to textual research, the prerequisite for Dragon Boat Racing must be in areas with rice production and many river ports, which is the characteristic of southern China. A large number of unearthed cultural relics and Archaeological Studies in modern times show that as early as the ancient times, Baiyue ancestors created a bright and high civilization. The ancient ancestors took the "dragon" as the totem. At that time, the Dragon Boat Festival was actually a festival to worship the Dragon ancestor.
The Han Dynasty was the first period of great development after China's reunification. The economic and cultural exchanges between the north and the South made the customs integrate with each other. The ancients recorded the year, the month, the day and the time, and the heavenly stems and earthly branches were commonly used. In the afternoon, the moon and the afternoon, "Zhongzheng" was also used. In the Han Dynasty, the north and South were unified and the calendar changed. In order to facilitate the festival, the imperial court stipulated that the annual Dragon Boat Festival should be changed to May 5 of the lunar calendar. According to the existing literature records, the Dragon Boat Festival Customs in some parts of the North during the Han Dynasty were mainly to avoid evil.
Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties
During the Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties, due to the frequent wars, people suffered from the war. Therefore, the Dragon Boat Festival custom that some places paid most attention to was "setting up troops". As a way of social life, with the development of society, on the one hand, customs will be affected by the ideology of the upper class. On the other hand, the activities of many people with lofty ideals in history will inevitably accumulate in customs life. Therefore, the Dragon Boat Festival originated from the primitive worship of the people, but it was given the content of commemorating historical figures in the late Han, Wei and Jin Dynasties.
Sui and Tang Dynasties
During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the Dragon Boat Festival inherited the customs and forms of the previous dynasty. In written records, most festival customs and activities have evolved into Festival entertainment activities, which are full of festival joy. Tang Xuanzong's "Dragon Boat Festival banquet in three halls" and the ministers found the word of God ˙ In the preface to the poem, it is recorded that the Royal Palace was in a grand occasion on the Dragon Boat Festival, and elegant officials were summoned to a large banquet, "the broad hall was solemn and clean, and the trees were deep and windy".
The Dragon Boat Race in the Tang Dynasty is especially worth a visit. In the heyday of the Tang Dynasty, the economy was prosperous and people's life was relatively stable. In terms of festival entertainment, on the one hand, the upper authorities followed the lower ones and became a common practice. On the other hand, some folk customs and activities were also supported by the government. Therefore, the wind of racing is particularly prosperous.
After the Song Dynasty, many customs of the Dragon Boat Festival have undergone new changes. In the Han and Wei dynasties, Zhu Suo and Tao seal were applied to the door to stop evil gas, drive away plague and ward off evil spirits, while the Song Dynasty paid attention to pasting Heavenly Master symbols. Chen Yuanliang quoted "miscellaneous notes of the age" in his "the age of the year" as saying: "on the Dragon Boat Festival, people draw pictures of heavenly masters to sell." In addition, he Ni was made Heavenly Master Zhang, with AI as the head and garlic as the fist, which was placed on the door.
In Song Dynasty, the custom of Dragon Boat Festival was also absorbed by Liao and Jin. In the Dragon Boat Festival, there are worship of heaven, the custom of shooting willows and bowing entertainment activities.
Ming and Qing Dynasties
In the Ming Dynasty, the Dragon Boat Festival absorbed the custom of shooting willows from the Jin people. The Dragon Boat Festival was also called "daughter's Day" in the Ming Dynasty. "A brief view of the imperial capital" said: "from May 1 to 5, every family played the role of a little girl, hairpin with durian flowers, saying 'daughter's Day'." Not only the festival names are different from those of the Song Dynasty, but also the folk customs have changed. There is no river in the north, so there is no race.
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the forms of customs and activities of the Dragon Boat Festival changed little, but the scale became more and more popular. In particular, the Dragon Boat Race in the South has become a sensational event. According to the "Wuling race strategy", the dragon boat race is no longer limited to the Dragon Boat Festival. Instead, it means "unveiling the canopy on April 8, launching the new boat on April 1, boating and gambling on April 10 and 15, and sending the bid on April 18".
Since the Republic of China, after decades of changing customs, many old customs of the Dragon Boat Festival have been forgotten, but the Dragon Boat Festival is still a popular traditional festival among the people, and zongzi is an indispensable festival food.
On May 20, 2006, the folk custom of the Dragon Boat Festival was included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council.
On December 7, 2007, the 198th executive meeting of the State Council adopted the decision of the State Council on Amending the measures for the holidays of national annual festivals and commemorative days, officially listing the Dragon Boat Festival as a national legal holiday and stipulating that the Dragon Boat Festival in the lunar calendar has a one-day holiday.
In May 2009, China has started the process of applying for the world intangible cultural heritage of the Dragon Boat Festival, and the declared heritage name is "China Dragon Boat Festival". On September 30, 2009, at the fourth meeting of the Intergovernmental Committee for the protection of intangible cultural heritage of UNESCO, 76 projects listed in the list of representative works of human intangible cultural heritage were considered and approved in Abu Dhabi, UAE on September 30, among which China's "Dragon Boat Festival" was listed. This is the first festival in China to be selected as the world's intangible cultural heritage.
Traditional festivals have always been complementary to traditional culture. There are many excellent poems celebrating the Dragon Boat Festival, describing the scene of the Dragon Boat Festival, as well as poems in memory of the ancients.
Ballad: May 5 is the Dragon Boat Festival. The door is inserted with AI and the hall is full of incense; Eat zongzi, sprinkle sugar, and the dragon boat goes into the water happily
There are many proverbs about the Dragon Boat Festival. The excerpts are as follows:
"Palm seed fragrance, fragrant kitchen; wormwood leaf fragrance, fragrant hall; peach branches inserted in the door, go out and look at wheat yellow; Duanyang here, Duanyang there, Duanyang everywhere." This nursery rhyme sings the traditional Chinese festival "Dragon Boat Festival".
Willows are inserted during the Qingming Festival and wormwood is inserted during the Dragon Boat Festival. (North)
Toad can't hide from May 5. (Beijing)
Dragon Boat Festival does not wear AI, die and become a monster. (northwest)
A mouthful of water at noon is better for tonic for three years. (South)
After drinking realgar wine, you will lose all your diseases. (Shanxi)
Money can't buy the drought on May 5. (Shanxi)
Do not eat dragon boat festival dumplings, cold clothes can not be sent; Eat the dragon boat festival dumplings, but also freeze three times. (Baoshan, Shanghai)
Dragon Boat Festival, hot weather; Five poisons wake up, restless. (Jiangsu and Zhejiang)
Dragon Boat Festival (five) please Bodhisattva, six hair squid. (Jiangsu and Zhejiang)
Five days is a good time to grow old together and wish you a thousand years. (Jiangsu)
Pang Pang Zhuan, chrysanthemum garden, fried rice cakes, glutinous rice balls, the fifth Dragon Boat Festival in May, my mother asked me to see the dragon boat. (Guangdong)
Before eating may Zong, the bedding is not loose. Before eating may zongzi, the broken fur is unwilling to let go. If you don't eat may zongzi, don't let go of the broken fur. Before eating may rice dumplings, don't wear cold clothes for a long time. May rice dumplings are not eaten, and cold clothes are not long. Eating may dumplings, cold clothes income bar, not eating may dumplings, cold clothes dare not send. Before eating may rice dumplings, you can't wear cold clothes for a long time. After eating may rice dumplings, you can't turn the wind again in a hundred days. (Guangdong)
The Dragon Boat Festival sells monthly calendars - --- out of date.
Toads hide from the Dragon Boat Festival --- they can't hide from the 15th day of the first day of the lunar new year.
Yellow croaker in the Dragon Boat Festival --- in Shengshi.
There are many theories about the origin of the Dragon Boat Festival, which has also been endowed with a lot of cultural connotation.
Cultural implication: behind the discussion on whether to say "happy" or "well-being" for the blessing of the Dragon Boat Festival is the people's exploration of the essence and traditional face of the festival, hoping to restore the cultural connotation of the Dragon Boat Festival in its original way.
Patriotism: people commemorate Qu Yuan not only because of his artistic attainments, but also because of his great soul and deep patriotism.
Feelings of home and country: the feelings of home and country in the Dragon Boat Festival are more necessary to carry forward. For many people, the Dragon Boat Festival is a small and long holiday, but for many people working in front-line posts, such as medical workers, community workers, passenger transport workers and sanitation workers, it is still the rhythm of "fighting". It is their silent persistence and weight-bearing forward that leads to the "healthy" Dragon Boat Festival. Their behavior itself is an interpretation of the feelings of home and country, and it is also worthy of the gratitude of the whole society.
Sense of ceremony: every Dragon Boat Festival, all localities will organize various festival activities - reading "Lisao", making zongzi, making sachets, rowing dragon boats and so on. Through these activities, the sense of ceremony of the festival is built, and people are gradually close to the tradition in the process of participation.
Sincere love: the sincere love for the motherland and the nation carried by the Dragon Boat Festival is enough to condense the majestic force of our continuous struggle and struggle.
Inheritance responsibility: the Dragon Boat Festival, the Spring Festival, the Qingming Festival and the Mid Autumn Festival are known as the four traditional festivals in China. It is the responsibility entrusted to us by history to inherit and carry forward the cultural connotation of the Dragon Boat Festival.
2021. According to the notice of the general office of the State Council on the arrangement of some holidays in 2021 (Guo Ban Fa Zhan Dian  No. 27), the Dragon Boat Festival is a three-day holiday from June 12 to 14.
On October 25, 2021, the notice of the general office of the State Council on the arrangement of some holidays in 2022 was issued. The Dragon Boat Festival in 2022: three days from June 3 to 5.
The Dragon Boat Festival
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