Shangsi Festival, commonly known as March 3, is a traditional festival of the Han nationality. It was set as the fourth day in early March before the Han Dynasty, and later fixed on the third day of March in the summer calendar. Shangsi Festival is the most important festival in the ancient activities of "taking a bath beside the river". People go to the water to take a bath together, which is called "taking a bath". Since then, sacrificial banquets, Qushui flowing wine cups, spring outings in the suburbs and so on have been added.
In ancient times, "Ganzhi" was used to record the day. The first day in early March was called "Shangsi". The word "Shangsi" was first included in the literature of the early Han Dynasty. Zheng Xuan's note in the book of rites of the Zhou Dynasty: "it was eliminated when I was old, and now it is like water in March." After the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the festival period of Shangsi festival was changed to the third day of the third month of the lunar calendar, so it is also called "double third" or "March third".
Shangsi Festival is said to originate from the witchcraft activities of LAN Tang to ward off evil spirits. LAN Tang is used to drive away evil spirits. Orchid was used as a spiritual object and had the characteristics of aroma. The ancients had to fast before holding a major sacrificial ceremony, including the best bathing method "orchid soup bathing" at that time.
Shangsi Festival Wiki:
|Chinese name||Shangsi Jie|
|alias||March 3, spring bathing day, Chinese Valentine's day, daughter's Day|
|Holiday time||the 3rd day of the third lunar month|
|Festival type||Han traditional festivals|
|Festival origin||Sacrificial rites and bank baths|
|Festival activities||Spring bath, outing, winding water flowing wine|
|Holiday diet||Eat fried flowers, drink flower tea and black rice|
|Holiday significance||Cultural inheritance|
|Set time||Pre Qin Era|
In ancient times, Shangsi festival was the day of "Yi Yi", and there was the custom of holding an ominous sacrifice on the waterfront. Shangsi Festival has a long history and lack of records. The word "Shangsi" was first included in the literary works of the Han Dynasty. After the Wei and Jin Dynasties, Shangsi festival was changed to March 3, and gradually became a festival for drinking and feasting by the water and spring outing in the suburbs.
It is said that Shangsi festival originated from LAN Tang's Witchcraft activities to ward off evil spirits. When Lantang bathing becomes a kind of magic to ward off evil spirits, this bathing activity must be organized and led by a full-time witch.
Shangsi festival originated from the witchcraft activity of LAN Tang to ward off evil spirits. In this activity, orchids are used as spiritual objects. Orchid has the characteristic of striking aroma. The ancients had to fast before holding major sacrificial ceremonies, including the best bathing method at that time - Orchid soup bathing. LAN Tang is used for bathing. The only difference is that Lan Tang bathing is a personal behavior, which is mostly indoors and can be implemented at any time. Yi is a collective activity, which must be held on the riverside and must be held regularly.
Another view is that Shangsi festival originated from the reproductive worship of ancestors. For example, Tao Siyan pointed out that the activity of "Yi Yi" is originally a belief behavior of men and women having a happy spring day and women praying for pregnancy, while bathing with orchids or aromatic herbs is a function of arousing desire. Water is a mysterious sentient substance. Women near the river not only want to wash away the dust in winter, but also hope to get pregnant and have children by touching water. This belief of near water colonization, which is related to primitive religion, should be the real reason for the customs of the last day of March (a probe into customs).
Others believe that Shangsi festival originated from the festival to commemorate the Yellow Emperor Xuanyuan. It is said that March 3 is the birthday of the Yellow Emperor. There is a saying in the central plains that "on February 2, the Dragon rises; on March 3, the Xuanyuan is born".
Shangsi Festival has a long history. In ancient times, it has become a large-scale folk festival. In spring and Jingming, people go out of their homes and gather by the water to hold an ominous elimination ceremony. "Shangsi" was first included in the literature of the early Han Dynasty. "Zhou Li" Zheng Xuan's note: "when I was old, I got rid of it. Now in March, it's like water." Shangsi Festival is the most important festival in the ancient activities of "removing the riverside bath". "The Analects of Confucius": "in late spring, spring clothes are completed, five or six people are crowned, and six or seven children are bathed in Yi, the wind dances in rain, and return home with chants." It is written about the situation of Yi at that time. Yi is to go to the waterfront to wash, remove the dirt, and take away the disaster and bad luck. It has the meaning of praying. "The book of the later Han Dynasty": "it is the last day of the month, and the officials and people are all clean on the East flowing water. It is said that washing and washing, removing the sleeping dirt, is great cleanliness". The article says that it is a custom to clean the body with running water and let disasters and diseases go with the water.
After the Wei and Jin Dynasties, due to the trend of advocating nature and indulging in mountains and rivers in the society at that time, the significance of eliminating the last festival was greatly weakened for people, and the meaning of enjoying tourism in the spring became more and more strong. The Western Jin Dynasty's "Xia Zhong Yu biezhuan" describes Luoyang in the past as "the male is Zhu Fuyao, the female is Jinqi charming and rotten". The date of Shangsi Festival is set on the third day of the third month of the lunar calendar. In the Wei and Jin Dynasties, Shangsi festival gradually evolved into a festival for royal families, nobles, ministers and scholars to feast on the water, which derived another important custom of Shangsi Festival - Qushui flowing wine, that is, drinking.
By the Tang Dynasty, Shang had become one of the grand festivals at that time. The content of the festival is mainly spring outings, outings and banquets near the water, in addition to the cultivation. Song Wu Zimu wrote in menglianglu Volume II: "the Tang Dynasty gave banquets to Qujiang and poured all the capital into drinking for outing", which is exactly the scene of men, women, young and old in Chang'an City, feasting and outing on the Bank of Qujiang on that day. Du Fu's "a trip of beauties" also describes this grand occasion: "the weather is new on March 3, and there are many beauties by the water in Chang'an..." Bai Juyi, a poet of the middle Tang Dynasty, also recorded the grand event in detail in his article "a banquet of thanking Qujiang on March 3".
After the Song Dynasty, the Shangsi Festival on March 3 suddenly disappeared in the north and was not recorded in the literature, but it still spread in the southwest of the south.
March 3rd is also called daughter's day, also known as "Peach Blossom Festival". It is an adult ceremony for Han girls in ancient times. It is generally held on this day. The girls "play in the spring", walk near the water, play with orchids by the water, put on beautiful clothes, sing and dance to dispel evil spirits. And women love to play by the water in spring.
Different from Japanese daughter's day, Japanese daughter's Day is also on March 3, also known as "chick sacrifice". Because March 3 of the old calendar is the time when peach blossoms are in full bloom, it is also called "Peach Blossom Festival", which was introduced into Japan during the Sui and Tang Dynasties. However, the difference is that Japan also celebrates the festival for young girls, mainly for young girls, while China focuses more on young girls who are not out of the cabinet. On this day, adults begin to dress up the little girls at home, all dressed up, The mother led each other to visit each other, wearing pomegranate flowers to ward off evil spirits and seek blessings.
This is Chinese Valentine's day, recorded in the book of songs, 1000 years earlier than Western Valentine's day. After the pre Qin Dynasty, Valentine's day on March 3 has been passed down from generation to generation. In the Tang Dynasty, Du Fu's sentence "the weather is new on March 3, and there are many beautiful people by the water in Chang'an" even baked its swaying and beautiful style to a high place. Since the Song Dynasty, Neo Confucianism prevailed, etiquette became more and more strict, and the custom of Valentine's day on March 3 gradually declined in Chinese culture. The romantic love, beautiful vision and elegant taste of Qushui flowing cup in March have disappeared so far.
One of the main activities of Shangsi Festival is the meeting of men and women, that is, the "Valentine's Day" for men and women to express their love. According to the book of songs, Zheng Feng and Qin Yu, "Qin and Yu are clear. Scholars and women are full of Yin. Women say, 'what do you think?' scholars say: 'now.' and when you look beyond them, Xuxu is happy. Weishi and women will joke with each other and give them a spoon of medicine."
Shangsi Festival has a long history. In ancient times, it has become an important festival for people to hold "Tui in addition to the bank bath". At this time, in spring and Jingming, people come to the water to hold sacrifices, wash and remove dirt and eliminate ominous. It is called Tui, also known as spring bathing day. In the northern part of China, it is not expected that people can fly to the Yellow River late in the cold season, because the latitude of the river is too high. Probably in the Jin Dynasty, the custom of splashing water on the river was changed by the northern literati to "Qu Shui Liu Bei" -- put a small wine cup into the river and let it drift. Whoever stays in the wine cup will drink the wine. This form has completely changed, but its custom meaning remains the same.
Yi Yi (refers to the ritual of taking a bath beside the water, washing yourself with orchids, and nodding your body with willow branches stained with Petal water, which was popular in the Tang and Song dynasties. It means to bless the disaster). Because the Yin Qi has not yet subsided and people are prone to disease, you should wash yourself by the water. The so-called "Yi" is "clean", so "Yi" is a ceremony to eliminate the pathogenic factors through self-cleaning. Why choose it on the fourth day? Ying Shao explained that "those who have already died will also benefit", which not only eliminates the pathogenic factors, but also prays for happiness (customs, Tongyi, sacrificial rites, etc.). This view is agreed by many scholars. For example, modern scholar Wu bingan believes that the original meaning of the festival is "the ancient health care custom of exorcising evil spirits and dispelling plague in spring". In ancient times, the function of festivals was to ward off evil spirits and avoid disasters. The actual reason was that the river was too cold in winter and the water temperature was just right in early March. People were eager to take their first bath after overwintering.
In the activities of Shangsi Festival, the main activity is to sacrifice Gao Zhen, the God who manages marriage and childbirth. Gaoyao, also known as Jiaoyao, is named for its supply in the suburbs. Through this kind of witchcraft activities, people eliminate disasters and ward off evil spirits and pray for fertility. Therefore, Shangsi Festival is also a day of courtship and education.
Bank bath (bathing, ancient people went to the riverside water, hot springs were popular in the Tang and Song Dynasties, especially open-air hot spring pools) to wash dirt with spring water. It is believed that this can remove the diseases accumulated in the whole winter, clean and immune in the new year, and have good luck. At that time, people thought that women's infertility was caused by ghosts, so they used the bathing of Shangsi festival to treat infertility. In this way, we can learn from each other over time and turn bathing into an important part of Shangsi Festival.
On Shangsi Festival, there are other activities such as meditation, meditation or bathing. Bathing is for disaster relief. Prehistoric humans believed that fertility was the result of totems entering women's bodies. After entering the era of patriarchy, people realized that marital copulation was the cause of fertility. However, both the concept of totem induction and the understanding that marital intercourse leads to fertility recognize that women are the embodiment of fertility and children are conceived by their mothers. However, not every woman can give birth normally. Due to disease, some women are often not pregnant. At that time, people thought that women's infertility was caused by ghosts, so they used the bathing of Shangsi festival to treat infertility. In this way, we can learn from each other over time and turn bathing into an important part of Shangsi Festival.
Feather cup is a kind of double ear wine cup in ancient China, which is named for its shape like a bird; Another said that because the body of the cup can be inserted with feathers, it was named "feather Cup". It has a variety of materials, including wood, jade, pottery and so on. Wooden feather cups are relatively light, while those of other materials need to be placed on lotus leaves to "walk" on the water smoothly.
In the activities of Shangsi Festival, the main activity is to sacrifice Gao Zhen, the God who manages marriage and childbirth. Gaoyao, also known as Jiaoyao, is named for its supply in the suburbs. You are the same media, and you come from you. The original Gaoxi is female, and is an adult female, with pregnancy. In fact, in ancient times, some nude women had very developed thighs and breasts, as well as a forward protruding stomach, which was a symbol of reproduction. In the stone reliefs of the Han Dynasty, there is the image of God Gao, which is also connected with babies. The goddess pottery statue of Hongshan cultural site in Liaoning is the God of fertility. Later, there were great changes in gaozhen. For example, Fuxi enshrined in the ancestral temple of Huaiyang people in Henan Province is the God of gaozhen under the patriarchy. At the same time, there is also sexual worship, first female Yin and then male root worship. At first, Shangsi festival was a witch cult activity. Through the activities of sacrificing high, high and meeting men and women, it eliminated disasters, avoided evil spirits and prayed for fertility.
The ancients believed that vanilla had the power of expelling evil spirits and was of great benefit to the body.
Spring outing in the suburbs (Shangsi is not only a festival to dispel evil spirits and seek good luck, but also a free and happy spring outing. Young men and women go for an outing in the wild, splash water and play with each other, and choose their partners freely. It is the real Valentine's day in China, and they make love with peony)
Soak in hot spring (spring outing in the suburbs in the Tang and Song Dynasties, and then in the wild hot spring)
Qushui flowing cup is also called Linshui floating egg (Linshui floating egg is the oldest. It puts boiled eggs in the river and allows them to float. Whoever finds them will eat them.) (the curved water flowing cup is called "flowing cup and drinking of curved water". The so-called "flowing Cup", also known as "flowing Cup", is to throw the cup in the upper reaches of the water, listen to it go down with the wave, and stop at a certain place, then the person takes it and drinks it. Generally, the water needs to be bent.) in Jingchu's chronicle of age, "scholars and people go out of Jiangzhu pond and marsh together, which is the drinking of flowing cup and curved water." Sitting by the water of huanqu, the people put the wine cup on the running water and let it float down the stream. Whoever stops in front of him will drink the wine in the cup and write a poem, otherwise he will be fined three cups of wine. Emperor Wei Ming built a Liubei Pavilion.
It is worth mentioning that the scenery of the curved water flowing cup should be very elegant. In addition to being at the natural water edge in the early stage, it is mixed with natural beauty. Since the Wei and Jin Dynasties, due to the rise of literati culture, nobles have mostly been in elegant courtyards, solemn houses, fake pavilions, mountains and stones, and artificial curved curved water. People are sitting neatly on the grass, the mat is collapsed, a better screen is placed, there are attendants with fans, incense burners and so on. After drinking water, I also write poems, corresponding to people.
Drinking and feasting near the water (also known as qushuiyan) (when drinking the water, banquet barriers are set beside the water, tea sets and flowers are used for feasting, poetry and Fu. It is very elegant) it and the qushuiyan are the evolution of this kind of witchcraft and become the entertainment activities of literati and refined scholars. This trend was particularly prevalent in the Tang Dynasty and gradually disappeared after the Song Dynasty.
During the Shangsi Festival, there is also a kind of cruise shooting activity, that is, shooting wild geese with an arrow with silk thread. After shooting, you can take wild geese with silk. This kind of wild goose is not so much prey as the best gift. Working women in the South began to breed silkworms, collect mulberry and feed silkworms.
The third of March in Taiwan and Fujian is the "March Festival" and "picking rat (Qu) grass and rice flour as a sacrifice to its ancestors" (records of Taiwan government by Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty). In Zhongxian County, Chongqing and other places, there was a "March meeting" to hold a grand event in memory of BA Manzi, the general who fought against the enemy. On that day, the people carried BA Manzi's idol around the city, followed by the social fire team, played with dragon lanterns, danced Lions, lit lanterns and set off firecrackers.
Japan is also deeply influenced by Chinese culture. Daughter's Day is a festival for Japanese girls, also known as doll day, Shangsi (じょうし/ じょうみみゼょょょみみりりりりょょょょみみょ. The "peach section sentence" (peach section sentence) belongs to one of the "five section sentences". Originally, as in China, March 3 of the lunar calendar was changed to March 3 of the Western calendar after the Meiji Restoration. During the daughter's day, most members of the family get together as much as possible to wish the girls grow up healthy and safe. Parents will set up a ladder like display platform for their daughters, and place dolls in Japanese kimonos from top to bottom. This kind of doll is called embryonic human form in Japan. In the Heian era of Japan, influenced by the custom of "curved water flowing wine cups" on the Shangsi festival of the Tang Dynasty (March 3), people made adult shapes with paper to show that they were unwell, transferred them to human shapes, and then put them into the river to flow away. At present, some places in Japan still maintain this custom, drifting all kinds of human dolls along the river that night to pray for health and peace. Japan's boys' Day is scheduled for the Dragon Boat Festival.
In Ryukyu, women bathe by the sea and pray for health.
Preface to Lanting anthology written by Wang Xizhi is an activity in which literati and refined scholars engage in. "At the beginning of late spring, I will be at the Orchid Pavilion in the shade of Kuaiji mountain to fix the matter." With the elegant precedent of the scholar saint, March 3, a good day for officials and people to play, has become a good opportunity for poets to write poems. In March, Volume III of Wu Zimu's dream Liang Lu, it is said: "on the third day of March, the story of Qushui flowing the wine cup began in the Jin Dynasty. (that is to say, Wang Xizhi wrote the preface to the Lanting Collection). The Tang Dynasty gave a banquet to Qujiang and poured the capital (the whole city went out, what a big scene) to drink for an outing." There are countless poems describing the grand occasion of March 3. In the later stage, people can often use orchid to wash themselves, or use wicker to nod or flower petal water to pray.
Zhang Hua of Jin Dynasty
"Garden meeting after March 3, the sixth year of Taikang"
On the first day of late spring, Yang is clear and bright,
Qi Gan Yu, Gao Ze Liu Ying.
Xi Xiangfeng, qi stagnation and different birth,
Birds soar and flowers flourish.
"March 3, lead you into a chapter"
Liri belongs to Yuansi,
Nian Fangju is in Sri Lanka,
The branches are covered with flowing noise.
General manager Chen Chaojiang
Three day banquet Xuanyou hall Qushui poem
Shangsi entertainment Spring Festival. Fang Chenxi leaves the moon.
Beigong ordered Xiao and drum. The South Pavilion is decorated with banners.
Embroidered pillar Qingfei Pavilion. Diao Xuan is next to Quchi.
Drunken fish sink far away. Floating jujube ripples and clear ripples.
The shadow of falling flowers. Flying silk doesn't hinder the branch.
The tree moves and Dan comes out of the building. The mountain is inclined and the green Deng is dangerous.
Salute Zhou Yujue again and again. Happy time moves.
Wang Wei Tang
"Banquet service system in Qujiang on March 3"
Ten thousand people take a private sacrifice, and thousands of officials like to travel to Henan. Fengying flows from the upper court to the middle.
The grass and trees are connected to the Wei, and the mountains and rivers are connected to the mian Diao. Draw flags and shake Pu and Xu, and fill Tingzhou in spring.
Under the Immortal Dragon medium, the God Gao Feng stayed. Long live billion from now on, Tianbao Ji spring and autumn.
"Fenghe holy system and the response of the crown prince and the kings to the dragon pond spring on March 3"
The story is about the Spring Festival, and the new palace shows a tour of Henan. The emperor of the Ming Dynasty moved the Phoenix chariot and the prince came out of the Dragon Tower.
Fu covers the work of King Chen, and the cup is like Luo water. The golden man came to hold the sword, painted the babbler and went back to the boat.
Yuanshufu palace que, Tianchi according to Miandiao. Chen Zhang is on the cloud table, hanging like a man Huangzhou.
Banquet service system of qinzheng building on March 3
The colorful battles were joined overnight, and the Qionglou brushed the dawn. In March, the palace is full of flowers.
Not counting the days of King Qin, who will share Luoshui with him. The spring wind is too timid to dance with wine.
Heaven's protection has no virtue, and people don't like war merit. It is still at the Jiuqu banquet and reaches the four door wisdom.
"The holy system of offering harmony" has been observed in the Wangchun Pavilion, and the drinking should be made
Changle qingmenwai, east of Yichun Xiaoyuan. The building opens on ten thousand wells, and the chariot passes among hundreds of flowers.
The painted babbler moves the fairy prostitute, and the golden sable is listed as the Duke. The song invites the sunset and the wonderful dance to the spring breeze.
The Weishui river flows into qindian in the Ming Dynasty, and the Huangshan Mountain enters the Han Palace. When the king comes to the temple, Ba Chan is also the emperor.
"Poetry of Zheng Feng and Qin Yu"
Qin and Yu, Fang Huan Huan Xi.
Scholars and women, Fang Bingxi.
Women's day view? The scholar said that both and. And look at it?
In addition, Xuxu is happy.
Weishi and female, Yiqi banter each other and give them a spoon of medicine.
Qin and Yu, Liu its clear.
Scholars and women, Yin Qiying.
Women's day view? The scholar said both. And look at it?
In addition, Xuxu is happy.
Weishi and female, Yiqi will banter and give them a spoon of medicine.
In the Analects of Confucius, "bathing in Yi, wind in rain, singing and returning" is the custom of Shangsi. "Zhou Li, spring official, witch": "when the witch's palm is old, she will remove the defiant bath." Zheng Xuan's note: "when I was old, I was wiped out. Now it's already on March, such as on water. A defiant bath is a bath with aromatic herbs." There is a vivid description in the songs of Chu that sacrificing gods must fast, fasting must bathe, and bathing uses orchid soup. Therefore, orchid soup and orchid grass are connected with the gods. "The book of the later Han Dynasty: etiquette": "it is the last day of the month, and the officials and people are clean (clean) on the East water. It is said to wash and remove the dirt and make it a big one." "Zhou Li" Zheng Xuan's note: "when I was old, I was wiped out. Now in March, it is like water.". In addition, the Shangsi Festival on March 3 corresponds to the Double Ninth Festival in September. Just as Liu Xin of the Han Dynasty said in the miscellany of Xijing: "Shangsi in March and Double Ninth Festival in September are the games of maidens, so they ascend." One in the late spring and one in the late autumn, the outing and leaving the youth also reached a climax. "Song Shu Li Zhi II" quoted "Han Shi" as saying: "the custom of Zheng State, which is already in March, attracts the soul and continues the soul, grasps orchids and grass, and blows ominous."
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