The Lantern Festival, one of the traditional festivals in China, is also known as the Shangyuan Festival, the small first month, the new year's Eve or the Lantern Festival. The time is the 15th day of the first month of the lunar calendar every year.
The first month is the first month of the lunar calendar. The ancients called "night" as "Xiao". The fifteenth day of the first month is the night of the first full moon of the year, so it is called "Lantern Festival". According to the Taoist "Sanyuan", the 15th day of the first month is also called "Shangyuan Festival". The Lantern Festival custom has been dominated by the warm and festive lantern watching custom since ancient times.
The formation of the Lantern Festival has a long process, which is rooted in the ancient custom of turning on lights and praying. According to general information and folklore, the fifteenth day of the first month has been paid attention to in the Western Han Dynasty, but the Lantern Festival on the fifteenth day of the first month was really regarded as a national folk festival after the Han and Wei dynasties. The rise of the custom of lighting lanterns on the 15th day of the first month is also related to the eastward spread of Buddhism. Buddhism flourished in the Tang Dynasty. Officials and people generally "light lanterns for Buddha" on the 15th day of the first month, and Buddhist lights spread all over the people. Since the Tang Dynasty, opening lanterns on the Lantern Festival has become a legal matter.
The Lantern Festival is one of the traditional festivals in China. The lantern festival mainly includes a series of traditional folk activities, such as appreciating lanterns, eating dumplings, guessing lantern riddles, setting off fireworks and so on. In addition, many local lantern festivals have also added traditional folk performances such as dragon lantern, lion dance, walking on stilts, rowing dry boats, yangko dance and Taiping drum. In June 2008, the Lantern Festival was selected into the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage.
Yuan Xiao Jie Wiki:
|Chinese name||Yuan Xiao Jie|
|Foreign name||Lantern Festival|
|alias||Shangyuan Festival, Tianguan Festival, Spring Lantern Festival, little first month, new year's Eve|
|Holiday time||the Lantern Festival|
|Festival type||Chinese traditional festivals|
|Festival origin||The custom of lighting lanterns, the sacrifice theory of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, the theory of commemorating Ping Lu, etc|
|Festival activities||Watching lanterns, boating, guessing lantern riddles, playing with dragon lanterns and walking on stilts|
|Holiday diet||Yuanxiao, tangyuan|
|Holiday significance||Inherit and carry forward traditional culture|
|Set time||Han Dynasty|
|Approval time||December 3, 2014|
|Intangible cultural heritage protection unit||Ministry of culture and Tourism|
Lantern Festival is a traditional festival in China. The formation of the custom of Lantern Festival has a long process, which is rooted in the ancient custom of turning on lights and praying for blessings. Turning on the lights to pray for blessings usually starts on the 14th night of the first month. On the 15th night, it is called the "main lamp". People want to light the lamps, also known as "sending the lamps", in order to offer sacrifices to gods and pray for blessings. The introduction of Buddhist culture in the Eastern Han Dynasty also played an important role in promoting the formation of the custom of the Lantern Festival. During the reign of emperor Yongping of the Han and Ming Dynasties, in order to carry forward the Dharma, Emperor Han and Ming ordered to "light a lamp to show the Buddha" in the palace and temple on the 15th night of the first month. Therefore, the custom of lighting lanterns on the 15th night of the first month gradually expanded in China with the expansion of the influence of Buddhist culture and the later addition of Taoist culture. During the northern and Southern Dynasties, lantern lighting became a common practice. Zhang Zhenghuo, the fifth emperor of the temple of Buddhism, believes in the lantern of the tenth moon. During the Tang Dynasty, cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries were closer, Buddhism flourished, and officials and people generally "lit lamps for Buddha" on the 15th day of the first month, so Buddhist lights were all over the people. Since the Tang Dynasty, lantern lighting has become a legal matter.
The 15th day of the first lunar month is the Lantern Festival, also known as Shangyuan Festival, Yuanye and Lantern Festival. The first month is the first month of the lunar calendar. The ancients called night "Xiao", so they called the fifteenth day of the first month "Lantern Festival". With the changes of society and times, the customs of the Lantern Festival have changed greatly, but it is still a traditional Chinese folk festival. When the Lantern Festival was formed in the early stage, it was only called the fifteenth day of the first month, the first half of the first month or the hope of the month. After the Sui Dynasty, it was called the new year's Eve or the new year's Eve. Influenced by Taoism at the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, it was also called Shangyuan, and it was occasionally called yuanxiao at the end of the Tang Dynasty. But since the Song Dynasty, it has also been called Lantern Festival. In the Qing Dynasty, it was also called Lantern Festival. In foreign countries, the Lantern Festival is also known as the Lantern Festival. On the evening of the 15th day of the first lunar month, Chinese people have a series of traditional folk activities, such as appreciating lanterns, eating dumplings, eating Lantern Festival, guessing lantern riddles, setting off fireworks and so on.
It is said that the Lantern Festival was set up to commemorate "Pinglu" during the reign of Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty. After the death of Liu Bang, the emperor of the Han Dynasty, Liu Ying, the son of empress Lu, ascended the throne as emperor Hui of the Han Dynasty. After the death of emperor Hui of the Han Dynasty, empress Lu took charge of the court and turned Liu's world into Lv's world. The old ministers and Liu's clan in the court were deeply indignant, but they were afraid of empress Lu's cruelty and dared not speak.
After empress Lu died of illness, zhulv was in panic and afraid of being hurt and excluded. Therefore, they gathered secretly in the house of general Lu Lu and conspired to make trouble, so as to completely seize Liu's territory. This matter was heard by Liu Xiang, the king of Qi in Liu's clan. In order to protect Liu's territory, Liu Xiang decided to set up an army against Zhu Lu. Then he contacted Zhou Bo and Chen Ping, the founding fathers, and designed to lift LV Lu. Finally, the "chaos of Zhu Lu" was completely put down
After the uprising, all the ministers supported Liu Heng, the fourth son of Liu Bang, to ascend the throne, known as Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty. Deeply aware that peace and prosperity had not come easily, Emperor Wen set the 15th day of the first month to quell the "chaos of Zhulu" as a day of happiness with the people, and every family in the capital was decorated with lanterns to celebrate. Since then, the 15th day of the first month has become a folk festival celebrated all over the world - "Lantern Festival".
During the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, the sacrificial activities of "Taiyi God" were scheduled on the 15th day of the first month. (Mt. 1: the God who rules the universe). It is said that Sima Qian identified the Lantern Festival as a major festival when he founded the "Taichu calendar".
The Lantern Festival is a traditional festival in China since ancient times. It is said that the Lantern Festival began in ancient times. People drove away insects and animals with torches in the countryside, hoping to reduce pests and pray for a good harvest. Even today, people in some areas of Southwest China still make torches with reed firewood or branches on the 15th of the first month, and dance in groups in the fields or grain drying fields with torches held high. Since the Sui, Tang and Song Dynasties, it has been extremely prosperous for a time. Tens of thousands of people participated in singing and dancing, from dusk to dusk. With the changes of society and times, the customs of the Lantern Festival have changed greatly, but it is still a traditional Chinese folk festival.
The custom of lighting lanterns on the Lantern Festival is also believed to originate from the "three yuan theory" of Taoism; Shangyuan means the first full moon night of the new year. The origin of the Shangyuan Festival is recorded in the miscellaneous notes of the age of the year, which follows the old rules of Taoism. At the end of the Han Dynasty, wudoumi Dao, an important sect of Taoism, worshipped the gods of heaven, earth and water officials. They said that heaven officials blessed, earth officials forgiven sins, and water officials solved misfortune. They matched three officials with three yuan. They said that heaven officials in the upper yuan were born on the 15th of the first month, earth officials in the middle yuan were born on the 15th of July, and water officials in the lower yuan were born on the 15th of October. Taoism in the Wei and Jin Dynasties matched the time and festival with the "three officials". They set the 15th day of the first month as "Shangyuan", the 15th day of July as "Zhongyuan", and the 15th day of October as "Xiayuan", collectively known as "Sanyuan". In this way, the 15th day of the first month is called Shangyuan Festival. Wu Zimu of the Southern Song Dynasty said in menglianglu: "the 15th New Year's eve of the first month is the blessing of the heavenly officials of the Shang Yuan Dynasty." Therefore, lights should be lit on the Shangyuan Festival.
Ming emperor worships Buddha
From Buddhism. This statement is mainly in the "300 topics of social customs" edited by Mr. Hu Shensheng: "in the Buddhist doctrine, the fire is compared to the mighty God of the Buddha, and there is the saying" boundless flame shines on the infinite "in the wuliangshou Sutra. In the Buddhist doctrine, the lamp has always been one of the offerings in front of the Buddha. And in the Buddhist classics, it is repeatedly publicized that" hundreds of thousands of lights repent their sins "(Bodhisattva Sutra) , it is "the most blessed land with bright lights in the world" (wuliangshou Sutra). When you meet a Buddhist event, you should light up the lights. In Buddhist legends, the 15 lanterns on the first month are related to the deeds of the God change of the Buddha.
According to the "monk's history", the Buddha Sakyamuni showed the change of God and subdued the gods and demons on December 30 in the west, that is, the 15th day of the first month in Eastern earth. In order to commemorate the change of Buddha's God, a lamp burning Dharma meeting needs to be held on this day. When Emperor Ming of the Eastern Han Dynasty came to the east to preach, Emperor Ming of the Han Dynasty ordered that the lights be lit on the 15th day of the first month when the Buddha God changed, and personally went to the temple to open a lamp to show respect for the Buddha. Since then, the Lantern Festival has become a common practice. " However, some scholars believe that this view is untenable and that Buddhism only uses people's festive atmosphere to expand its influence on this day.
The festival period and festival customs of the Lantern Festival are extended and expanded with the development of history. In terms of the length of the festival, it was only one day in the Han Dynasty, three days in the Tang Dynasty, and five days in the Song Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, the lights were on from the eighth day of the first lunar month until the night of the seventeenth day of the first lunar month. It is the longest Lantern Festival in Chinese history. It is connected with the Spring Festival. The city is lively in the daytime, and it is spectacular to light lights at night. In particular, the exquisite and colorful lights make it the climax of recreational activities during the Spring Festival. By the Qing Dynasty, the content of "hundred operas" such as dragon dance, lion dance, dry boat running, stilt walking and Yangko dancing was added, but the festival period was shortened to four to five days.
In ancient China, the Lantern Festival was a romantic festival. Women who stay at home on weekdays can go out to enjoy the lights on this day, which also provides opportunities for young men and women to meet. It can be seen that the Lantern Festival creates a good opportunity for people to express their feelings. It is also the "Valentine's Day" in ancient China.
During the period of Emperor Ming of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Emperor Ming advocated Buddhism. I heard that Buddhism had the practice of monks observing Buddhist relics and lighting lamps to worship the Buddha on the 15th day of the first month, so he ordered to light lamps to worship the Buddha in imperial palaces and temples that night, so that the gentry and common people hung lamps, which formed the Lantern Festival. Later, this Buddhist ritual festival gradually formed a grand folk festival. The festival has experienced the development process from the palace to the people and from the Central Plains to the whole country.
In the northern and Southern Dynasties, lighting lanterns on the Lantern Festival became the climate, and it was the Sui and Tang Dynasties that really carried forward the custom of lighting lanterns on the Lantern Festival. During the Sui Dynasty, the Lantern Festival on the 15th day of the first month was an unprecedented event. "Sui Shu · biography of Liu Yu" records: "every first month, I look at the night, fill the streets and plug the streets, and gather my friends to play. I sound the drums and the sky, and the fire shines on the ground." At that time, the residents of Chang'an City would come out to watch the lights and watch the opera, and the street performances were also rich and interesting. "People wear animal faces, men wear women's clothes, advocate excellent miscellaneous tricks and strange shapes."
Since the Sui, Tang and Song Dynasties, the Lantern Festival has been very prosperous. "Sui Shu · music Chronicle" day: "every first month, when all countries come to Korea, they stay outside the gate of the founding of the people's Republic of China until the 15th day. It stretches for eight miles and lists plays as a theater". Tens of thousands of people participate in singing and dancing, from dusk to dusk. The Lantern Festival in the Tang Dynasty is more lively than that in the Sui Dynasty. According to Tang Liu Su's new words of the Tang Dynasty, "the capital looks at the sun in the first month, and there is a meeting decorated with lights and shadows. Jin Wu lifts the ban and authorizes night travel. Your ministers, relatives and Xiali Gongjia all travel at night." In the Tang Dynasty, when the national strength was unprecedentedly strong, the Lantern Festival was very prosperous. Colored lights were hung everywhere in the capital or towns. People also made huge lamp wheels, lamp trees and lamp posts. The city was full of fire trees and silver flowers, which was very prosperous and lively.
In the Song Dynasty, there were lantern burning activities from January 14 to January 18. In addition to the carnival of "women traveling in the streets, reaching the day at night and mixing men and women", there were also officials distributing Lishi, kings and people enjoying the Lantern Festival in the Song Dynasty; There are even terrorist colors. Prison institutions will use lighting and images to interpret prison households' stories or display prison utensils. The Lantern Festival developed into the most lively secular Carnival in the Song Dynasty. The Lantern Festival is more colorful. The Lantern Festival lasts for five days. The styles of lanterns are complex and diverse. Shopping in the lantern market is a very pleasant thing. Xin Qiji, a poet, wrote that "flowers and thousands of trees in the east wind night blow down, and stars are like rain", which means that there are countless lanterns and fireworks in the Song Dynasty. At that time, lantern riddles were also popular, that is, all kinds of lantern riddles were written on notes and pasted on lanterns, and those who guessed correctly could get a small reward. This kind of entertainment and educational activity is loved by people and widely spread.
In the Yuan Dynasty, most of the holidays were cancelled. The rulers of the Yuan Dynasty believed that life lay in sports and work was rest. The annual holidays were only 16 days.
The Lantern Festival in the Ming Dynasty lasted longer, from the eighth to the seventeenth day of the first month for ten full days to show the rise of singing and dancing.
In the Qing Dynasty, different nationalities entered the Central Plains. The palace no longer held lantern fairs, but the Folk Lantern fairs were still spectacular. The Lantern Festival is only three days in the Qing Dynasty, but the folk lights are bright, and the lights are more exquisite and fantastic, which is still very attractive.
In modern times, the date is shortened to five days and continues to this day. In 2015, the representative suggested that the Lantern Festival be a holiday. The Lantern Festival is still one of the main characteristics of the Lantern Festival.
When people worship God on New Year's Eve, they should set up a "heaven and earth hall". People put up a small shed in the yard, and on the small table in the shed stood the throne of "true slaughter of all spirits in the three realms of heaven and earth"; Incense burners and offerings are placed in front of the throne, and a lantern is hung, which represents the seat of Jiang Taigong. It is said that when Jiang Taigong granted the gods in those days, everyone else did, but he forgot to seal himself. He had no seat, so he had to sit with God.
Lanterns are related to God, so they also give a lot of symbolic significance.
In ancient times, in order to expel the fear of darkness, lanterns were derived to have the meaning of exorcising demons, blessing and praying for light.
In Minnan dialect, the pronunciation of "lamp" and "Ding" is similar, so lanterns are also used to seek children, fame, evil avoidance and peace.
There is a kind of "light lamp", which puts lanterns in temples at the end of the year and the beginning of the year, so as to achieve peace and success in the year with the magic power of the Buddha.
Some farmers also set up long bamboo poles in the field and hang a lamp to "shine on the field silkworm" to observe the fire color, so as to predict the flood and drought situation of the year in order to have a good year.
"Sky Lanterns". On this day, people celebrate with the ceremony of sky lanterns, so it is also called "blessing lamp" or "peace lamp". Later, it gradually evolved into a folk activity of praying to heaven. The sky lamp is filled with all kinds of wishes in my heart. I hope the sky lamp can reach the heaven and bring people infinite hope and light.
There are many kinds of lantern festival lanterns, or image lanterns based on the image of things, such as dragon lanterns, tiger lanterns, rabbit lanterns, etc., or activity lanterns based on folk stories, such as Cowherd and weaver girl, twenty-four filial piety, etc., to show the national spirit of loyalty, filial piety and righteousness. All kinds of lanterns are skillfully made to show the wisdom and skills of craftsmen.
With the development of the times, the Lantern Festival is becoming more and more grand, the national characteristics are becoming stronger and stronger, and the time of the Lantern Festival is becoming longer and longer. The Lantern Festival in the Tang Dynasty was one day and three days before and after the Shangyuan Dynasty; In the Song Dynasty, two days were added after the 16th to five days; In the Ming Dynasty, it was extended to ten full days from the eighth day to the eighteenth day. Because of different lamp periods, the first day of opening the lamp is called "test lamp", the 15th day is called "positive lamp", and the last day is called "residual lamp" and "appendix lamp". It is also called "magic lamp", "human lamp" and "ghost lamp". On the 14th day and night, it is a "magic lamp", which is placed in front of the throne and ancestral temple at home to sacrifice the ancestors of the gods; Fifteen nights is called "human lamp", which is placed in doors and windows, beds and several cases to avoid scorpions and insects; On the 16th day and night, it is a "ghost lamp", which is placed in the tomb and field, so that the wandering soul can get out of the ghost area. Pray for the will of heaven, protect the common people, gods, people, ghosts and animals, and nothing is missing.
China has a vast territory and a long history, so the customs of the Lantern Festival are different all over the country. Among them, eating the Lantern Festival, enjoying the flower lanterns, dancing the dragon and dancing the lion are several important folk customs of the Lantern Festival. The Lantern Festival is a traditional festival in China, so it is celebrated all over the country. The customs in most areas are the same, but all regions still have their own characteristics.
The Lantern Festival is eaten on the 15th day of the first month. As a food, it has a long history in China. In the Song Dynasty, a novel food for the Lantern Festival was popular among the people. This kind of food was first called "fuyuanzi" and later called "Yuanxiao". Businessmen also called it "Yuanbao". Yuanxiao, or "Tangyuan", is filled with white sugar, rose, sesame, bean paste, yellow osmanthus, walnut kernel, nut kernel and jujube paste. It is wrapped into a circle with glutinous rice powder. It can be meat or vegetable with different flavors. It can be fried and boiled, which is delicious. Shaanxi's dumplings are not wrapped, but "rolled" in glutinous rice flour, or cooked or fried, hot and round.
"Yuanxiao", as a food, has a long history in China. In the Song Dynasty, a novel food for the Lantern Festival was popular among the people. This kind of food was first called "fuyuanzi" and later called "Yuanxiao". Businessmen also called it "Yuanbao". In ancient times, the price of "Lantern Festival" was relatively expensive. A poem said: "distinguished guests hook the curtain to see the Royal Street, and the treasures in the city come at a time. There is no way for the flower rack in front of the curtain, and money cannot be returned."
The north "rolls" the Lantern Festival and the South "packs" the glutinous rice balls. These are two kinds of foods with different practices and tastes.
The 15th day of the first month of the lunar calendar is the "Lantern Festival". This festival has folk customs such as hanging lamps, playing lamps and watching lamps, so it is also known as the Lantern Festival.
Lantern Festival is a traditional festival custom of the Lantern Festival, which began in the Western Han Dynasty and flourished in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. After the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the wind of lighting prevailed in all dynasties and passed on to future generations. The 15th day of the first month is the climax of the annual fireworks display. Therefore, the Lantern Festival is also called "Lantern Festival". In the county level cities and even townships and towns in Shanxi, these residents are concentrated and bustling areas. Before the arrival of the 15th day of the first month, the streets are full of lanterns, flowers and flowers everywhere, and the lights flicker, reaching a climax in the evening of the 15th day of the first month. "Watching lanterns" on the 15th day of the first month has become a spontaneous activity of the people in Shanxi. On the evening of the 15th day of the first month, red lights are hung high in the streets and alleys, with palace lanterns, animal headlights, horse lanterns, flower lanterns, bird lanterns and so on, attracting the people watching lanterns. Taiyuan area, Taigu County lights are very famous. Taigu lamps are famous for their wide variety, exquisite production and attractive appearance.
guess lantern riddles
Guessing lantern riddles, also known as playing lantern riddles, is a unique form of traditional folk cultural and entertainment activities with national style in China. It is a characteristic activity of the Lantern Festival that has been circulating since ancient times. On the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, traditional folk people hang colored lights and set off fireworks. Later, good people write riddles on paper and stick them on colorful colored lights for people to guess. Because riddles can enlighten wisdom and cater to the festive atmosphere, many people respond, and then riddles have gradually become an indispensable program of the Lantern Festival. Lantern riddles add a festive atmosphere and show the intelligence and wisdom of the ancient working people and their longing for a better life.
dragon lantern dancing
Playing dragon lantern, also known as dragon lantern dance or dragon dance. The Dragon Dance found in written records is the Xijing Fu written by Zhang Heng of the Han Dynasty. The author vividly depicts the dragon dance in the narration of 100 operas. According to the records of suishu musicology, huanglongbian, a dragon dance performance similar to that of the hundred operas performed by Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty, was also very wonderful. Dragon dance was popular in many parts of China. China advocates the dragon and regards it as a symbol of auspiciousness.
Stilt walking is a popular folk art performance. Stilts belong to one of the hundred operas in ancient China, which appeared as early as the spring and Autumn period. The earliest introduction of stilts in China is Liezi shuofu: "those who have LAN Zi in Song Dynasty do well in song and Yuan Dynasties with their skills. Song Yuan calls them to see their skills.
Lion dance is an excellent folk art in China. Whenever the Lantern Festival or assembly celebrations, people come to cheer up with lion dance. This custom originated in the Three Kingdoms period and became popular in the northern and Southern Dynasties. It has a history of more than 1000 years.
"Lion Dance" began in the Wei and Jin Dynasties and flourished in the Tang Dynasty. It is also known as "Lion Dance" and "taipingle". It is generally completed by three people. Two people dress up as lions, one as the lion's head, one as the lion's body and hind feet, and the other as the lion's Guide. The dance method is divided into civil and martial arts. The civil dance shows the lion's docility, including shaking hair, rolling and other actions. The martial lion shows the lion's ferocity, including jumping, pedaling Roll a colored ball.
Rowing a dry boat, also known as running a dry boat, is to imitate the actions of a boat on land. Most of the people who perform the dry boat are girls. A dry boat is not a real boat. It is made of two thin plates, sawn into a boat shape, tied with bamboo and wood, covered with colored cloth and tied around the girl's waist. It is like sitting in a boat, holding an oar in hand and rowing. While running, it sings some local tunes and dances while singing. This is a dry boat. Sometimes another man dressed up as a passenger on a boat and performed with his partner. Most of them dressed up as clowns to amuse the audience with all kinds of funny actions. Dry boating is popular in many parts of China.
Sacrificial door and household
There were "seven sacrifices" in ancient times, which were two of them. The method of sacrifice is to insert the poplar branch above the door, insert a pair of chopsticks in the bowl containing bean porridge, or directly put the wine and meat in front of the door.
Rat chasing is a traditional folk activity during the Lantern Festival, which began in the Wei and Jin Dynasties. It's mainly for sericulture people. Because rats often eat large tracts of silkworms at night, it is said that on the fifteenth day of the first month, rats can not eat silkworms by feeding them with rice porridge.
"Jing Chu Sui Shi Ji" said that on the fifteenth day of the first month, an immortal came to a family surnamed Chen and said to them: if you can sacrifice me, let your silkworms have a good harvest. Later, customs were formed.
Send child light
Referred to as "sending lanterns", also known as "sending lanterns", that is, before the Lantern Festival, the mother's family sends lanterns to the newly married daughter's family, or ordinary relatives and friends to the newly married infertile family, in order to add auspicious omens, because "lantern" is homonymous with "Ding". This custom exists in many places. In Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, lamps are sent from the eighth to the fifteenth day of the first lunar month. In the first year, a pair of palace lamps and a pair of glass lamps with colored paintings are sent. I hope my daughter will have good luck and give birth to Linzi as soon as possible after marriage; If your daughter is pregnant, in addition to the palace lights, you should also send one or two pairs of small lanterns to wish your daughter a safe pregnancy.
Purple Gu is also called Qi Gu. In the north, it is mostly called toilet Gu and pit San Gu. It was an ancient folk custom that on the 15th day of the first month of the lunar month, purple Gu, the God of the toilet, should be worshipped, divined silkworm and mulberry, and accounted for public affairs. It is said that purple Gu was originally a concubine and was envied by the big woman. On the 15th day of the first month, she was killed in the toilet and became the toilet God. Every night on this day, people tie a life size portrait of Zigu with straw and cloth, and worship it in the pigsty in the toilet at night. This custom is popular in all parts of the north and south. It was recorded as early as the northern and Southern Dynasties.
Go all wrong
"Walking all kinds of diseases", also known as traveling all kinds of diseases, dispersing all kinds of diseases, baking all kinds of diseases, walking bridges, etc., is an activity of eliminating disasters and praying for health. On the night of the Lantern Festival, women make an appointment to travel together. When they see the bridge, they will cross it. They think this can dispel diseases and prolong life.
It has been a custom in the north since the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Some are on the 15th, but most are on the 16th. On this day, women dressed in holiday costumes went out of their homes in groups, crossed the danger by bridge, climbed the city, touched nails and begged for children, and didn't return until midnight.
On the Lantern Festival, every family makes its own Lantern Festival (now it is monopolized by professional households). Yuanxiao, known as "fuyuanzi" in ancient times, is a popular folk snack that tastes both refined and popular. It is sweet but not greasy. It is popular all over the country. The Lantern Festival is eaten on the 15th day of the first month. As a food, it has a long history in China. In the Song Dynasty, a novel food for the Lantern Festival was popular among the people. This food is mainly used for sacrifice, not to mention festival food. In the Song Dynasty, Zheng Wangzhi's "record of food men" recorded: "Bianzhong dieting, Shangyuan oil hammer". The method of making oil hammer is similar to the fried Lantern Festival of future generations, according to the record of "Shangshi order" in Lu's zashuo cited in Taiping Guangji. Some people call it "Pearl of oil painting". The Lantern Festival Diet in the Tang Dynasty was flour silkworm. Wang Renyu (880-956) recorded in the "legacy of Kaiyuan Tianbao": "the custom of using artificial noodles and silkworms in Shangyuan every year still remains in the Song Dynasty, but different festival foods are more abundant than those in the Tang Dynasty". LV Yuanming's miscellaneous notes on the age mentioned: "the people in Beijing use mung bean powder as the imperial soup, boiled glutinous rice balls as the sugar, which is called Yuanzi salted black bean soup. Twisting the head miscellaneous meat to cook soup is called salted black bean soup, which is also like people making silkworms every day. They all go on a diet.". In the Southern Song Dynasty, the so-called "lactose dumpling" appeared, which should be the predecessor of tangyuan.
During the reign of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty, the "eight treasure Lantern Festival" specially made by the imperial dining room was a well-known delicacy of the government and the public. Ma Siyuan was an expert in making lantern festival in Beijing at that time. The powder dripping Lantern Festival he made is well-known far and near. Fu Zeng (born in 1688) said in the "bamboo branch Ci of Shangyuan Dynasty": "sweet scented osmanthus stuffed with walnuts, jiangmi like pearl, washed out by well water. It is said that the horse's powder is good, and the Lantern Festival is sold in the wind of trying the lamp". What the poem chants is the famous horse Lantern Festival.
Over the past thousand years, the production of Yuanxiao has become more and more exquisite. As far as dough is concerned, there are rice noodles, sticky sorghum noodles, yellow rice noodles and bract grain noodles. The content of stuffing is sweet, salty, meat and vegetables, everything. Sweet is called osmanthus sugar, hawthorn white sugar, assorted, bean paste, sesame seeds, peanuts and so on. Salty pork stuffing with lard can be used for fried Lantern Festival. Vegetarian five spice Lantern Festival composed of mustard, garlic, leek and ginger means hardworking, long-term and upward.
The production methods are also different from north to south. The Lantern Festival in the North mostly uses the method of basket rolling and hand shaking, while the Tangyuan in the South mostly uses the palm of the hand to knead the ball. The Lantern Festival can be as big as walnuts or as small as soybeans. The cooking methods include soup, frying, cooking, etc. Whether there is stuffing or not, it is equally delicious. Yuanxiao has become a kind of dim sum snack available at four o'clock. You can have a bowl to satisfy your cravings at any time.
The most lively festival in old Beijing is not the Spring Festival, but the Lantern Festival. The annual Shangyuan Lantern Festival, dragon and lion dance, old Beijing Hawking and other traditional programs of the Lantern Festival with full folk flavor in old Beijing are a major reason why the citizens of old Beijing look forward to this festival. The traditional Lantern Festival in old Beijing is mainly composed of three parts: Flower party, lantern party and eating Lantern Festival.
The unique custom of the Lantern Festival in Hebei Province is the flower pulling in Jingxing, which is an ancient art wonderful flower. The custom of the Lantern Festival in Zanhuang County - "laluqi", which is a dance that shows the working life. It is mainly carried out in the Lantern Festival and is accompanied by percussion music. There are big drums, gongs, cymbals, water cymbals, etc. On the Lantern Festival in Yongping Prefecture, sick women gathered under the kiln, known as "ceramic Moxibustion". Children cross the bridge, known as "Du Baie". Some people cut paper into nine paper ropes and tie them casually to relieve blame, which is called "sheep intestines".
Yangdian Town, Xiaonan District, Xiaogan City, Hubei Province is a famous "hometown of dragon lanterns". Yangdian dragon lantern, also known as "Yangdian Gaolong", is the second batch of intangible cultural heritage in Xiaogan City and the second batch of intangible cultural heritage development projects in Hubei Province. According to the census data of Yangdian Gaolong, there are 116 Gaolong in the whole town, which are widely distributed in the ancient market town and Village Bay of Yangdian. When the Lantern Festival comes, almost every village and bay has the custom of dragon dance, and it is a traditional cultural activity "spontaneously organized, voluntarily participated, participated by many participants and watched by a wide range of people". Local people think that the Lantern Festival is more lively and grand than the Spring Festival. "The year is small and the month is half large", which means that you can not go home for the new year, but you must go back for the Lantern Festival! With the advent of the Lantern Festival, hundreds of high dragons dance and turn over rivers and seas, which is spectacular! If you don't go to Yangdian to watch the lights, you feel that the new year is not full and lively!
Yangdian town starts to use bamboo pieces to tie dragon lanterns, dragon bodies, dragon tails and embroider dragon clothes every year from the twelfth lunar month; Tie the dragon head and tail with colored paper, and connect the color dragon head, dragon body and dragon tail to form a complete dragon lamp. The whole dragon lamp has 12 sections (the dragon body is connected by ten bamboo lamps, plus the dragon head and dragon tail is 12 sections), indicating that there are 12 months in a year. The opening ceremony of the dragon lantern was held on the 12th night of the first month, and the travel, temple and cheering were held on the 13th day of the first month. Each dragon lantern walked through the narrow old street of Yangdian for activities. A incense table was placed in front of the house to welcome the Dragon lantern. On the 14th day of the first month, each dragon lantern worships the masses in its own bay to express new year greetings and represent good luck; On the fifteenth day of the first month, you can play with lanterns and candeng; The onlookers followed the Dragon lanterns to their respective bays. At 12 p.m., men, women, old and young all over the Bay gathered together to burn the Dragon lanterns, which are called candeng and send the Dragon lanterns to heaven, accompanied by the sound of gongs and drums and firecrackers.
The composition of Yangdian Gaolong: it is mostly made of bamboo, wood, cloth and colored paper. The Dragon clothes are generally made of five colors: yellow, green, white, red and black. It is said to represent the five elements of gold, wood, water, fire and earth. The body of the dragon lantern is internally lit with candles. The dragon dancers appropriately shorten the distance between each section in order, hold the Dragon feet with both hands, and swing the "Dragon Ball" from head to tail from left to right, just like a giant dragon meandering forward. Its momentum is huge and the scene is spectacular. Its cultural connotation is very rich, including dragon out of the cave, three points number one, worship the four directions, drilling down the hole, turning up, dragon reflecting water, etc. when dancing slowly, it is graceful and lyrical; When dancing fast, it is passionate and unique, with strong local characteristics. The Qupai music used is festive and beautiful, and has a strong artistic appeal.
In addition to dragon dance, the Lantern Festival will also step on stilts, row colorful boats, freeze lions, sing big plays and so on. The activities are wonderful and full of the flavor of the year. Yangdian stilts were introduced into Yangdian town in the third year of Hongwu of the Ming Dynasty (1370), and have been popular in Yangdian for more than 600 years. Yangdian stilts and Yangdian Gaolong "double star combination", the two compete on the same stage and dance together at the Lantern Festival temple fair, which together constitute the beauty of Yangdian's festive and lively New Year customs. Yangdian stilts were included in the fourth batch of provincial intangible cultural heritage projects in Hubei Province by the people's Government of Hubei Province. Yangdian stilts can be divided into "Wenqiao" and "Wuqiao". Wuqiao emphasizes personal performance skills and adopts various forms such as running, jumping, lifting, turning and hitting, which is highly skilled (sunjiadawan in Yangdian town is the representative of "Wuqiao"; Wenqiao pays attention to facial makeup and mainly performs in the form of twisting, stepping and walking (Chujiang hospital in Yangdian town is the representative of "Wenqiao", and Chujiang hospital stilts are mainly children aged 4 to 17 or 18, which is called "baby stilts").
In Fengyang County, the ancient city, folk customs such as swinging, carrying lanterns and putting down torches have become the three customs of the Lantern Festival. There is a folk saying in Fengyang that "swing on the Lantern Festival doesn't hurt your waist for a year". During the Lantern Festival, the most exciting thing for children is "picking lanterns". All kinds of lanterns appeared on the market as early as a few days ago. Lanterns with different shapes decorate Fucheng town at night. The torch is a kind of collective activity for teenagers. In rural areas of Fengyang, children who pay attention will consciously collect and prepare some waste brooms and brush handles early in order to lay down torches for the Lantern Festival.
Hanging lanterns is a necessary form for Shanxi people to celebrate the Lantern Festival. Every time the Lantern Festival of the Yuan Dynasty comes, every household hangs up all kinds of lights. From 14 to 16, they turn on all kinds of lights every night. Setting off fireworks is the most gratifying activity of Shanxi people's Lantern Festival. Fireworks will be set off in the square on the night of the Lantern Festival. At that time, the whole family will go to the street to see the beautiful fireworks.
Recreational activities are an important part of the Lantern Festival. There are various forms of juggling, including lion dance, dragon lantern dance, stilts, dry boat, flower stick, Yangko, driving donkey and so on. The content is mainly opera. The villages around Qufu city play dragon lanterns. The Dragon lanterns of each village have to perform in the Confucius Mansion. The place where the Confucius residence plays the dragon lantern is in front of the lobby of the second gate. Outsiders are also allowed to watch the dragon lantern in the Confucius residence, which is not allowed to enter at ordinary times. While playing the dragon lantern, the guards of the Confucius Mansion and the "fireworks households" set off fireworks.
The most unique custom of Henan people is that on the night of the Lantern Festival, every family has to tie lanterns with bamboo and red paper in front of their ancestors' tombs and light candles in between. The general customs of the Lantern Festival are watching lanterns, guessing lantern riddles, eating dumplings and dancing lions.
During the Lantern Festival on the 15th day of the first lunar month every year, in addition to making lanterns, there is also a custom of "putting sky lanterns". This custom has a long history. According to the history, it has been done in the Tang Dynasty. "Bandeng steamed bun" is popular in Tongchuan, Shaanxi Province. Every year on the 15th day of the first lunar month and during the Lantern Festival, every family sets up incense tables, lights candles, and sets off firecrackers in their houses. Lights are lit everywhere in the house. Beside the lights are all kinds of steamed buns, known as "companion lamp steamed buns".
There are five major customs in Taizhou during the Lantern Festival, including eating Lantern Festival, making lantern festival, guessing lantern riddles, setting off fireworks and sending good luck. Sending auspicious gifts is a unique custom in some villages and towns in Taizhou. On the Lantern Festival, relatives and friends should send bridge piles and Guanyin to the newly married bride to bless the early birth of your son. There are also places where the bride is pulled to the Baizi bridge, which is also to ask for children.
According to the folk in Hangzhou, the 15th day of the first month is the blessed day of the heavenly officials of the Shangyuan Dynasty. Many vegetarian chants and crawl to Wushan for worship. The Lantern Festival in Haining county is most famous for its exquisite chrysanthemum lanterns. Shangyu county is less than the night of the Lantern Festival to compete on the Kanji platform for martial arts. People in Jiande County who have a new daughter-in-law set up a wine offering bed on the Lantern Festival.
After dinner from the first to the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, the whole village, old and young, will gather in the ancestral temple or temple in the village, hold the Lantern Festival song book and sing to the Lantern Festival Painting. Locals call it singing the Lantern Festival song (also known as singing boat). On the evening of the fifteenth day of the first month, besides singing, praising and boating, we also have to drink Yuanxiao wine and eat yuanxiao soup - this is the finale of the night. The whole ancestral hall is full of tables and chairs. A sea pot that has been used by villagers for a long time is filled with rice wine brewed by themselves. Each guest is filled with a bowl, and each table is also filled with a large basin of Yuanxiao Soup for everyone to enjoy.
Shangyuan families in Changde take pepper as soup and add leeks and fruits to entertain guests, which is called "Shitang". After visiting the dragon lantern in Xintian County, the dragon lantern was set on fire, which is called "sending disaster".
Villagers in Zhengyuan village, Suxian District, Chenzhou City, Hunan Province are rehearsing for the upcoming "huoxianniu" Lantern Festival. According to the villagers, the ox is the patron saint of the village. The "fire fairy ox" originates from an ancient fairy story. On the 15th day of the first month of each year, the villagers will tie straw into the shape of an ox, insert incense and make Lantern Festival with fire dragons, so as to ensure the safety of the village.
There is a custom of "four steals" in Sichuan Lantern Festival: "one steals Tangyuan, two steals green, three steals eaves lamp and four steals red." Except that stealing youth is to strengthen the body, the rest are the custom of seeking children. Kaixian county has the custom of "scolding each other". During the Lantern Festival, people move benches to the outdoors to scold their daily grievances. Those who are scolded cannot scold back.
It was an old custom in Fujian to send lanterns to newly married women on the Lantern Festival. The styles of lanterns sent by different places are different, but the purpose is the same: "add Ding." In some places in Southern Fujian, such as Zhangpu, there is a custom called "wearing lamp feet" in the Lantern Festival. The dragon lantern dance in the Lantern Festival is the most popular program in Fujian Lantern Festival. The dragon lantern is tens of feet long and has a head and a tail. There is also a popular lantern guessing in the Lantern Festival. Lantern guessing is also called "guessing lantern riddles" or "guessing out lanterns".
Guangdong's Lantern Festival likes to "steal" lettuce and cook with cakes for good luck; People in Xin'an County who give birth to men celebrate the Lantern Festival on the night of the Lantern Festival. When making lanterns in Nanxiong, parents took the Dragon whisker thread on the dragon lantern and tied it to the children. It is said that it can protect the children from disease. And take the remaining candles from the dragon lantern and shine them under the bed. It is said that you can give birth to your son. When people in Wenchang County steal green on the Lantern Festival night, those who steal will be scolded as an auspicious omen, and those who fail to steal will be scolded as an auspicious omen.
Yunlong County welcomed the three gods before the Lantern Festival and set up tents along the street to offer sacrifices. One day after the Lantern Festival in Maitreya, burn incense on the bridge, throw stones into the water, and then take water to wash your eyes. It is said that you can get rid of the disease. Eating Yuanxiao on the Lantern Festival is a common custom all over the country. This kind of food first appeared in the Song Dynasty. The poet Jiang Baishi wrote in a poem "chanting the Lantern Festival": "distinguished guests hook the curtain to see the Royal Street, and the treasures in the city come for a while." this "treasures in the city" refers to the Lantern Festival. Zhou Bida of the Song Dynasty also wrote a poem "boiling floating dumplings on the Lantern Festival": what's the night of this night? Reunion is the same. Tang Guan patrols the old taste, and the kitchen maid is surprised at the new work. In the starry dark clouds, the beads float in the muddy water. When I was years old, I made up miscellaneous chants, attached to this to say family style.
In Taiwan, there is also the traditional custom that unmarried women will marry a good husband by stealing onions or vegetables on the night of the Lantern Festival, commonly known as "stealing onions, marrying a good husband", "stealing vegetables, marrying a good son-in-law". Girls who hope to have a happy marriage want to steal onions or vegetables in the vegetable garden on the night of the Lantern Festival, hoping for family happiness in the future. There are also music and dance performances in the light market of the Tang Dynasty, and thousands of palace maids, Folk girls download songs and dance at the lights, which are called walking songs and stepping songs.
Chinese traditional festivals and customs meet the comprehensive needs of the broad masses of Chinese society in material, spiritual, ethical and aesthetic aspects. At the level of material life, Chinese traditional festivals have many unique foods of different festivals. On the Lantern Festival, the whole family eats glutinous rice balls together. The sound of "glutinous rice balls" is similar to that of "Reunion", which symbolizes reunion and harmony.
The cultural value of the Lantern Festival is that it is a carnival for the whole people. Everyone participates and enjoys it. Because of the ban on the ancient Lantern Festival, the flow of people is like weaving. When men and women meet, it is easy to produce love. For thousands of years, there are countless love stories that have been performed on the Lantern Festival.
The main activity of the Lantern Festival is mass entertainment, but its social and cultural significance is not just entertainment. There are many religious activities on the fifteenth day of the first month, praying for the blessing of the gods. The Lantern Festival is also a good time to ask for children. When Chen Yuanliang explained the reason why people stole lanterns on the Lantern Festival in volume 12 of the Song Dynasty's Guangji of age, he said: "a cloud, those who steal lanterns are signs of men." Here "light" is homonymous with "d", which is male. In this way, stealing the lamp symbolizes having a son, and stealing the lamp is praying for the continuity of the children. According to the same reason, watching lanterns also has the meaning of seeking children. Therefore, ancient women went out to watch lanterns. With this reason, they were justified.
Festival culture has no national boundaries, such as the Spring Festival, and the Lantern Festival is no exception. The enthusiasm, boldness and publicity of hundreds of millions of people can be comparable to the carnivals in Brazil, Germany and other countries.
The formation of the Lantern Festival custom has a long process. The introduction of Buddhist culture in the Eastern Han Dynasty played an important role in promoting the formation of the custom of celebrating the Lantern Festival. During the reign of emperor Yongping of the Han and Ming Dynasties (AD 58-75), because Emperor Ming advocated Buddhism, it coincided with Cai Ying's return from India to obtain Buddhism. It was said that the Indian state of Mochida gathered monks to pay homage to the Buddha's relics on the 15th of the first month, which was an auspicious day to participate in Buddhism. In order to carry forward the Dharma, Emperor Ming of the Han Dynasty ordered to "light a lamp to show the Buddha" in the temple on the 15th night of the first month. Therefore, the custom of lighting lanterns on the 15th night of the first month has gradually expanded in China with the expansion of the influence of Buddhist culture and the addition of Taoist culture. Nowadays, with the development of the times, today's Lantern Festival is moving from family to society. No matter how the Lantern Festival, colored lanterns and fireworks change, the ancient traditions and customs that continue the Lantern Festival remain unchanged. These elements of traditional culture, it has always been people's feelings of giving up.
With the Lantern Festival approaching, the business of lanterns, dumplings and fireworks is booming, and the "Lantern economy" in Rizhao City, Shandong Province is booming. Merchants sounded the "assembly number" of the Lantern Festival economy. February 17, 2011 is the Lantern Festival. Eating dumplings, tasting delicious food and watching temple fairs, every citizen is trying to grasp the tail of the Spring Festival and enjoy the flavor of the Lantern Festival. When the Lantern Festival came, the festival economy was stirred up again, hotels were full of reservations, and supermarkets sold well. In recent years, some colleagues, relatives and friends who didn't have time to get together during the Spring Festival have taken the Lantern Festival as an opportunity to have a dinner together, which has greatly increased the booking rate of hotels on the Lantern Festival. The number of reservations for the Lantern Festival is almost no less than that for the new year's Eve. Some hotels have specially launched "recalling hardship and thinking of sweetness" dishes, coarse grain, wild vegetables Wowotou is popular with the public.
The Lantern Festival, like the Spring Festival, the Qingming Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival and the Mid Autumn Festival, is a traditional Chinese festival. In fact, its cultural connotation and social value are far better than other festivals, which is of extraordinary significance.
The Spring Festival starts from closing the door on New Year's Eve to the Lantern Festival. It is a process in which people continue to expand their scope of activities and expand their interpersonal relationships. New year's greetings to parents on the first day of junior high school, and new year's greetings to parents on the second day of junior high school. In the future, we will gradually expand the scope of New Year greetings to ordinary relatives and friends. During this period, people's activities are limited to acquaintances. The fifth day is the fifth day of junior high school. Farm work can be started and shops can be opened. During this period, society began to operate normally. On the fifteenth day of the first month, all members of society, men and women, old and young, joined the festival activities. Therefore, the Lantern Festival has the significance of confirming the relationship between all members of society (including those who don't know each other).
The Lantern Festival is also a romantic festival in Chinese traditional festivals. In the feudal traditional society, the Lantern Festival provides an opportunity for unmarried men and women to get to know each other. Young girls in the traditional society are not allowed to go out for free, but they can go out together for fun during the festival. The Lantern Festival is just an opportunity for friendship, Unmarried men and women can also look for objects for themselves by the way.
During the Lantern Festival, it is also an opportunity for young men and women to meet their lovers. Therefore, the Lantern Festival can be said to be a genuine Chinese Valentine's day.
On June 14, 2008, Huairou District and Miyun District of Beijing, Liulin County of Shanxi Province, Yu County of Hebei Province, Mawei District, Quanzhou City, Jinjiang City, Xianyou County and Liancheng County of Fuzhou City, Fujian Province, Yongchang County of Gansu Province, The Lantern Festival declared by Ledu County, Qinghai Province (Lianqiao rice custom, Jiuqu Yellow River array lantern custom, Liulin plate meeting, Yuxian Baideng mountain custom, Mawei Mazu Lantern Festival custom, Quanzhou Lantern Festival custom, East Fujian and Taiwan stone lantern custom, Fengting Lantern Festival custom, Western Fujian Hakka Lantern Festival, Yongchang zigzag lantern custom, Jiuqu Yellow River lantern custom) Approved by the State Council, it is listed in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list (category: folk custom; No.: Ⅹ - 71).
On December 3, 2014, Mentougou District, Beijing, Luanping county, Hebei Province, Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, Ninghai County, Zhejiang Province, Zhangdian District, Zibo City, Shandong Province, The Lantern Festival declared by Binxian County, Shaanxi Province (Qianjuntai Zhuanghu flag meeting, flower swing, river dragon lantern victory meeting, Qiantong Lantern Festival, Zibo Lantern Festival and Binxian Dengshan meeting) has been listed in the fourth batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council.
Under the influence of Chinese culture, South Korea, Japan, North Korea, Vietnam and other countries have also had the custom of the Lantern Festival.
There is no saying of the Lantern Festival in South Korea. The 15th day of the first month is called "looking at the sun in the first month", which means "looking at the full moon". Unlike China, they do not eat Lantern Festival on this day, but eat five grain rice made of mixed glutinous rice, sorghum rice, red beans, yellow rice, black beans and other cereals, and eat all kinds of nuts, peanuts, walnuts, pine nuts, chestnuts, gingko and so on. It is said that they can strengthen their teeth and prevent skin diseases such as acne. In addition, we should drink "clear ear wine" to pray for no ear disease in the new year, and we hear good news all year round. Some traditional celebrations of the 15th day of the first month are still preserved in rural Korea. For example, "burning the Moon House", a conical roof truss made of tree trunks or bamboo is hung with a note with new year's wishes. After the full moon rises, people use their torches to light the "Moon House" and sing and dance around the fire.
Enjoy lanterns in Zhonghua street. Japan calls January of the Gregorian calendar the first month and January 15 the little first month. There are many folk activities in Japan, and the Lantern Festival on the 15th day of the first month of the lunar calendar is relatively strange to most Japanese. On the 15th day of the first lunar month, Zhonghua street in Japan is very busy. For example, Yokohama Zhonghua Street holds Lantern Festival activities every year, and some local Chinese and overseas Chinese will go to join in the fun.
In North Korea, the Lantern Festival is called "the 15th day of the first month". On this day, every family should make "five grain rice" made of rice, yellow rice, millet, beans and barley. This kind of "five grain rice" not only symbolizes the "harvest of five grains", but also symbolizes the "five blessings" of longevity, wealth, health, many children and peace. In addition, every family has an indispensable dish on this day, that is, the "nine kinds of vegetables" made of nine kinds of dry vegetables, such as dry radish leaves, dry ferns, dry pepper leaves, dry Platycodon grandiflorum, dried sweet potato vines and dried gourd, which are common in winter. The most interesting thing to mention is the "welcoming the moon" at night. It is said that the first person to see the moon in the "15th National Day" will do good things in a year. If the unmarried young man sees it, he will marry a beautiful girl like a "full moon" this year; Married men see that they will have a healthy baby this year.
Lion dance parade plays Nanyin. The proportion of Chinese in many Southeast Asian countries is very large, so the Chinese in these places have maintained the customs of southern China. In the Lantern Festival, a traditional Chinese festival, local Chinese New Year customs have formed distinctive New Year customs through the integration and development of local culture while maintaining their respective traditions. Singapore Fujian guild hall began to hold a lively "stepping on the street" activity in the Lantern Festival a few years ago. Wonderful martial arts, lion dance and Nanyin will be performed at the activity. It is one of the most romantic festivals in Malaysia. In the Yamaguchi ocean of West Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, the annual Chinese traditional cultural activities were held. The lantern festival parade is an important part of the Yamaguchi Chinese series of spring festival celebrations, and it is also the climax of the event.
Lantern Festival is a traditional custom of the Chinese people. Throughout the ages, there are not only a large number of well-known poems about Lantern Festival, but also countless interesting Lantern Festival couplets.
At the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty and the end of the Southern Song Dynasty, when a man named Jia Sidao guarded Huaiyin (today's Yangzhou), there was a lantern on the Lantern Festival of the Shangyuan Dynasty one year. Some of the guests picked poems from the Tang Dynasty and wrote a couplet for the door lamp: "on a bright moon night, there is a small red building ten miles away in Yangzhou." It is said that this couplet is the earliest lamp couplet in China. Since then, people in all dynasties have followed suit and hung wall lamp couplets and door lamp couplets on the gate or prominent columns, which not only added festive interest to the Lantern Festival, but also increased the content of appreciation for people who enjoy the lanterns.
Zhang Ying and Zhang Tingyu from Tongcheng, Anhui Province in the Qing Dynasty, known as "father and son double bachelor, old and junior Prime Minister", are good at poetry. One year, during the Lantern Festival, Zhang's house set off firecrackers and lanterns as usual. The old prime minister sent out a joint test: "high fever red candles reflect the long day, bright and light spread all over the ground." When xiaotingyu was thinking, he heard a firecracker outside the door. He suddenly understood it and said to him, "low point firecrackers shake the earth, sound, and spit out air." The confrontation is neat and seamless. It can be called a wonderful pair.
Perhaps the most popular story is the story of Wang Anshi's wonderful alliance in the Northern Song Dynasty. When Wang Anshi was 20 years old, he went to Beijing for the exam. On the Lantern Festival, he passed a place and enjoyed the lights while walking. He saw a large family hanging a lantern with an upper couplet under the light to recruit relatives. The couplet said, "walk the lantern, walk the horse, turn off the light and stop the horse." When Wang Anshi saw it, he couldn't answer for a moment, so he remembered it in his heart. When we arrived in the capital, the examiner said "Flying Tiger flag, flying tiger flag, rolling tiger flag, hiding." Wang Anshi responded by recruiting relatives and was selected as a Jinshi. When I passed by the family when I returned home, I heard that there was still no one in the marriage recruitment couplet, so I was recruited as a quick son-in-law with the examiner's couplet. A pair of coincidental couplets made Wang Anshi two happy events.
It is said that Zhu Di, the emperor Chengzu of the Ming Dynasty, met a scholar on a trip in micro clothes on the Lantern Festival one year and talked quite speculatively. Zhu Di went out to try his talent and said, "the lamp is bright and the moon is bright, the lamp moon is always bright, and the Ming Dynasty is unified." The scholar immediately wrote the second couplet, "the music of the king and the people, the music of the king and the people, and the eternal happiness for thousands of years." "Yongle" is the year of the emperor Chengzu of the Ming Dynasty. Zhu Di was so happy that he gave him the No. 1 scholar.
Riddles have always been a traditional Chinese puzzle game. By the Song Dynasty, the Lantern Festival had the meaning of "puzzle Festival", and one of the symbols was the emergence of "lantern riddles". Lantern riddles are riddles posted on lantern festival lanterns for tourists to guess. They are also called "Yu Ci" and "argot". Liang Liuxie's "Wen Xin Diao Long · he Zhen" of the Southern Dynasty said: "since the Wei Dynasty, they have been quite non haiku, but gentlemen have ridiculed concealment and turned into riddles."
In the Southern Song Dynasty, "lantern riddles", as a type of riddles, have become an indispensable entertainment item for the Lantern Festival. According to Wu Zimu's Mengliang record, in the Southern Song Dynasty, making and guessing riddles, like storytelling and playing chess, can be used as a means of making a living: "those who do business riddles first use drums to congratulate them, and then gather people to guess poetry riddles, character riddles, Li riddles and social riddles. They are originally hidden words. There are Taoist riddles, and visitors read Si Si language to ridicule riddles, also known as playing riddles." "Dengpin" in Zhoumi's "old stories of Wulin" also has similar records: "there are poems written with silk lanterns, sometimes with ridicule, and painting figures, hidden head argot, and old Beijing funny language, teasing pedestrians."
Lantern Festival riddle guessing matured in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Gu Lu of the Qing dynasty recorded the scene of guessing lantern riddles during the Suzhou Lantern Festival: "those who do good deeds skillfully make argots and twist the lamps. One side of the lamp is covered with walls and three sides are pasted with questions, which can be guessed by people. It is called playing lantern riddles. The riddles are all handed down, poems, hundreds of schools of thought, Legendary Novels and proverbs, objects, feather scales, insects, flowers, plants, vegetables and medicines, which can be produced at will." The winner has a prize, including towel fan, Sachet, fruit, food, etc., which is called "mystery gift". Guessing lantern riddles is also described in the novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, such as the plot in the 22nd episode of a dream of Red Mansions: "suddenly, someone reported that the empress (Yuanchun) sent someone to give a lantern riddle and asked you all to guess it. After guessing, everyone also made one in."
"A song of Sheng song, spring like the sea, thousands of lights, night like day". There are countless poems praising the lantern festival lanterns by literati of past dynasties, which are still interesting to read today.
In the Tang Dynasty, Lantern Festival lighting has developed into an unprecedented light market. The capital "made a lamp wheel twenty feet high, dressed in brocade, decorated with gold and silver, lit 50000 lamps and clustered them into flowers and trees". The poem in the 15th night of the first month by Su Weiwei, a poet of the Tang Dynasty, reads: "the fire trees and silver flowers are united, and the iron lock of the star bridge is opened. The dark dust goes with the horse, and the bright moon comes one by one." It depicts the scene of lights and moon shining, tourists weaving and bustling. To our credit, we should also give priority to the "shangyuanye" written by Cui ye, a poet of the Tang Dynasty. "Don't rush the jade leaky copper pot, the iron gate and the golden lock are open; Who can sit idly at the sight of the moon, and where to smell the light? " Although there is no positive description of the Lantern Festival, it contains a very happy, warm and bustling scene.
The lantern night in the Song Dynasty was more magnificent than ever, and the lamp market was more spectacular. Bai Juyi has a poem saying that "every family has lights, and Shengge is everywhere." Fan Chengda also wrote in a poem that "Wutai is a prosperous place in modern and ancient times, preferring Lantern Festival shadow lantern opera." The "shadow lamp" in the poem is "walking horse lamp". Xin Qiji, a famous poet, once had a poem in praise of the Lantern Festival that has been handed down for thousands of years: "flowers and trees are blooming in the east wind at night, and stars are blowing down like rain. BMW carved cars are fragrant all over the road. The sound of Phoenix and flute moves, the light of jade pot turns, and fish and Dragons dance all night".
The Ming Dynasty was more extravagant, changing the Lantern Festival from three nights to ten nights. Tang Bohu once wrote poems praising the Lantern Festival and bringing people into the charming lantern night. The poem said: "there is a lamp without a moon, which does not entertain people. There is a moon without a lamp, which does not count as spring. When spring comes to the world, people are like jade, and the lamp burns the moon, and the moon is like silver. The village girls travel around the streets with pearls and emeralds, singing and competing with the social gods in boiling water. How can we eliminate this good time without showing fangzun's laughter."
In addition to all kinds of lanterns, the lively scenes of the Lantern Festival in the Qing Dynasty also include torch dance, fireball, fire rain, playing with fire dragons and fire lions. Ruan Yuan has a poem about the Yangcheng lantern Market: "the sea claw cloud is exquisite and exquisite. It belongs to the color screen of the German family. The city fire is quite guest and material resources, and the sheep are virtuous and immortal for a long time. The moon can be full of spring all night, and people seem to be exploring flowers and horses. It means that Yingzhou double guests arrive, and the book window has more green lights." The poem "chanting the Lantern Festival" written by Yao Yuanzhi, a poet of the Qing Dynasty: "bees and butterflies in the flowers are crazy while they are happy, and the night of Baoma Xiangche is long. The headlights on the 12th floor are like fire, and the moon is like frost outside Siping Street." It is more vivid, wonderful and unique.
The poetic and romantic Lantern Festival is often associated with love. In the poems of the past dynasties, many poems express their love through the Lantern Festival. Ouyang Xiu of the Northern Song Dynasty wrote: "on the first night of this year, the moon and the lights are still the same; there are no last year's people, and tears are all over the sleeves of spring shirts." It describes the pain of missing your lover.
The traditional opera Chen San and Wu Niang met at the Lantern Festival and fell in love at first sight. Princess Lechang and Xu Deyan reunited on the lantern night. In the spring lantern riddle, Yu Wenyan and Ying Niang were engaged on the Lantern Festival. ".
Southern Fujian ballad "the Lantern Festival and the full moon"
The everlasting longing for each other is help the aged and the young to return to their hometown, and to find the longing for the two sides. What's the taste of tears in your eyes? It's a great joy to meet again after a long separation! Make Lantern Festival, cook glutinous rice balls, have a reunion of bones and meat, and be full of joy. Men, women, old and young gather around the table, and the family eat Shangyuan pills together. Blood stains in the cradle are hard to cut off, and it is right to return to the root.
1. Emperor Wen of Han Dynasty: the person who ordered the 15th day of the first month to be named "Lantern Festival".
2. Emperor Ming of Han Dynasty: he ordered to light lights to worship the Buddha and the people hang lights. He was the founder of flower lanterns.
3. Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty: the advocate of offering sacrifices to the gods on the 15th day of the first month.
4. Dongfang Shuo: Chengquan lantern girl, the most romantic person in the Lantern Festival.
5. Yang Su: the broken mirror is reunited and becomes a beautiful person.
6. Xin Qiji: he is the most infatuated person in the Lantern Festival.
7. Tian Deng: only state officials are allowed to set fire, and people are not allowed to light lights.
8. Zhu Yuanzhang: killing a street, the most murderous emperor in the Lantern Festival.
9. Jia Sidao: the first person to make lamp couplets.
10. Yuan Shikai: because "Yuanxiao" is homonymous with "Yuanxiao", Yuan Shikai is not allowed to say yuanxiao, but tangyuan.
Chinese people have the custom of lighting lanterns every year on the Lantern Festival. Why are lanterns on the Lantern Festival? In Buddhist doctrine, fire light is compared to the divine power of Buddha, which is called "boundless flame, shining limitless". The light of the lamp has two wonderful functions: one is to break the darkness of the world; The second is to show the light of Buddha to destroy the troubles of all living beings. Therefore, in the Buddhist ceremony, the lamp is regarded as one of the offerings in front of the Buddha. Buddhists encouraged believers to open lanterns and repeatedly publicized "hundreds and thousands of lanterns to repent their sins" and "the most blessed land for the world". Therefore, those who offer incense to the mountains and ask for the blessing of the Buddha always offer lamp oil to show that the Buddha field is widely planted; The Buddhist grand meeting needs bright lights to light the Dharma king. According to Buddhist legends, the Buddha Sakyamuni showed the change of God and subdued the gods and demons on December 30 in the west, that is, the 15th day of the first month in Eastern earth. In order to commemorate the change of Buddha, a lamp burning Dharma meeting is needed on this day. With the spread of Buddhism to the East, the wind of lighting lanterns on the 15th day of the first month also followed. Today, the Tibetan language calls the Lantern Festival "Ju aquba", which means offering sacrifices to the Buddha on the 15th day of the first month. This is the hard evidence that lantern festival lanterns originated from Buddhism.
Buddhists and monks actively advised people to open lanterns. In the Northern Qi Dynasty, the monk narentiyeshe once translated a volume of the Sutra on the merits and virtues of lighting. During the northern and Southern Dynasties, lantern lighting became a common practice. Emperor Wu of Liang Dynasty believed in Buddhism, and the lights were on the 15th of the first month in his palace. During the Tang Dynasty, cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries were closer, Buddhism was booming, and Buddhists from the West widely publicized the "divine lamp and Buddha fire", so Buddhist lights spread all over the people. Since the Tang Dynasty, lantern lighting has become a legal matter and gradually become a folk custom.
This legend is related to the custom of eating Yuanxiao: it is said that Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty had a favorite minister named Dongfang Shuo, who was kind and funny. One winter, after a few days of heavy snow, Dongfang Shuo went to the imperial garden to fold plum blossoms for Emperor Wu. As soon as I entered the garden gate, I found a maid in waiting with tears on her face ready to throw herself into the well. Dongfang Shuo hurried to the rescue and asked why she wanted to commit suicide. It turned out that the maid of honor was named yuanxiao. She had parents and a sister at home. Since she entered the palace, she has never been able to meet her family again. Every year when the spring comes, she misses her family more than usual. I think it's better to die if I can't be filial to my parents. Dongfang Shuo listened to her experience, deeply sympathized, and assured her that he would try to reunite her with her family.
One day, Dongfang Shuo set up a divination stall on Chang'an Street. Many people are vying with him for divination. Unexpectedly, what everyone wants is the sign of "fire burning on the 16th of the first month". For a moment, there was a great panic in Chang'an. People are asking for solutions to the disaster. Dongfang Shuo said, "on the evening of the fifteenth day of the first month, the God of fire will send a goddess in red to visit. She is the messenger who ordered to burn Chang'an. I'll give you the copied verse, so that the son of heaven can think of a way." With that, he threw down a red post and walked away. The common people picked up the red post and hurriedly sent it to the palace to report to the emperor.
Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty took over and looked at it. It read: "Chang'an is robbing, the fire burns the Imperial Palace, the fire is burning for 15 days, and the flame is red at night". He was shocked and quickly invited the resourceful Dongfang Shuo. Dongfang Shuo pretended to think about it, Just say: "It's said that the God of fire likes to eat glutinous rice balls most. Doesn't the Lantern Festival in the palace often make glutinous rice balls for you? You can make glutinous rice balls for the Lantern Festival on the 15th night. Long live, burn incense and pray that every family in Kyoto will make glutinous rice balls and worship the God of fire together. Then tell the subjects to hang lanterns and light firecrackers and fireworks all over the city on the 15th night, like a fire all over the city, so that you can hide from the Jade Emperor. In addition, inform the city On the 15th night, ordinary people came to the city to watch the lights and mingled with the crowd to eliminate disasters and solve difficulties ". After hearing this, Emperor Wu was very happy and ordered to do it according to Dongfang Shuo's method.
On the 15th day of the first month, the city of Chang'an is decorated with lanterns and colorful lights. Tourists are bustling and lively. The parents of the palace maid Yuanxiao also took her sister to the city to watch the lanterns. When they saw the big palace lamp with the words "Yuanxiao", they shouted in surprise: "Yuanxiao! Yuanxiao!", Yuanxiao heard the cry and finally reunited with his family.
After such a lively night, Chang'an city was really safe. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty was so happy that he ordered to make dumplings for the God of fire every 15th day of the first month, and put up lamps and set off fireworks all over the city on the 15th day of the first month. Because Yuanxiao makes the best dumplings, it is called yuanxiao Festival.
It is said that after usurping the fruits of the revolution of 1911, Yuan Shikai, the great thief of the country, was bent on restoring the throne and becoming emperor. He was afraid of the opposition of the people and was worried all day. One day, he heard the people selling Yuanxiao in the street shouting, "yuanxiao." Thinking that the word "Yuanxiao" was homonymous with "Yuanxiao", it was suspected that Yuan Shikai had been eliminated and associated with his own fate, so before the Lantern Festival in 1913, it was ordered to prohibit calling "Yuanxiao", which can only be called "Tangyuan" or "fenguo". However, the word "Yuanxiao" was not cancelled because of his will. People did not buy his account, but still spread among the people.
the lantern festival
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