The Qing Dynasty (1636-1912) was the last feudal dynasty in Chinese history. It was passed down to twelve emperors and ruled by Aixinjueluo. It was 296 years since the establishment of Nurhachi. From Huangtaiji to Qing Dynasty, guozuo was founded in 276. It was 268 years since the Qing army entered the pass and established a national political power.
In 1616, Nuerhachi, the leader of Jurchen in Jianzhou, established Houjin. In 1636, the Han, Manchu and Mongolian nationalities presented the form of persuading people to enter the country. Huang Taiji became emperor and changed the name of the country to Qing Dynasty. In 1644, Wu Sangui, a Ming general stationed at SHANGUAN customs, was demoted to the Qing Dynasty, and duoergun led the Qing soldiers to enter the customs. In the 20 years since China's entry into GATT, the regimes of Dashun, Daxi and Nanming have been pacified. After that, he pacified the San Francisco rebellion, unified Taiwan, and completed the national reunification. During the heyday of Kang, Yong and Qian dynasties, China's traditional society made unprecedented achievements. The social life of small-scale peasant economy is prosperous and stable, and the comprehensive national strength is far better than that of Han and Tang Dynasties. After the Opium War, many of them were invaded by foreign powers and carried out the exploration and reform of modernization such as the Westernization Movement and the reform movement of 1898. On February 12, 1912, Yuan Shikai, the Minister of Beiyang, induced the Qing emperor Puyi to abdicate and issued the abdication edict, which ended the Qing Dynasty.
During the Qing Dynasty, the unification of a multi-ethnic country was consolidated and developed. The rulers of the Qing Dynasty unified the Mongolian ministries, brought Xinjiang and Tibet into the territory, and actively safeguarded the integrity of national territorial sovereignty. During the reign of Emperor Qianlong, the pattern of China as a unified multi-ethnic world power was finally determined. The Qing Dynasty in the most prosperous period was west to the Cong Ling and Balkhash lake, northwest to include the Nu Wu Liang Hai, north to North and Siberia, east to Pacific (including Sakhalin), and south to Spratly Islands. Including more than 50 nationalities, the country is unprecedentedly unified.
During this period, the despotism in ancient China also reached its peak. In the early Qing Dynasty, agriculture and commerce were developed, and there were dense commercial cities in the south of the Yangtze River. On this basis, the population has broken through the 400 million mark, accounting for nearly half of the world's total population of one billion.
In 1605, Nurhachi was called "Jianzhou state" for the first time, and also "King" for the first time; the next year, Nurhachi was named "Kundulun Khan" (Gongjing Khan). In 1616, Nurhachi founded the country, which was called Khan, the state name Dajin, and later Jin in history.
In 1636, Huang Taiji called himself Emperor, and changed the name of the state to "Da Qing", also known as Da Qing state. There are various conjectures about the meaning of "Da Qing": first, the meaning of "Qing" is interpreted as "sweeping and clearing". Second, Qing Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. Qing is worshipped by all the northern Shamanist nationalities, and Manchuria is also a shaman, so it is called "Da Qing". There are also "Five Virtues" point of view, Ming Dynasty for fire virtue, Qing Dynasty for water virtue, water to overcome fire, hence the name. Bao Ming of the Northeast Institute of ethnic minorities believes that the name of "Daqing" actually comes from the Mongolian loanword "daiqing" in Manchu. The state of the Qing Dynasty means "the supreme state" or "the country good at fighting". Diao Shuren, a scholar of Qing Dynasty, thinks that the phonetic transformation of "Qing" and "Jin" is actually based on the pronunciation of Chinese characters, which is to change a Chinese character with similar pronunciation.
The Treaty of nebuchu signed during the reign of Kangxi is the first international treaty in Chinese history to regard "China" as a sovereign state. Especially after the middle of Qing Dynasty, "China" or "Zhonghua", as another name of sovereign state with the same meaning and interchangeability as "Great Qing state", is directly corresponding to words such as China, which is used in the sense of superficially equivalent sovereign treaty states with western countries, and has been habitually used and "recognized" by various international treaties.
< sub > master data: < / sub > < sub > History of the Qing Dynasty
establish a new state
It is said that Manchuria originated at the foot of bukuli mountain in the northeast of Changbai Mountain. In the early Ming Dynasty, Nuzhen was divided into three parts: Jianzhou Nuzhen, Haixi Nuzhen and Yeren Nuzhen. Later, it was divided into four parts: Jianzhou, Changbai, Donghai and Hulun. The ruler of Qing Dynasty was Aixinjueluo, who was born in Jurchen, Jianzhou. Mengge timu, the leader of Jurchen in Jianzhou, was the commander of Zuowei in Jianzhou in Ming Dynasty when he was a child. In 1433, he was killed because of tribal conflict. In 1440, the Ministry of Jianzhou moved to the south. In 1442, the Ming court added Jianzhou right guard, which was called "Jianzhou three guards". After moving to the south, Jurchen in Jianzhou had a close contact with the Ming Dynasty. The social productivity of Jianzhou was improved and the economy was prosperous.
In 1583, when the Ming army attacked the Atai camp in gulezhai, Nurhachi's grandfather juechangan and his father takshi were both killed by mistake. Nuerhachi started his army with the thirteen Deputy Yijia of his ancestors and father, and successively merged the Nuzhen tribe in Haixi, conquered the savage Nuzhen, and unified all the Nuzhen tribes. They also built cities, set up ministers, set up laws, and set up a system of eight banners. The Eight Banners system is a kind of social organization that integrates the army and the people. It is a kind of military organization that arranges the nvzhenren and carries out war and production activities under the control of the nobility. The Eight Banners system promoted the development of Nuzhen society and consolidated Nurhachi's dominant position.
In 1616, Nurhachi founded a state in hetuala, known as Khan, Jianyuan Tianming, state name Jin, and later Jin in history. In 1618, Nurhachi issued "seven great hatreds" and vowed to fight against Ming Dynasty. In 1619, the later Jin Dynasty won the battle of Sarhu, and then went to Kaiyuan and Tieling.
In 1621, Nurhachi captured Shenyang and Liaoyang, and swept more than 70 cities in Eastern Liaoning in a few years. In 1622, Guangning, an important town in western Liaoning, was captured. In the spring of 1625, Nurhachi moved its capital to Shenyang. From then on, Shenyang became the ruling center of the later Jin Dynasty. However, Nurhachi was seriously injured by the Ming army's cannons in the battle of Ningyuan in 1626, and soon died.
Establishing the Qing Dynasty
< sub > master data: < / sub > < sub > Huangtaiji New Deal < / sub > < sub >, < / sub > < sub > the battle of later Jin Dynasty attacking Chahar Mongolia < / sub > < sub >, < / sub > < sub > the battle of Bingzi
After Nurhachi's death, the eighth son, Huang Taiji, succeeded to the throne and continued to attack the Ming Dynasty. He united with Mongolian ministries and expanded his power. Internally, Huang Taiji stopped building the city, prohibited disturbing the people, cultivated their own fields, and released Zhuang Ding for the people. It greatly eased the class and national contradictions in China. On the one hand, Huang Taiji made great efforts to fight for the alliance of Horqin and other BU Beile and Jin to deal with the raids and plunder of Lin Dan Han and break up his subordinates. On the other hand, he actively prepared for a large-scale attack. Huang Taiji again launched an attack on Korea. On the eighth day of the first month of 1627, he appointed six Baylor, including Amin, yuetuo and jierharang, to unite 30000 troops to attack Korea. In less than half a month, they occupied more than half of North Korea, occupied the old capital of Pyongyang, and forced the king of North Korea to sign an alliance under the city.
In 1635, Huang Taiji abolished the old clan name "Zhushen" (Nuzhen) and named it "Manchuria". In 1636, he conquered Monan Mongolia. In May of the same year, Huang Taiji called himself Emperor, and changed the name of the country "Jin" to "Daqing", changed the name of the year to Chongde, and respected him as "emperor Kuanwen Rensheng". In 1637, North Korea formally submitted to the Qing Dynasty.
In 1640, the battle of Songjin broke out. In 1642, Hong Chengchou was captured in Songshan and Zu dashou surrendered in Jinzhou. The battle of Songjin marked the complete collapse of Ming Dynasty's defense system in Liaodong, leaving Ningyuan a lonely city outside the pass. In 1643, Huang Taiji died, and Fulin succeeded to the throne. He was Emperor Shunzhi and was Regent of his uncle duoergun.
Unify the whole country
In 1644, Dashun army led by Li Zicheng captured Beijing, Emperor Chongzhen hanged himself in Meishan, and Ming general Wu Sangui, who was stationed in Meishan customs, surrendered to the Qing Dynasty. Duoergun commanded the eight banners, led by Wu Sangui, and entered the pass at the same time. In the battle of Shanhaiguan, Dashun army was defeated and Beijing was occupied. In October, Emperor Shunzhi moved his capital to Beijing and told his ancestors that he was the monarch of all China. Later, the Qing government ordered to stop the malpractice and implemented the policy of rewarding reclamation and reducing taxes. He started his career and became a scholar, pursuing emperor Chongzhen and loyal officials of Ming Dynasty.
After the Qing Dynasty established its capital in Beijing, it went south to wipe out the peasant army. At the same time, the Ming Dynasty officials in the South successively established the Zhu royal family to establish political power, which is known as the Southern Ming Dynasty in history. In addition, there are Li Zicheng's Dashun regime and Zhang Xianzhong's Daxi regime.
After Li Zicheng's death, the rest of the Dashun army, together with he Tengjiao, the governor of Huguang in the Southern Ming Dynasty, and Du Yin, the governor of Hubei Province, joined forces with the Ming Dynasty to resist the Qing Dynasty. In 1652, Li Dingguo led 80000 troops out of Guangxi and down to Guilin. They also entered Hunan and Guangdong, "two famous kings, shaking the world.". Liu Wenxiu also attacked Sichuan and conquered southern Sichuan. Zhang Huangyan's anti Qing army along the southeast coast also launched an offensive, and the anti Qing struggle reached a climax again. At this time, the conflict between sun Wangwang and Li Dingguo broke out, destroying the good situation. After sun Yuanwang's surrender to the Qing Dynasty, the Qing army knew all about the reality of the cloud and the GUI. Due to the great anti Qing forces in South China, the Qing emperor canonized Wu Sangui, Geng Zhongming, and Shang Kexi as kings, guarding Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangdong, Fujian and other places, which was called "San fan" in history. In 1658, Wu Sangui led the Qing army to invade Yunnan. In 1662, Yongli emperor was killed and Nanming Dynasty was completely destroyed.
In 1661, Zheng Chenggong, king of Yanping, recovered Taiwan, which was then a Dutch colony. After Yongli emperor was killed, Zheng Jing, the son of Zheng Chenggong, continued to use the Yongli year name of the Southern Ming Dynasty to treat Zhu Shugui, the Ningjing king of the Southern Ming Dynasty, but he did not support the Ming imperial clan to be emperor and monitor the state. In 1683, the Qing Dynasty conquered Taiwan, and the Ming and Zheng dynasties ended. In 1684, the Qing Dynasty established the Taiwan government. After more than 20 years of war, the Qing army basically unified the whole country.
Entering the golden age
In 1662, Emperor Kangxi Xuanye ascended the throne. During the reign of Emperor Kangxi, the rebellion of San Francisco was put down. Emperor Kangxi also adopted a series of measures conducive to social and economic recovery and development. In 1669,
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