Northern Song Dynasty
The Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127) is a dynasty following five dynasties and Ten Kingdoms in Chinese history. It was passed down to Nine Emperors and enjoyed the state for 167 years. Together with the Southern Song Dynasty, it is also called the Song Dynasty, also known as the two Song dynasties.
In the seventh year of Xiande (960), the generals of the Later Zhou Dynasty launched the Chenqiao mutiny and established the Song Dynasty with Zhao Kuangyin as the emperor. The capital of the Song Dynasty was Kaifeng, Tokyo (Kaifeng, Henan), and Jianlong, Gaiyuan. Later, the military power and financial power were concentrated in the central government through a cup of wine, which avoided the chaos of the feudal regime in the middle and late Tang Dynasty. But it also led to the Song Dynasty's defeat in the wars with Liao, Xixia and Jin. The first year of Jingkang (1126) witnessed the disaster of Jingkang, and the next year it was destroyed by the state of Jin.
The territory of the Northern Song Dynasty is bounded by the present Haihe River, Hebei Bazhou and Shanxi Yanmenguan in the northeast, Hengshan in Shaanxi, Eastern Gansu and Huangshui in Qinghai in the northwest, and Minshan and Dadu River in the southwest. In the Song Dynasty, Shenzong recovered Hehuang by opening the Xihe River. In the Song Dynasty, Huizong set up Longyou capital in Northern Qinghai and redeemed Youyun seven prefectures.
The political system of Song Dynasty generally followed that of Tang Dynasty, which adopted the way of division of powers. The prime minister's position was held by many people, and the official appointment system of separation of official title and actual position was implemented. These played an important role in maintaining national unity, and also caused the situation of "poor and weak".
Some people think that the Northern Song Dynasty was the most prosperous era of economy and culture in ancient Chinese history. Confucianism was revived, science and technology developed by leaps and bounds, politics was more enlightened, and economy and culture flourished. In the three years of Xianping (1000), the GDP was 26.55 billion US dollars, accounting for 22.7% of the world's total. The per capita GDP was 450 US dollars, more than 400 US dollars in Western Europe at that time. During the Northern Song Dynasty, the population of Zhancheng rice increased rapidly from 37.1 million in 980 to 126 million in 1124.
During the Northern Song Dynasty, foreign relations developed further on the basis of the Tang Dynasty, with close exchanges with Korea and Japan in East Asia, strengthened ties with Vietnam and Indonesia in Southeast Asia, and also affected West Asia and Africa.
Zhao Kuangyin, who made his fortune in Songzhou (now Shangqiu, Henan Province), was officially named "song". Because of the royal family's surname Zhao, he was also called Zhao song. Because of the five virtues, Song Dynasty was called Huode, so he was also called huosong and Yansong, and respected as Da song. Because the territory is located in the North relative to the later Southern Song Dynasty, it is also called the Northern Song Dynasty.
The founding of the Northern Song Dynasty
Zhao Kuangyin played an important role in supporting Guo Wei as the emperor of the Later Zhou Dynasty, so he was promoted to the leader of the East-West class and became an officer of the Imperial Guard. In 953, Guo Wei sent Zhao Kuangyin to Huazhou as deputy commander. At this time, Chai Rong, the adopted son of Guo Wei, was granted the title of king of Jin and served as the official of Kaifeng. Chai Rong and Zhao Kuangyin had worked together in the army for several years. Knowing Zhao Kuangyin's bravery and cleverness, they left Zhao Kuangyin at their side and asked him to change his post to Ma Zhijun envoy of Kaifeng Prefecture.
In the first year of Xiande (954), Guo Wei died and Chai Rong, his adopted son, succeeded him to the throne. In June of 959, Chai Rong died in Kaifeng. His son Chai zongxun, who was only seven years old, succeeded to the throne. At this time, Zhao Kuangyin had already grasped the power of the army, and also brought some important generals to his side. He formed "Ten Brothers of the Yishe society" with Yang Guangyi, Shi Shouxin, Li Jixun, Wang Shenqi, Liu Qingyi, Han Chongfu, Liu Shouzhong, Liu tingrang, Wang Zhengzhong, etc. Under the curtain, his younger brother Zhao Guangyi, his staff Zhao Pu, and Li chuyun.
On the first day of the first month of the seventh year of Later Zhou Xiande (960), the two prefectures of Zhenzhou and Dingzhou sent officers to Kaifeng to send an urgent war report to the imperial court, saying that Khitan and the northern Han combined a large army to plunder the territory and asked the imperial court to send troops to resist the enemy. The prime ministers Fan Zhi and Wang Pu did not verify the military situation, but hastily sent Zhao Kuangyin to lead the Suwei imperial army to resist. On the way to the northern expedition, Zhao Kuangyin planned to add Huang Pao to his body, forced Chai zongxun to abdicate, and established the Song Dynasty, which is known as the Northern Song Dynasty in history. This is the chenqiaoyi mutiny.
At that time, in addition to the newly established Song Dynasty, there were also separatist forces such as post Shu, Southern Han, Southern Tang, Wu Yue and Northern Han. Since the founding of the Song Dynasty, Zhao Kuangyin began the process of unifying the whole country. In the Northern Song Dynasty, Nanping (Jingnan), houshu and the Southern Han Dynasty were successively eliminated, and the powerful Southern Tang Dynasty was defeated in the eighth year of Kaibao (975). After that, the local forces in Wuyue, Fujian, Zhangquan and other places accepted the land one after another in the Song Dynasty, and then the northern Han Dynasty basically unified the whole country, which gradually ended the chaotic situation.
On the night of October 19, the ninth year of Kaibao (976), Zhao Kuangyin called his younger brother Zhao Guangyi into the palace to drink. At that time, Zhao Kuangyin was in good health, and he was tired after drinking, so he lay down to have a rest. Zhao Guangyi took care of his brother himself. They only saw Zhao Kuangyin and Zhao Guangyi saying something from a distance, and then the light and shadow of the candle swayed, as if Zhao Guangyi had retreated from the banquet. Then they heard the sound of Jade axe poking the snow, and heard Zhao Kuangyin say in a loud voice: "do it well, do it well.". At dawn, Zhao Guangyi called for all the princes, saying that Zhao Kuangyin had passed away. On the morning of the 21st, Zhao Guangyi ascended the throne in front of the coffin, and immediately changed the yuan to the Taiping and rejuvenating the country, contrary to the practice of the yuan reform in the next year.
In the Late Jin Dynasty, the emperor Shi Jingtang once separated the sixteen prefectures of Youyun in the north from the kingdom of Liao established by Qidan. In order to recover Youyun Sixteen States, the Northern Song Dynasty waged a long war with Liao state. Since Emperor Taizong of the Song Dynasty, the Northern Song Dynasty fought against Liao many times, but failed to recover the lost territory. In the first year of Jingde (1004), the Song Dynasty defeated the Liao Dynasty. The song Zhenzong and the Liao state settled a truce in Danzhou. They agreed that the Song Dynasty and the Liao Dynasty should be brothers and that the Song Dynasty would give Liao 100000 liang of silver and 200000 pieces of silk each year. Since then, there was a little peace in northern China. The alliance between song and Liao was called "the alliance of Chanyuan" by later generations. In the second year of the Qing Dynasty (1042), another 100000 liang of silver and 100000 pieces of silk were added, and the "gift" was changed to "accept". The Northern Song Dynasty paid "Sui coin" to Liao every year, and the two sides did not infringe on each other. After the alliance, because of the relief of the border war crisis in the Northern Song Dynasty, the domestic economic development has been greatly developed. Later, in the reign of emperor Shenzong, he cut 700 Li East of the river.
The alliance between the Northern Song Dynasty and the Liao Dynasty was concluded after many wars. For the Northern Song Dynasty, the "alliance of Chanyuan" was an equal contract. For a long period of peace, a small amount of money could be exchanged, and the main energy and strength could be put on the construction of internal affairs and the war in the northwest. It was also a suitable treaty for Liao Dynasty. At that time, there were undercurrents in Liao Dynasty, and it was wise to get rid of the entanglement of the Southern Song Dynasty. From the perspective of the whole history of the development of the Chinese nation, the alliance of Chanyuan has its positive side. It ended the decades of war between the Liao and Song Dynasties, and made the Liao Song border in a relatively peaceful state for a long time. It is conducive to the production and development of the border areas. In the long run, it is also conducive to the development and integration of all ethnic groups in China.
Qingli New Deal
During the first year of Kangding (1040) to the second year of Qingli (1042) of emperor Renzong of Song Dynasty, the Xixia emperor Yuanhao launched many large-scale military attacks on Song Dynasty, and both sides suffered great losses. As a result, a peace treaty was concluded in the fourth year of Qingli (1044). It is called Qingli peace negotiation in history. According to the agreement, Yuanhao abolished the title of emperor and accepted the title of Song Dynasty; song gave the Xixia 72000 liang of silver, 153000 pieces of silk and 30000 Jin of tea every year, which was called "Year gift"; the border trade between the two sides was opened. After the establishment of the Qingli peace negotiation, the northwest border was quiet for more than 20 years.
As early as Taizong and Zhenzong of the Song Dynasty, some people have put forward the idea of reform. In 1025, Fan Zhongyan submitted a letter to the court, advocating political reform. Two years later, when Fan Zhongyan was in charge of Tianfu academy, he put forward the same proposal in shangxiangfu book, but it was not adopted. In the Qing Li period, song Renzong was forced by the situation and ordered Fan Zhongyan and others to put forward reform suggestions. In September of 1043, Fan Zhongyan wrote a memorial to Renzong, pointing out that the situation at that time was internal worries and external difficulties. He put forward ten reform proposals, including rectifying the administration of officials, cultivating talents, developing production and strengthening military equipment. He focused on rectifying the administration of officials, reducing redundant officials and selecting "talents" The means of rectifying the administration of officials. He believes that with "virtuous" officials, we can do a good job in politics, make the people "have peace, do not call for trouble and disorder", and ease social contradictions. In the same year, Renzong issued several imperial edicts to carry out Fan Zhongyan's ideas, namely the so-called "Qingli New Deal". However, the idea of reform violated the interests of some bureaucrats and landlords, which aroused strong opposition from the Conservatives at the beginning. Only about a year later, Fan Zhongyan and others were forced to resign one after another, and the reform aborted.
The situation of internal and external difficulties made some enlightened rulers demand reform. During the period of jingrenzong, Yingzong and Shenzong in the Northern Song Dynasty, the society tended to be stable, the economic scale was unprecedented, and the culture was extremely prosperous. In 1067, Emperor Shenzong of the Song Dynasty ascended the throne and decided to reform. In 1068, Wang Anshi was called to Kaifeng to take charge of the reform. In the second year of Xining (1069), Wang Anshi was appointed to participate in political affairs and carried out the new law. The reformists formed a system in which LV Huiqing, Zhang Dun and Cai que were the backbone of the reformists. The new policies of Zhao Xu and Wang Anshi were implemented one after another after the second year of Xining.
In the spring of the second year of Xining reign, the "Department of making and setting up three departments" was set up to discuss the reform. Generally speaking, the content of the new law can be divided into two aspects, that is, "to enrich the country" and "to strengthen the army".
However, because of the strong conservative forces, Wang Anshi failed to implement the new law twice. During the reign of zhezong Yuanyou, Gao, Queen of Yingzong, abolished the new law completely, and the Song Dynasty restored its original ruling style. So far, the Northern Song Dynasty began to decline.
Chinese PinYin : Bei Song
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