Liao Dynasty (907-1125) is a dynasty established by Qidan nationality in Chinese history. It was passed down to Nine Emperors and enjoyed the state for 218 years.
In 907, yeluabaoji, the great ancestor of Liao Dynasty, became Khitan Khan. In 916, it was founded as the year number. Jianguo was named Khitan, and its capital was Shangjing linhuangfu (now Balinzuoqi, Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia). In 947, Liao Taizong Yelu Deguang led his army to the south of the Central Plains, captured Bianjing (now Kaifeng in Henan Province), and became emperor in Bianjing. He changed the name of the country to "Daliao" and the year name to "Datong". In 983, it was renamed "big Khitan". In 1007, Emperor yelulungxu of Liao Dynasty moved his capital to Dading Prefecture of Zhongjing (now Ningcheng County, Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia). In 1066, Liao daozong Yelu called Hongji the great Liao Dynasty. It was destroyed by the Jin Dynasty in 1125.
At the end of the Liao Dynasty, yeluchun, the Emperor Xuanzong of the Liao Dynasty, established the northern Liao Dynasty and fought against the Jin Dynasty together with the Xixia Dynasty. After the death of Liao Dynasty, Yelu Dashi, the emperor of Liao Dynasty, moved westward to the Chuhe River Basin in Central Asia to establish the Western Liao Dynasty, and set up the capital of husigor, which was destroyed by Mongolia in 1218. Yeluliugo and his younger brother yelusi established the eastern Liao Dynasty and the later Liao Dynasty respectively. At last, the eastern Liao Dynasty destroyed the later Liao Dynasty, and the eastern Liao Dynasty was destroyed by Mongolia in 1269. In 1222, the aristocrats of the Western Liao Dynasty established a small regime in Iran, and then the Western Liao Dynasty was annexed by the irkhanate in 1309.
During the period of Liao Dynasty, its territory reached the sea of Japan in the East, Altay Mountain in the west, Erguna River and outer Xing'an Mountains in the north, and Baigou River in the middle of Hebei Province in the south.
The Qidan nationality was originally a nomadic nationality, but later absorbed farming technology. In order to maintain its nationality, the nomadic nationality and the farming nationality were managed separately. They advocated ruling according to customs and created a bicameral political system. And create Khitan characters to preserve their own culture. In addition, we should absorb the culture of Bohai State, Five Dynasties, Northern Song Dynasty, Xixia and western regions, and effectively promote the political, economic and cultural development of Liao state.
The military power and influence of Liao Dynasty covered the western regions, so after the fall of Tang Dynasty, Central Asia, West Asia and Eastern Europe regarded Liao Dynasty (Khitan) as the representative of China.
As the symbol of a country or dynasty, the name of a country usually has the characteristics of clear naming and stable use. In the Liao Dynasty, it was not, and it was used repeatedly“
”It's a national name.
In 916, Yelv abaoji, the emperor of Liao Dynasty, declared himself Emperor and founded the country
In the first year of Datong of Liao Dynasty (947, the fourth year of Kaiyun of later Jin Dynasty), Emperor Taizong of Liao Dynasty led his army to the south of Central Plains, occupied Kaifeng and destroyed later Jin Dynasty. Yelu Deguang ascended the throne in Kaifeng, changed Khan to emperor, and changed the name of the country to Emperor
In the first year of the reign of emperor Zongtong of Liao Dynasty (983, the eighth year of Taiping rejuvenating the country in the Northern Song Dynasty), it was also renamed
Da Qidan; Liao
Daozong Xianyong two years (1066, North Song Zhiping three years), re number
As for the time when Qidan first changed its national name to "Liao", there are generally three versions: 937, 938 and 947. As for the number of times that Liao changed the name of the state, most scholars agree with this view, that is, when Taizong changed the name of the state to Liao, when Shengzong changed the name of the state to Qidan, and when daozong changed the name of the state to Liao. In many epitaphs of Liao Dynasty, there are the words "Da Zhong center" or "Nan Zhan Bu Zhou" in front of Khitan or the name of Liao state. It seems that when Liao daozong came, he regarded himself as China.
Some people hold different opinions. They think that Liao Zeng changed the number of jiufuguo, that is to say, Liao Zeng changed the number of jiufuguo 18 times.
The original meaning of "Liao" and "Qidan" is that "Qidan" can be interpreted as "bintie", which is the name of a nation; "Liao" is the name of a country, which is named after liaoshui. Some scholars believe that "Liaoguo" No. 1 is named after "Liaoyuan". Some scholars have studied the connotation of "Liao" and "Liao" in Qidan language, emphasizing the significance of "double national name system" in Liao. Some scholars hold that Qidan should be changed from "Jin" to "Da Liao", rather than from "Qidan" to "Da Liao".
Qidan originated from Xianbei of Donghu, and is of the same race and different species with Shiwei and Kumoxi who also speak Mongolian. In the Tang Dynasty, Emperor Taizong set up the songmo governor's office in the Qidan people's residence. The chief served as the governor and gave the surname Li.
In the Five Dynasties, Yelu abaoji, the leader of the Khitan DiELa tribe, took advantage of the civil strife in the Central Plains to unify the various ministries and replace the chendejin Khan, and then became a Khan on February 27, the fourth year of emperor Tianyou of the Tang Dynasty (907). He suppressed the rebellion of Khitan nobles and conquered the tribes of Xi, Shiwei and zhebo. He also owned the salt producing area of Mongolia, which was very powerful in military and economic aspects. In 915, Yelv abaoji went to war and returned to China, but he was forced to hand over his Khan's position. Soon after, he built a city like Youzhou by the Luanhe River. On March 17, the second year of Zhenming (916), Yelv abaoji became emperor and established the Qidan state and yuanshence, which is the Taizu of Liao Dynasty.
Taizu of Liao Dynasty took in the refugees who were caused by the war in Hebei Province and set up chengdun on the grassland according to the style of Central Plains to settle them. And Han Yanhui, Han Zhigu, Kang Moji and Lu Wenjin were appointed as the meritorious officials. In the third year of Khitan Shence (918, the fourth year of Later Liang Zhenming), Liao Taizu built linhuang mansion (BOLUO city in the south of Balinzuoqi, Inner Mongolia). Two years later, Khitan was established and implemented. In the military aspect, he conquered the Bohai State in the fourth year of tianzan (925, the third year of Tongguang in the later Tang Dynasty) and established the Dongdan state in the old place to rule the adherents of the Bohai Sea. He appointed the crown prince yelubei as the king of Dongdan. Liao Taizu always had the intention of going south to the Central Plains. However, the year after he conquered the Bohai Sea, he fell ill on his way back to the army and finally died. His wife, the queen of Shulu (shuluping), declared Regency and took over the government with Yelu Deguang, the second son of the emperor. Hundreds of political enemies were slaughtered to stabilize the regime. In November of the second year of Tianxian (927, the second year of Tiancheng in the later Tang Dynasty), Yelu Deguang ascended the throne with the support of Queen Shulu, namely Emperor Taizong of Liao Dynasty. In the fifth year of Tianxian (930, the first year of Changxing in the later Tang Dynasty), yelubei, king of Dongdan, fled to the south of the latter Tang Dynasty, and Emperor Taizong of Liao unified Qidan.
South to the Central Plains
Civil strife occurred in the late Tang Dynasty in the 11th year of Khitan Tianxian (936, the third year of the late Tang Dynasty). Shi Jingtang, the governor of Hedong, called himself Emperor ER and ceded the sixteen prefectures of Yanyun as a condition, and asked Emperor Taizong of Liao to support and attack the latter Tang Dynasty. Liao Taizong then led 50000 cavalry to defeat the army of the later Tang Dynasty in Jinyang, Luoyang and other places, and finally helped Shi Jingtang to attack and destroy the latter Tang Dynasty. Shi Jingtang was able to establish the later Jin Dynasty. After the Khitan state obtained the Sixteen States of Yanyun, it built the Sixteen States of Yanyun into a base for further going south.
In the seventh year of Huitong (944, the first year of Kaiyun in the later Jin Dynasty), Shi Chonggui, the emperor of Jin Dynasty, ascended to the throne. He was unwilling to submit to Khitan and said that sun was not a minister. Emperor Taizong of the Liao Dynasty took advantage of the fact that his army went south to unify China. On the 10th of the first month of the 10th year of Huitong (947, the fourth year of the later Jin Dynasty), Khitan army conquered Kaifeng Prefecture in Tokyo, the capital of the later Jin Dynasty, and the latter Jin Dynasty died. Khitan occupied most of the Central Plains. In February, Emperor Taizong changed the name of the state to Daliao, and the Liao Dynasty was officially established. Although Emperor Taizong of Liao intended to run China for a long time, the people of Central Plains revolted because he plundered the people's property and refused to let the envoys return to the town. In April, Emperor Taizong of Liao Dynasty was forced to lead the army back to the north, and finally died in Luancheng, Hebei Province.
In the first month of the tenth year of Khitan Huitong (947, the fourth year of the later Jin Dynasty), Yelu Deguang, the Emperor Taizong of Liao Dynasty, led his army to the south of the Central Plains, occupied Kaifeng, destroyed the later Jin Dynasty, ascended the throne in Kaifeng, and changed the name of the country to the name of the emperor
. In the first year of Datong of Liao Dynasty (947, the fourth year of Kaiyun of later Jin Dynasty), yeluhou and other generals in Kaifeng of Central Plains supported yeliubei's son yeliuruan as emperor, which was the emperor of Liao Dynasty. The Empress Dowager shuluping in Shangjing (now Balinzuoqi, Inner Mongolia) wanted his third son yeluhonggu (Yelu Lihu) to succeed to the throne, but he did not agree with the succession of Liao Shizong. The Empress Dowager of Shulu sent yeluhonggu and Liao Shizong to fight in taidequan, north of Nanjing, Liaoning Province. At last, Liao Shizong won the war. After being dissuaded by the minister Yelv Wuzhi, the Empress Dowager of Shulu agreed to the throne of Liao Shizong. During the reign of emperor Shizong of Liao Dynasty, he did not forget the expectation of occupying the Central Plains and used troops for many times. However, Emperor Shizong of Liao Dynasty was fond of drinking and hunting. In his later years, he employed crafty and sycophantic people, granted rewards and killed people, which led to the failure of the government and political corruption. In September of the fifth year of Tianlu (951, the first year of Guangshun in the Later Zhou Dynasty), Liao Shizong assisted the northern Han Dynasty to attack the latter Zhou Dynasty. When he marched to Xianggu mountain in Guihua (now Hohhot in Inner Mongolia), he stationed in huoshendian because other troops did not arrive. In the meantime, the public will be very dissatisfied with drinking, hunting and hunting. Finally, he was killed in his sleep by jericha.
Mu Zong period
In the fifth year of emperor Tianlu of Liao Dynasty (951, the first year of Guangshun of Later Zhou Dynasty), yeluchachar launched a coup, killed emperor Shizong of Liao Dynasty and declared himself Emperor. Yelujing, the eldest son of Emperor Taizong of Liao Dynasty, and yeluwuzhi, etc., led soldiers to kill yeluchachar and became emperor, namely emperor muzong of Liao Dynasty. Although the emperor Mu Zong of Liao Dynasty hated women and had nothing to do with them, he often drank too much. He went to bed at dawn and woke up at noon. Therefore, he ignored the government for a long time and was called "sleeping king" by the state. In the early period of emperor Mu Zong of Liao Dynasty, the imperial court was unstable and divorced, and the ministers often rebelled or went south to the Central Plains. In June of the second year of Yingli (952, the second year of Guangshun of the Later Zhou Dynasty), Xiao Mei Gu de wanted to rebel against Liao and go south to the Later Zhou Dynasty, and his plot was exposed and killed. In July, Yelu Louguo and Lin ya Yelu dilie were arrested for conspiracy and then ambushed. In October of the third year of Yingli (953, the third year of Guangshun in the Later Zhou Dynasty), yeluwan, the son of Yelu Honggu (Yelu Lihu), and others conspired against him. After the incident was detected, they were arrested. In July of the 10th year of Yingli (960, the first year of Jianlong in the Northern Song Dynasty), the government ordered Yelu Shouyuan, Taibao Chu Abao and others to rebel, and they were killed when they were defeated. In October, Yelv Xiyin, the son of Yelv Honggu, conspired against him. He was arrested for failing in the incident. Yelv Honggu was involved in the confession and died in prison.
Because of the turbulent political situation, Emperor Mu Zong of Liao Dynasty stopped the policy of attacking the Central Plains in the south, which was always carried out by Emperor Taizong and Emperor Shizong of Liao Dynasty, in order to recover the national power lost by the long-term war, and to unite with the Southern Tang Dynasty and the northern Han Dynasty. answer
Chinese PinYin : Liao Chao
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The Western Han Dynasty. Xi Han
Northern Wei Dynasty. Bei Wei
The Eastern Wei Dynasty. Dong Wei
Later Jin Dynasty. Hou Jin
Later Han Dynasty. Hou Han
Southern Wu. Nan Wu
the Southern Tang dynasty. Nan Tang
Northern Han Dynasty. Bei Han
Liao Dynasty. Liao Chao
Qing Dynasty. Qing Chao