The Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) was the first unified dynasty established by ethnic minorities in Chinese history, and its ruler was the Mongolian family. The capital of Dadu (today's Beijing) was passed down to five emperors and eleven emperors. It took 162 years for Genghis Khan to establish the Mongolian regime in 1206, and 98 years for Kublai Khan to establish the name of Yuan Dynasty. After the Yuan Dynasty withdrew from the Central Plains, the Northern Yuan Regime lasted until 1402.
In 1206, Genghis Khan unified the Mongolian ministries and established the great Mongolia. They successively attacked and destroyed the Western Liao, Xixia, hualazimo, Jin Dynasty and other regimes. After the death of mengge Khan, the dispute between Ali Buge and Kublai Khan was triggered, which led to the division of the great Mongolia. In 1260, Kublai Khan ascended to the throne and became emperor, establishing the Yuan Dynasty "Zhongtong". In 1271, Kublai took the meaning of "Da Ya Qian Yuan" in the book of changes and changed the name of the state to "Da Yuan", and the capital of Dadu was established the following year. In 1279, the exiled regime of the Southern Song Dynasty was completely destroyed, ending the chaotic situation since the end of the Tang Dynasty. After that, the Yuan Dynasty continued to expand and attacked Japan, Myanmar, Vietnam and Java, but all failed. In the middle of the Yuan Dynasty, the succession to the throne was disordered, coups were frequent, politics was not on the right track, and Sinicization was slow. In the late period of the Yuan Dynasty, the political corruption, the interference of the powerful officials, the aggravation of the national and class contradictions led to the peasant uprising. In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang established the Ming Dynasty, and then the Northern Expedition expelled the yuan court and occupied Dadu. Since then, the yuan court retreated to Mobei, known as the Northern Yuan Dynasty. In 1402, Yuan minister GUI Lichi usurped power and established Tatar, and the Northern Yuan Dynasty perished.
During the Yuan Dynasty, the unified multi-ethnic country was further consolidated, and its territory surpassed that of previous dynasties. In the Yuan Dynasty, Shangshu province and menxia province were abolished, and Zhongshu Province, Privy Council and Yushitai were kept in charge of politics, army and supervision respectively. Local governments implemented the provincial system, which was the first of its kind in China.
The commodity economy and overseas trade were prosperous in Yuan Dynasty. During the Yuan Dynasty, there were frequent diplomatic exchanges with other countries, and there were an endless stream of envoys, missionaries, business travelers and so on. In the aspect of culture, the Yuan Opera and other cultural forms appeared during the period, which was closer to secularization.
The predecessor of Yuan Dynasty was the great Mongolia founded by Genghis Khan. Li Xinzhuan of the Southern Song Dynasty wrote in Volume 19 of the second volume of miscellaneous records of the government and the wild since Jianyan: "since the Mongols invaded the Jin Kingdom, they were called great Mongolia." In the Chinese history of the early Yuan Dynasty, there were some names such as "Da Chao Mongol" and "Da Chao Mongol" (or just "Da Chao Mongol"), which were different Chinese translations of the same Mongolian name.
Kublai Khan, the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, in view of the fact that "the map is so wide that there is nothing in the past" in this dynasty, such as the name of the first place or the first city in the Han and Tang Dynasties, it is not enough to show its grandeur. Therefore, in 1271, Kublai Khan issued the imperial edict of the founding of the people's Republic of China, taking the meaning of "Da Ya Qian Yuan" in the book of changes, and taking "Da Yuan" as the name of the country. The official compilation of Jingshi Dadian in Yuan Dynasty explains: "the Yuan Dynasty is also a big one. The great is not enough, and if it is called yuan, it is the greatest. "
After the founding of the Yuan Dynasty, the name of the great Mongolia was no longer used in Chinese documents, but it was not abolished. It was still used in Mongolian documents, usually together with the name of the Han Dynasty, and the Roman characters were translated as dai'onyeke monggolulus or dai'onyeke monggolulus. In 1368, the yuan court retreated to Mobei, so the residual forces of the yuan court were called Beiyuan.
Unification of Mongolia
The direct ancestors of Mongols are Shiwei tribes which belong to the same language family as Xianbei and Qidan. In Sui and Tang Dynasties, they were distributed in the north of Khitan, the west of Tatar and the east of Turk (north of Taoer River, from Nenjiang River in the east to Hulunbuir in the West). Once under the rule of Turks, most Turks call it Tatar. During the Zhenguan period of the Tang Dynasty, the Turks declined and the houshiwei people surrendered to the Tang Dynasty. After the collapse of the Uighur regime from the Turks, the Shiwei Dalai people entered the north and south of the desert.
From the 9th century to the 11th century, one of them, mengwushiwei, gradually moved westward from the east of the lower reaches of Wangjian River to the upper source of the three rivers, namely, the Gunan River, the krulun River and the Tula river. It was divided into two major branches, namely, the niruwen Mongolia and the dieerlejin Mongolia, which were collectively called hemuhei Mongolia, including many clans and tribes of different sizes. Besides hemuhei Mongolia, there were other tribes in Mongolian plateau at that time, such as mierqi, Tatar, Kelei, Naiman, and uyila. All these clans were ruled by Liao and Jin successively.
By the 12th century, most of the Mongolians were engaged in hunting and nomadism, while only a few of them were engaged in agriculture. However, at this time, they obtained a large number of ironware through trade with the Central Plains, which promoted the development of production and made class differentiation more obvious. In order to plunder more wealth, the slave owners of different tribes fought against each other.
Many Mongolian tribes in the Mongolian Plateau were originally ministers of the Jin Dynasty. With the decline of Jin, Mongolian tribes began to grow up and gradually separated from the rule of Jin regime. In 1204, Tiemuzhen, the leader of Mongolian tribes, unified the Mongolian tribes on the Mongolian Plateau through war. In 1206, timuzhen was elected as "Genghis Khan" by various tribes. The regime was established in Mobei. The Mongolian Empire was established and the country name was great Mongolia. Since then, the long-term scuffle in Mongolian grassland has ended.
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After the founding of great Mongolia, it continued to launch foreign wars to expand its territory. In 1218, Mongolia destroyed the Western Liao Dynasty. In 1219, Genghis Khan invaded hualazimou in Central Asia to the west, attacked the Volga River Valley in Eastern Europe, and returned to the East in 1225. In 1227, Genghis Khan also died in the expedition to Xixia. After Genghis Khan died, the third son wokuotai succeeded to the throne. In 1234, Mongolia united with the Southern Song Dynasty to wipe out the Jin Dynasty. In 1241, the Mongolian army in the western expedition once approached the hinterland of Eastern Europe. In 1246, he surrendered to Tubo. In 1253, Kublai Khan went to the southwest to destroy Dali.
In the foreign war of the Mongolian army, a large number of rebellious areas were destroyed, and then the population was slaughtered and enslaved. Many ethnic groups were oppressed cruelly and unjustly, and countless people and property were lost in the war and the ensuing pestilence, famine and natural disasters. It is also a rare dark period for the war stricken areas.
Mengge, the Great Khan of Mongolia, died suddenly when he attacked Hezhou in Sichuan in 1259. He was 52 years old. Subsequently, alibugo sought to hold the "huliletai" conference in Hara horin to become Khan. At the same time, Kublai Khan returned to Kaiping after peace negotiation with the Southern Song Dynasty.
In March 1260, Kublai Khan ascended the throne and became emperor with the support of the Han landlord class and some Mongolian kings; in April, Kublai Khan established Zhongshu province to take charge of state affairs; in May, Kublai Khan promulgated the imperial edict and established Zhongtong in the Yuan Dynasty. Ali Buge, also known as Khan, immediately launched a four-year war with Kublai Khan on the throne.
In 1264, after the defeat of aribugo, Kublai Khan won the supreme power of the Mongolian Khanate. Kublai Khan's idea of "practicing Chinese law" obviously violated the Mongolian tradition, which caused dissatisfaction of many Mongolian nobles and refused to belong to Kublai Khan. As a result, several other Mongolian Khanate were hostile. The civil war separated the four khanates from independence one after another. It was not until yuan Chengzong that Yuan Dynasty was recognized as the sovereign state.
In 1271, Kublai Khan promulgated the imperial edict of the founding of the people's Republic of China, which took the meaning of "Da Ya Qian Yuan" in the book of changes as the official name of the founding of the people's Republic of China. A year later, under Liu Bingzhong's plan, the capital of the Yuan Empire was established in Dadu, the Central Plains of the Jin State. After the political situation in the North became stable, Kublai Khan decided to adopt the proposal of Liu Zheng, the demoted General of the Southern Song Dynasty, to pull Xiangyang first, float the Han River into the Yangtze River, and forge ahead with the Southern Song Dynasty. In 1268, he ordered a Shu and Liu Zheng to supervise the division and besieged the important towns of Xiang and fan across the Han River. The army and people of Xiangfan refused to defend the isolated city for six years. At the beginning of 1272, Yuan army captured Fancheng, and Xiangyang garrison commander LV Wenhuan came out (see the battle of Xiangfan).
In June of the next year, Kublai Khan ordered Boyan to supervise the troops and March south in two ways. The left army, with Liu Cheng as the vanguard, started from Huaixi. Boyan himself and ah Shu led the main force of the right army. In September, they set out from Xiangyang and entered the Yangtze River along the Han River. At the same time, they ordered Dong Wenbing to force anqing from Zhengyang, Huaixi to the south. In December, the yuan Navy entered the Yangtze River and conquered yangluobao, the defense fortress of the Song River. Xia guidun, the commander of the Ezhou division in the Han Dynasty of the Song Dynasty, and the song army in Hanyang and Ezhou fell. Boyan sent his troops to stay in the Hague, Ali, and went through Jinghu. He led the army of water and land to the East, with LV Wenhuan as the vanguard. Most of the generals along the river in the Song Dynasty were the old headquarters of the LV family, and they all came down without fighting.
In February 1274, Jia Sidao was forced to supervise the troops of all roads to resist the yuan army. At this time, he still tried to offer money to be a minister to negotiate peace, but Boyan refused, so he had to fight with the yuan army in dingjiazhou downstream of Chizhou. Because of the internal discord of the song army, it was doomed. In the autumn of the same year, Boyan moved from Jiankang (Nanjing, Jiangsu) to Zhenjiang (Hangzhou, Zhejiang), the capital of Song Dynasty. In the first month of 1276, the Song Dynasty young emperor Zhao Shen ascended to the Yuan Dynasty.
After that, Wen Tianxiang, Minister of the Southern Song Dynasty, Zhang Shijie, Lu Xiufu and others continued to resist in the southeast coast, supporting Zhao Shi as emperor. After Zhao Shi's death, he supported Zhao Min, the king of Wei, and continued to fight against Japan. In 1278, Wen Tianxiang was defeated and captured. He was imprisoned in Dadu for three years. He refused to be recruited by the Yuan Dynasty and died calmly.
Unify the domestic market
In 1279, Zhang Hongfan, a demoted General of the Jin Dynasty, commanded the yuan army to fight the last resistance of the Southern Song Dynasty
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