The state of Wu (May 23, 229-may 1, 280), one of the Three Kingdoms, was Sun Quan's regime established in Southeast China. The name of the state was "Wu", which was called "Wu" by the historians
. Due to the confrontation with Cao Wei and Shu Han, the ruling area is in the east of the Three Kingdoms
Sun Wu is the longest existing country in the Three Kingdoms. It has four emperors, totally 52 years (59 years from 222 A.D.). In the early years of Wei and Huang dynasties, Sun Quan was nominally attached to Cao Wei and was granted the title of king of Wu. On May 23, the first year of Huanglong (229), Sun Quan became emperor in Wuchang (now Ezhou, Hubei Province). Sun Wu was officially founded, and then moved his capital to Jianye (now Nanjing, Jiangsu Province). In the second year of Huanglong (230), Sun Quan sent Wei Wen and Zhuge to sail to Taiwan, which was the first time that China's political power reached Taiwan.
The territory of Sunwu's heyday included most of Yangzhou and Jingzhou in the late Han Dynasty and the whole territory of Jiaozhou. Sun Wu made great efforts to develop economy and made great contributions to the development of Jiangnan area.
On May 1, 280, Sun Wu was destroyed by the Western Jin Dynasty, marking the end of the separatist regime since the end of the Han Dynasty.
”As a geographical concept, it originally refers to the South Bank of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. In feudal times, it was often used as a title of nobility and state.
Sun Jian, a native of Fuchun County in the late Han Dynasty, was the prefect of Changsha because of his military achievements. After Sun Jian died, his son sun CE developed into Jiangdong. In 196, the Eastern Han Dynasty granted sun ce the title of "Marquis of Wu". After sun CE died, his younger brother Sun Quan took over the military power. In 220 AD, Cao Wei was established and Cao Pi granted Sun Quan the title of "king of Wu". On May 23, 229 ad, Sun Quan became emperor“
”It's a national name.
In order to distinguish between the Wu state, which existed from the 12th century to the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, and the Wu state, which was established by Yang xingmi in the Five Dynasties, historians usually add the surname of the ruler before it
. Because it is to the east of the Three Kingdoms, there are many
The name of Dongwu
Scale. From the perspective of the Central Plains, Sun Wu is located outside the Yangtze River, so it is sometimes called the ruling area
During the uprising of Huangjin in the late Han Dynasty, Sun Jian followed Zhu Zhen to suppress Huangjin, and took part in pacifying the chaos in the northwest. Later, he was appointed as the prefect of Changsha and moved to the southern counties. During Dong Zhuo's rebellion, Sun Jian took part in the attack against Dong Zhuo's Guandong allied forces and made many contributions. He defeated Dong Zhuo and settled in Luoyang, the capital city. In 191 ad (the second year of the early Han Dynasty), he died in the battle of Jingzhou. His nephew sun Ben led his soldiers to Yuan Shu.
In 194 A.D. (the first year of Xingping in Han Dynasty), sun CE, the eldest son of Sun Jian, went to Yuan Shu and recovered part of his old army. In 195, he began to develop to the east of the Yangtze River to help his Uncle Wu Jing fight against Liu Yao. He won the help of Zhu Zhi, Zhou Yu, Zhang Zhao and Zhang Dan, defeated Liu Yao, Yan Baihu and Xu Gong, forced Wang Lang and zulang to surrender and occupied the vast areas of Kuaiji, Wujun and Danyang. In 196 (the first year of Jian'an of Han Dynasty), Emperor Xian of Han Dynasty established the capital of Xuchang. Sun CE refused Yuan Shu and joined Cao Cao. He was appointed as a general to fight against rebellion and was granted Marquis of Wu. In 199 ad (the fourth year of Jian'an of Han Dynasty), Yuan Shu died. In the same year, sun CE conquered Lujiang. Sun CE annexed the rest of Yuan Shu, defeated Liu Xun, continued to invade Jiangxia, defeated Huang Zu, and persuaded Hua Xin, the governor of Yuzhang, to surrender.
In 200 ad (the fifth year of Jian'an of Han Dynasty), sun CE died. Sun CE's younger brother Sun Quan took charge of sun CE's old department and was assisted by Zhang Zhao, Zhou Yu, Cheng Pu and others. Li Shu, the governor of Lujiang, refused to accept Sun Quan, but was soon pacified.
Consolidate the foundation
From 203 A.D. (the eighth year of Han Jian'an) to 208 A.D. (the thirteenth year of Han Jian'an), Sun Quan attacked huangzu three times and obtained part of the land of Jiangxia County; He Qi and Jiang Qin were sent to fight against the rebellion of Shanyue (mountain bandits) in each county.
In 208 ad (the 13th year of Jian'an of Han Dynasty), Sun Quan moved from Wujun to the capital (now Zhenjiang, Jiangsu). In the same year, Liu Biao died. At this time, Cao Cao had basically unified the north and led his army to the south. Liu Cong, the second son of Liu Biao, fell from the wind, and then defeated Liu Bei, who was attached to Liu Biao, in changban, Dangyang. After occupying Jingzhou, Cao Cao wrote to Sun Quan, intending to take down Sun Wu. The inner part of Sun Wu was divided into two groups: the main battle was led by Lu Su and Zhou Yu, and the main battle was led by Zhang Zhao and Qin song. Zhang Zhao had a high reputation and was very persuasive at that time, but Sun Quan correctly estimated the situation and intended to fight against Cao Cao, rather than advocate peace.
At this time, Lu Su brought Liu Bei's military adviser Zhuge Liang from Jiangxia, indicating Liu Bei's determination to unite with Wu to resist Cao. Zhou Yu returned in time and Chen said that Cao Cao's army had various weaknesses and that there was a hope of winning the war. Sun Quan decisively decided to take Zhou Yu and Cheng Pu as the left and right governors to fight against Cao Cao.
Zhou Yu adopted the fire attack plan offered by Huang Gai and ordered him to write to Cao Cao to cheat his surrender. Cao Cao believed it. Huang Gai chose the right time to send a boat to approach Cao Jun, and ordered to light up the fodder and firewood on the boat at the same time. The fireboat took advantage of the wind to break into the boat array of Cao Jun, and the enemy ship turned into a sea of fire. Cao Jun was killed and injured badly. Zhou Yu and others led the army to fight, but Cao's army was defeated. Cao Cao led the remaining troops to flee from Huarong Road to Jiangling, returned them to Nanjun, and left Cao Ren and others to guard Jiangling and Xiangyang. In the battle of Chibi, Wu army defeated Cao Cao with 30000 people, which laid the foundation of the Three Kingdoms.
Sun and Liu's allied forces took advantage of the victory to pursue Nanjun (Jingzhou), and Ganning made a detour to capture Yiling. Zhou Yu, Cheng Pu and Ling Tong led the army to attack Jiangling along the river, and Cao Ren was defeated. Sun Quan appointed Zhou Yu as the prefect of Nanjun. Liu Bei presented to Emperor Xian that Sun Quan was a general on horseback and a herdsman in Xuzhou. Liu Bei got the land of Nanjun at first, and later borrowed it from Sun Quan to Nanjun (Jingzhou). Soon after, Sun Quan sent Bu Ji as the governor of Jiaozhou. Jiaozhi is attached.
In 211 ad (the 16th year of Jian'an of Han Dynasty), Sun Quan followed Zhang's advice and moved to moling. In 212, the stone city was built and moling was renamed Jianye.
In 215 ad (the 20th year of Jian'an of Han Dynasty), Liu Bei took Shu, Sun Quan returned Jingzhou, but Liu Bei refused. In his fury, Sun Quan took Lu Meng as his general and went to Changsha, Guiyang and Lingling. Liu Bei also sent 50000 troops to the Public Security Bureau, and Guan Yu confronted Lu Su with 30000 troops in Yiyang. The war was imminent. However, when Cao Cao obtained Hanzhong, Liu Bei was faced with great threat, so he had to make peace with Sun Quan, admitting that Changsha and Guiyang in Jingzhou belonged to Sun Quan, and Sun Quan returned Lingling county to Liu Bei, with Xiangshui as the boundary. In the same year, sun quanzheng conquered Hefei and was defeated by Wei general Zhang Liao.
In 219 ad (the 24th year of Jian'an of Han Dynasty), Cao Cao led Hanzhong soldiers back to Chang'an. When Sun Quan attacked Hefei, all the prefectures of the Cao and Wei dynasties dispatched troops to settle in Yangzhou. Taking advantage of the emptiness of Xiangfan, Guan Yu launched the Xiangfan war. During this period, Guan Yu abused and threatened Dongwu many times, and later sent people to "take Xiangguan rice without permission". In the name of this, Sun Quan ordered an expedition to Jingzhou and ordered LV Meng to be the front. Sun Quan appointed LV Meng as governor, attacked Nanjun police, Fu Shiren and milfang surrendered, then occupied Jiangling, and sent Lu Xun to take Yidu and other places. Pan Zhang captured Ma Zhong and chopped Guan Yu in Linju, and Sun Quan removed Liu Bei from Jingzhou.
In 220 AD (the 25th year of Jian'an of Han Dynasty), Cao Cao granted Sun Quan the title of general Hushi, fajie, Jingzhou Mu and Marquis of Nanchang. After that, Sun Quan changed his name to Wuchang and established Wuchang county with Hubei as his capital. After Cao Pi replaced the Han Dynasty as emperor, Sun Quan was canonized as King Wu, general, military envoy, governor of Jiaozhou, and leader of Jingzhou. Sun Quan made sun Deng the crown prince.
In 221 ad (the second year of the Wei and Huang dynasties), Liu Bei became emperor and launched an army against Wu. Because of the invasion of the Shu army, Sun Quan was afraid that Cao Wei would take the opportunity to attack, so he took the initiative to become a minister to Cao Wei and appointed Lu Xun as the governor of the capital. He led 50000 troops including Zhu ran, pan Zhang, Han Dang, Xu Sheng and sun Huan to fight against Liu Bei. Lu Xun's insistence on fighting destroyed Liu Bei's strategic intention of relying on his advantages to make a quick decision. In 222 A.D. (the third year of the early period of Wei and Huang dynasties), Lu Xun made a sudden counterattack and launched a fire attack in Yiling, smashing the Shu army and killing the Shu generals Zhang Nan, Feng Xi, Cheng Ji, etc.; Ma Liang, the servant of Shu, induced the barbarians in Wuling area to make trouble and was pacified by Bu Gu, and Ma Liang died in the rebellion. Liu Bei was defeated and fled in a hurry.
So far, Soochow won three battles against Shuhan (215, 219, 222).
After the Yiling war, Wu and Shu allied again, and Wei became Wu's main enemy. The struggle between Wu and Shu for Jingzhou over the years ended with the withdrawal of Shu. There was a stable confrontation among the three countries.
The founding of the people's Republic of China
In 222 ad (the first year of Huangwu), Cao Pi sent troops to attack Wu. Sun Quan sent LV fan, a general of Jianwei, to supervise the five armies. He refused Cao Xiu with the water army, and rescued Nanjun with zhugejin, pan Zhang, and yang can, the left general, to help Zhu huanshou, the general of Pingbei, and ruxu, who refused Cao Ren. In October, Sun Quan defended by the river, and Cao Pi also decided to attack Dongwu personally. The Wei army cut off the grain and grass of the Wu army, and besieged Jiangling for six months, but failed because of the strong defense of Wu General Zhu ran. In the eastern front, Lu Fan was defeated and Cao Ren was defeated by Zhu Huan. In August 224 (the third year of Huangwu), Cao Pi personally led the navy to attack Wu for the second time. Due to the storm, the river surged, so he had to withdraw again. Soon, Shu and Wu exchanged envoys and restored the alliance. In May of 225 (the fourth year of Huangwu), Cao Pi led the navy to levy Wu for the third time. He entered the Huaihe River in August and arrived in Guangling (now Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province) in October to prepare for crossing the river. Just at this time, the weather was very cold, the Yangtze River was frozen, the warships could not move, and the soldiers of Wu state were strict, so they had to return. Cao Pi attacked Wu for three times, but had little effect. In 226 ad (the fifth year of Huangwu), Cao Pi died of illness. Sun Quan took the opportunity to attack Jiangxia, but he could not return.
In 228 A.D. (the seventh year of Huangwu), Zhou bream, the prefect of Poyang, lured Wei Yang to surrender Wei
Chinese PinYin : Sun Wu
Chinese history refers to the history of China from the birth of Chinese civilization to the present. China has a long history, about 4100 years since Xia Dynasty (Erligang culture in Neolithic Age).
Shang Dynasty. Shang Chao
Shuhan. Shu Han
The Western Jin Dynasty. Xi Jin
Nanqi. Nan Qi
Nanliang. Nan Liang
Northern Zhou Dynasty. Bei Zhou
Qianshu. Qian Shu
Houshu. Hou Shu
Northern Han Dynasty. Bei Han
Jin Dynasty. Jin Chao
Qing Dynasty. Qing Chao