Hebei Bangzi is an important branch of Chinese Bangzi. It was formed in the reign of Daoguang (1821-1850) of Qing Dynasty, and entered a prosperous period in the early years of Guangxu of Qing Dynasty. Hebei Bangzi is not only good at expressing historical themes, but also can well reflect real life. In stage art, both music, performance and stage art have great changes and obvious improvement, which makes Hebei Bangzi add bright, vigorous, gorgeous and euphemistic characteristics. It is popular in Hebei, Tianjin, Beijing, Shandong, Henan and other provinces Part of Shanxi has become one of the most influential traditional operas in northern China. In its prosperous period, Hebei Bangzi was introduced into three provinces in Northeast China, Jianghuai region, Russia and the people's Republic of Mongolia.
On May 20, 2006, Hebei Bangzi was listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council.
On October 2, 2019, the 2019 Chinese opera culture week, sponsored by the Ministry of culture and tourism and the Beijing Municipal People's government, opened in Beijing Garden Expo, and Hebei Bangzi opera was also included.
Hebei Bangzi evolved from Shanshan Bangzi, which flowed into Hebei Province, and was formed in the reign of Daoguang of Qing Dynasty (1821-1850). Shanshan Bangzi has a long history of flowing into Hebei. In the Qing Dynasty, some are called Qin opera, some Luantan opera, some Western opera, and sometimes Yiyang Bangzi. According to Liu Xianting's Guangyang Zaji, Qin you's new voice is famous for disorderly playing, which is scattered and sad. Liu was born in the fifth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty and died in the 34th year of Kangxi (1648-1695). It is recorded that he saw and heard in Beijing and its surrounding areas at the end of the 17th century, which proves that the "Qin voice" or "Luantan" (Bangzi tune) was popular in the capital area at that time. By the time of Qianlong, Qin opera became more and more popular, and Kunqu opera had become more and more popular. For example, in the preface of legend in a dream in the ninth year of Qianlong (1744), "pear garden in Chang'an (Beijing) Qin Sheng, Luo and Yi are the only people who like them. I'm tired of listening to Wu Sao, and I'm tired of listening to Kunqu Opera Since then, "to Jiaqing year, Sheng Shang Qin opera, do the sound of sangjianpushang." (preface to CI field of Du men Ji Lue) the above shows that Qin opera had existed in the capital area by the middle of Kangxi period, and there were performances until Qianjia period.
After Shanshan Bangzi entered Hebei Province, in the long-term performance process, in order to win the local people's appreciation, according to the local people's language habits, interests, hobbies, etc., in the art of continuous reform and creation. In particular, with the localization of successor talents and practitioners, the number of Hebei people in the cast has gradually increased, which is an important factor leading to the change of Shanshan Bangzi. During the Daoguang period, Shanshan opera, which had been active in Hebei for a long time, gradually developed into the early Hebei opera. At the latest, in the 1840s, there were Zhili Bangzi classes in Hebei Province. In the late years of Daoguang, there were many Zhili Bangzi classes such as sanqinghe and Xiangtai in mawutou and Dingxing, Nanxiong County, Beijing. Most of the students are the children of poor local farmers. Among the teachers, there are not only Bangzi artists, but also Gaoqiang and Bangzi artists. The apprentices of this class mainly live in Dingxing, Xushui, Rongcheng, Gaoyang and Baxian. During the reign of Daoguang, Keban was the earliest Hebei Bangzi Keban, which was also an important symbol of the birth of Hebei Bangzi.
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