Qinqiang opera, also known as "Bangzi opera", is one of the oldest operas of the Han nationality in China. It originated in the Western Zhou Dynasty and originated from Xifu (the core areas are Qishan (Xiqi) and Fengxiang (Yongcheng) in Baoji City, Shaanxi Province). Mature in Qin Dynasty. It is one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
In ancient times, Shaanxi and Gansu belonged to the state of Qin, so it was called "Qin opera". It is also known as "Bangzi opera" because it was often accompanied by percussion of jujube clappers in early Qin opera performances. After the formation of Qin opera, it spread all over the country. Because of its mature and complete performance system, it had different degrees of influence on the local operas, and directly affected Bangzi opera to become the ancestor of Bangzi opera. The performance of Qin opera is simple and bold, rich in exaggeration and life skills.
On May 20, 2006, it was listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council. Intangible cultural heritage No.: iv-16.
The emergence and development of Qin opera has a profound historical origin and profound cultural background. In each stage of the development and dissemination of Qin opera, there is a unique cultural background, which is deeply branded with a distinctive mark of the times.
Qin opera, originated from the Han folk songs and dances in ancient Shaanxi and Gansu, grew up in Chang'an, the political, economic and cultural center of ancient China, and gradually formed through the creation of the people of different generations. Since the Zhou Dynasty, Guanzhong area has been known as "Qin", hence the name of Qin opera. Because of the jujube clapper as a festival instrument, it is also called "bangziqiang". Because of the sound of "trance" when Bangzi is used as a festival instrument, it is commonly known as "Zhuangzi".
Li Diaoyuan of the Qing Dynasty said in the drama of the rain village: "it is said that Qian's opera is composed of a collection of baiqiu, and there is Qin opera. It began in Shaanxi Province, with bang as the board and Yueqin as its counterpart. There are also tight and slow Banzi tunes, which are called Luantan in Shu. " "Luantan" has many meanings in the tune of Chinese opera. In the past, operas other than Kunqu Opera and Gaoqiang opera were called "Luantan", while Peking opera was also called "Luantan". Some operas named after "Luantan", such as Wenzhou Luantan and Hebei Luantan, are still more used in the general name of Bangzi opera system, which takes Qin opera as the first and the main.
Qin opera has a long history. In the legendary manuscript of lotus in the bowl of Wanli period (1573-1620) of Ming Dynasty, there is a piece of lyrics marked with "two criminals of Western Qin opera", which are all in the form of seven character sentences, indicating that Qin opera was not only formed at that time or before, but also spread to other places.
However, there are different opinions about its origin. Generally speaking, it was formed in Qin Dynasty (or pre Qin Dynasty), Tang Dynasty and Ming Dynasty. Lotus in bowl is the work of anonymous people in Jiangnan, which proves that it has spread to Jiangnan. Jiangnan is far away from Shaanxi, so it takes time to spread. Therefore, Qin opera was formed in the middle of Ming Dynasty. According to another survey, the earliest Qin Opera Troupe in the Ming Dynasty was Huaqing troupe founded by Zhou Zhiren, which was once famous in Gansu and Shaanxi. Later, Qin opera developed into four routes in Shaanxi Province: East, West, middle and south. The east road is TongZhou Bangzi, the west road is Xifu Qinqiang, the South Road is handiaojuangzhen, and the middle road is Xi'an Luantan, which is now commonly known as Qinqiang. Qin opera has a long history. It is said that Li Longji, Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty, once set up a pear garden specially for the cultivation of singing children, singing not only court music but also folk songs. Li guinian, the musician of Liyuan, was originally a folk artist in Shaanxi Province. His work "the music of breaking the battle of the king of Qin" is called Qin opera, or "Qin opera" for short. This is probably the earliest Qin opera music. Later, influenced by Song Ci, Qin opera became more and more perfect in content and form. During the Jiajing period of the Ming Dynasty, Shaanxi opera gradually evolved into Bangzi opera. During the reign of Emperor Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty, Wei Changsheng, a famous actor of Qin opera, came to Beijing from Sichuan. He made a sensation in Beijing with his moving tone, popular words and superb acting skills. Now the xipi Liushui aria of Beijing Opera comes from Qin opera.
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